The role of the teacher in the modern school system is increasingly important and complex. A teacher needs a high level of professional knowledge and autonomous decision‐making when faced with professional challenges. The curricular reform in Slovenia has encompassed several areas of teachers’ professional activities. This paper establishes that declarative goals by themselves are not enough for successful introduction of reform, as the achievement of reform goals in practice is highly dependent on teacher perceptions and how actively they are involved (...) in all phases of the reform. The empirical study examined how teachers understand the main aim of the reform, and how they evaluate their own level of competence in areas which have gained in importance as a result of the reform. The study included 468 primary and grammar school teachers. The results show that teachers have a fairly narrow view of the goals of the reform. The categories stressing a more active and responsible role of the learner did not rank highly. The study also points at areas where teachers need additional training. The importance of quality teacher education at pre‐service and in‐service levels is stressed as a pillar of effective school reform. (shrink)
Teacher competencies can be researched in many different ways. In the present article they are studied from the learner’s viewpoint. The article presents results of the extensive project “Teacher Education for New Competencies for the Knowledge Society and the Role of these Competencies in Educational Goal Attainment at School”, carried out at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Ljubljana, with the financial support of the Slovenian Ministry of Education and Sport. We present the results of the learner’s judgement (...) of the teacher’s didactic competencies. We formed a questionnaire with which we operationalised teacher competencies with the purpose of measuring the teacher’s efficiency of instruction. In order to achieve the goals of modern instruction it is important to engage both models: learner‐centred and teacher‐centred education. The research showed that elements of the traditional instruction model are more frequently used than the model that demands a changed learner role. (shrink)
For valid informed consent, it is crucial that patients or research participants fully understand all that their consent entails. Testing and revising informed consent documents with the assistance of their addressees can improve their understandability. In this study we aimed at further developing a method for testing and improving informed consent documents with regard to readability and test-readers’ understanding and reactions. We tested, revised, and retested template informed consent documents for biobank research by means of 11 focus group interviews with (...) members from the documents’ target population. For the analysis of focus group excerpts we used qualitative content analysis. Revisions were made based on focus group feedback in an iterative process. Focus group participants gave substantial feedback on the original and on the revised version of the tested documents. Revisions included adding and clarifying explanations, including an info-box summarizing the main points of the text and an illustrative graphic. Our results indicate positive effects on the tested and revised informed consent documents in regard to general readability and test-readers’ understanding and reactions. Participatory methods for improving informed consent should be more often applied and further evaluated for both, medical interventions and clinical research. Particular conceptual and methodological challenges need to be addressed in the future. (shrink)
Introducing readers to the fascinating world of Mulla Sadra's thought, one of the most important figures of the later Islamic intellectual tradition, the book takes us through the world of Sadra, his intellectual journeys to shows his relevance for today's philosophical issues in the Islamic and Western worlds.
Ethical egoism, when summarized into a single ethical principle, is the position that a person ought, all things considered, to do an action if and only if that action is in his overall self-interest. The criticisms standardly advanced against this view try to show either that it is subject to some fatal logical flaw or else that, even if logically coherent, it can give no account of the basic parts of morality. Both these objections are mistaken, however, and it is (...) the point of this paper to make this clear. Central to my argument is the distinction drawn in Section 1 between two kinds of moral reasoning and hence two kinds of moral reasons. I call these ‘traditional’ and ‘nontraditional’. Both are present in the writings of contemporary moral philosophers but have not been emphasized or seen as crucial. (shrink)
The terms ‘unity’, ‘integration’ and ‘diversity’ have multiple layers of meaning in the religious context. While religions emphasize unity and integrity, they also address the issues of diversity. When understood properly, unity does not mean uniformity and thus does not invite oppression and closure. By the same token, diversity does not mean chaos and lack of order. Both unity and diversity have a function within the larger context of things. But this context is not confined to the socio-political dimension alone. (...) A broader understanding of these terms will help us understand the religious discourses of unity, diversity and integration. It will also lead to a more critical assessment of the Enlightenment and western modernity. (shrink)
In memoriam of Vernon Venable, American philosopher who for four decades was a master teacher in the history of Western philosophy, author of an important study of Marx, and the seminal spirit in the development and flourishing of the program in philosophy at Vassar College.
