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  1.  1
    Rethinking Tokenism:: Looking Beyond Numbers.Janice D. Yoder - 1991 - Gender and Society 5 (2):178-192.
    The purpose of this article is to assess Rosabeth Moss Kanter's work on tokenism in light of more than a decade of research and discussion. While Kanter argued that performance pressures, social isolation, and role encapsulation were the consequences of disproportionate numbers of women and men in a workplace, a review of empirical data concludes that these outcomes occur only for token women in gender-inappropriate occupations. Furthermore, Kanter's emphasis on number balancing as a social-change strategy failed to anticipate backlash from (...)
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  2.  1
    “Outsider Within” the Firehouse: Subordination and Difference in the Social Interactions of African American Women Firefighters.Patricia Aniakudo & Janice D. Yoder - 1997 - Gender and Society 11 (3):324-341.
    From the perspective of African American women firefighters, the authors examine the social interactions that make them excluded “outsiders within” their firehouses and different from not only dominant white men but also other subordinated groups of Black men and white women firefighters. Drawing on extensive survey data from 24 Black women career firefighters nationwide and detailed interviews with 22 of these, the authors found persistent and pervasive patterns of subordination through the exclusion of Black women, reflected in insufficient instruction, coworker (...)
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    The Power of Numbers in Influencing Hiring Decisions.John F. Zipp, Penny L. Crumpton & Janice D. Yoder - 1989 - Gender and Society 3 (2):269-276.
    This article explores the influence that the proportion of women in a department has on hiring decisions in the field of psychology. A sample of advertisers from the APA Monitor was asked to identify the gender of the candidate hired. Hiring patterns were the same for men and women hirers in nonacademic organizations, as each favored male candidates. In academic hiring, women candidates were favored in departments with moderate female representation. This finding counters claims that women are hired by departments (...)
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