This paper describes a traditional SIR type epidemic model with saturated infection rate and treatment function. The dynamics of the model is studied from the point of view of stability and bifurcation. Basic reproduction number is obtained and it is shown that the model system may possess a backward bifurcation. The global asymptotic stability of the endemic equilibrium is studied with the help of a geometric approach. Optimal control problem is formulated and solved. Some numerical simulation works are carried out (...) to validate our analytical results. (shrink)
Kant’s remark that the first Kritik should be read as a treatise on method rather than a system of doctrine lends support to recent forays against his theory of proof, for the comment promotes the mistaken supposition that his method can be studied independently of his commitments in ontology and other areas. Irony infects the criticisms in question because they set transcendental logic against a standard that Kant repudiates. The point will be illustrated by showing how Kant anticipates and blunts (...) a strong attack against his position on method. (shrink)
This is a fine book that sticks with its stated ambition of introducing critical theory. It is meant for Anglo-American philosophers, who have had little interest in and less enthusiasm for, those loosely grouped under the label. Held lays out the details of each critical theorist's work, and avoids the sweeping, provocative slogans that mar other introductory texts. His book's exegesis has more breadth and depth than, say, Schroyer's The Critique of Domination; his work's assessment more balance and support than, (...) say, Slater's Origin and Significance of the Frankfurt School. Held does not match Jay's flair for spotting a unifying theme amid a welter of data. These two authors differ in purpose, however. Jay's outstanding The Dialectical Imagination locates CT broadly within social and political theory, while Held's book situates it more narrowly within the philosophical tradition. (shrink)
U nastavnim programima i udžbenicima filozofije teorija relativnosti zastupljena je u malo navoda, a javlja se uvijek u kontekstu onih dijelova programa filozofije koji se odnose na pojam znanosti i na odnos filozofije i znanosti. Primjereno prirodi filozofije, ti navodi, dakako, ne upućuju na zadatak izlaganja i propitivanja sadržaja i problema teorije relativnosti , nego na filozofske implikacije što ih pojava teorije relativnosti ima na trajni problem odnosafilozofije i znanosti, na filozofiju znanosti, i na razvoj kritičkog pojma znanosti i na (...) teoriju znanosti uopće.U nastavnim programima fizike teorija relativnosti zastupljena je u 3. razredu gimnazije u dvjema sustavno raščlanjenim inačicama . Jasno su naznačeni obvezni sadržaji i izborni sadržaji. Isto je tako i u udžbenicima. Valja naglasiti da su to metodički suvremenokoncipirani, radni i problemski usmjereni udžbenici, koji se ujedno kontinuirano dorađuju i usavršavaju.U ovom pregledu programa i udžbenika autor nije bio u mogućnosti da sa sigurnošću točno utvrdi kada se i u kojem obliku prvi put javljaju sadržaji koji se odnose na teoriju relativnosti. Dijelom je to zato što ne raspolažemo potpunom bibliografijom udžbenika, a ni Zavod za školstvo ne raspolaže potpunim i pouzdanim pregledom svih progama fizike od 1941. godine do danas. Posebno ne za 3. i 4. razred gimnazije, za ono vrijeme kada su škole dijelom samostalno oblikovale te programe »prema zahtjevima struke«. Ostaju tako zadaci za daljnja istraživanja koja će provesti pojedinci i odgovarajuće ustanove .In high school curricula and philosophy textbooks, the theory of relativity is mentioned in veryfew entries, and always in the context of those sections of the philosophy syllabus which refer tothe concept of knowledge and the relationship between philosophy and science. According to thenature of philosophy, these entries certainly do not present and question the subject matter andproblems of the theory of relativity , but lead to the discussionof the philosophical implications of the theory of relativity on the perennial problem of the relationship between philosophyand science, on the philosophy of science, and on the development of the critical concept ofscience and the theory of science in general. In the high school physics curriculum, the theory ofrelativity is included in the 11th grade syllabus in two systematically decomposed versions . Mandatory and optional subject matter is clearly indicated. The same goes for textbooks.It is necessary to stressthat these aremethodologically contemporarily concipated, workandproblemoriented textbooks, which areregularlyimprovedand perfected. In our reviewsofhigh school curricula and textbooks, the authors could not with certainty determine at whattimeand in which form the first contents regardingthe theory of relativitywereincluded. Thisispartly due to the fact that we do not have access to the entirebibliography of the textbooksandthe Institute for Education does not have access to a complete and reliableoverview of allthephysics curricula from1941 to the present.This is particularly true for the junior and senioryearsof high school during the period when schools partially modeled their curricula independentlyaccordingto the »requirementsof the profession«.Asa result,further investigation is requiredwhich will be conducted by individuals and the appropriate institutions. (shrink)