Le Consistoire de Rotterdam ayant condamné plusieurs articles lors de la première parution du Dictionnaire historique et critique, les éditions ultérieures contiendront des « Éclaircissements ». Bayle, par sa maîtrise de l’écriture cryptée, va faire de ces textes, officiellement de justification et d’autocensure, un plaidoyer pour la liberté de philosopher.Dans ses premiers textes, comme les Pensées diverses sur la comète, il a pratiqué un art d’écrire d’autant plus efficace qu’il était presque revendiqué comme tel dans des « Avis aux lecteurs (...) ». Il appartient en effet à une génération d’écrivains qui tente de donner à un certain public quelques clefs de lecture permettant, en contournant la censure, de faire perdre à celle-ci une partie de sa nocivité et de sa raison d’être. Cette « pédagogie » se déploie dans les Nouvelles de la République des Lettres, dans son Dictionnaire. Ce sont ces clefs qui peuvent rendre encore le lecteur contemporain apte à déjouer les pièges de ces étranges « Éclaircissements ».The Rotterdam Consistory having sentenced a few articles on the occasion of the first edition of the Critical and Historical Dictionary, the later editions will contain a few explanations. Bayle, through his mastery of crypted writing will turn those texts – supposed to be of justification and self-censorship – into a plea for the freedom to philosophize.In his first texts, for instance in Several Thoughts on the Comet, he exercized an art of writing all the more efficient as it had been almost claimed as such in « Advices to the readers ». Indeed, he belongs to a generation of writers attempting to give some kind of audience a few keys for reading that should enable, by by-passing censorship, to deprive it of part of its noxiousness and raison d’être. Such a paedagogical approach unfolds itself in the News from the Republic of Letters and his Dictionary. Such keys still enable the contemporary reader to thwart the traps of those strange « Explanations ». (shrink)
Delivered at the Collège de France between January and March 1980, the lectures entitled On the Government of the Living (Du gouvernement des vivants) seem to be the missing piece in the Foucauldian puzzle. Still unpublished, those eleven lectures were intended to set the theoretical foundation for the book announced as the fourth and last volume of the History of Sexuality, under the title Confessions of the Flesh (Les aveux de la chair). This book, however, was never published, despite the (...) fact that his editor described it as the keystone for the entire History of Sexuality.1 The value of Michel…. (shrink)
Retention of structure across theory change has been invoked in support of a ‘structural’ alternative to more traditional entity-based scientific realism. In that context the transition from Newtonian mechanics to the Special Theory of Relativity is often regarded as a very significant instance of structural preservation, or retention, associated with correspondence-based recovery. The joint derivation, from a small set of elementary and ontologically neutral assumptions, of both the Galilei and the Lorentz transformation exemplifies the virtues of structural approaches to the (...) foundations of physical theories. The common origination of the resulting two relativistic frameworks sheds light on both the successes and the limitations of correspondence claims. However, the cognitive-operational character of the basic assumptions lends no support to the structural realist’s ‘inference to the best explanation’. (shrink)
This paper is an attempt to clarify and assess Dennett’s opinion about the relevance of the phenomenological tradition to contemporary cognitive science, focussing on the very idea of a phenomenological investigation. Dennett can be credited with four major claims on this topic: (1) Two kinds of phenomenological investigations must be carefully distinguished: autophenomenology and heterophenomenology; (2) autophenomenology is wrong, because it fails to overcome what might be called the problem of phenomenological scepticism; (3) the phenomenological tradition mainly derived from Husserl (...) is based on an autophenomenological conception of phenomenology, and, consequently, can be of no help to contemporary cognitive science; (4) however, heterophenomenology is indispensable for obtaining an adequate theory of consciousness. In response to Dennett’s analysis, the paper develops two main counterclaims: (1) Although the traditional conception of phenomenology does indeed fit Dennett’s notion of autophenomenology, his sceptical arguments fail to rule out at least the possibility of a modified version of this traditional conception, such as the one defended in Roy et al. (Naturalizing Phenomenology, 1999); (2) the distinction between autophenomenology and heterophenomenology is at any rate misconceived, because, upon closer analysis, heterophenomenology proves to include the essential characteristics of autophenomenology. (shrink)
The financial sector likes to call itself a "service industry". As such, its role is to guarantee the fluidity of transactions which are essential to economic activity by ensuring the best possible use of available capital. If finance is a service activity, it is important to specify what services it renders, to whom, in return for what, and for what purpose. In the absence of such clarification, finance may slide out of control and be left at the mercy of mass (...) enthusiasm or hysteria. This document, which is the result of work by people who hold senior positions in Geneva's financial sector or are external observers of the financial world identifies the issues and suggests some avenues for possible solutions. (shrink)
This paper praises Martin Hägglund for his general take on Derrida, while objecting to a certain rigidity in the use of the concept of survival. This concept allowed Hägglund to reject the temptation of a ‘religious’ Derrida in Radical Atheism, but in Dying for Time, it leads to a hurried reading of psychoanalysis. My objections revolve around several forms: the role of gods for Plato and Greek thought; the reductive reading of Diotima's speech in the Sympoisum, and an all too (...) rapid rejection of the idea of the Todestrieb in Freud and Lacan. I go back to Derrida's reading of Freud in The Postcard to point out that he too had misread Freud's Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Finally, I argue that there can be something like a non-proper or improper immortality. (shrink)
The paper discusses analogies between the way in which infinity is understood and dealt with in mathematics and in Jewish tradition. It begins with recalling the classical debate about infinity in the field of the foundations of mathematics. Reading an important paper by A. Robinson, we come to the conclusion that mathematicians work “as if” infinite totalities existed. They do so by following the rules of their formalized discourse which, at least if it refers to anything at all, also refers (...) to such totalities. The paper describes how, according to Jewish tradition, infinity is also not theological: instead of thinking that they own some infinite being or relate to it, observant Jews follow Jewish law. The analogy is then extended to what is called ‘epistemological infinity’. The paper shows that both in mathematics and in Judaism, we get some epistemological experience of infinity, as far as both Talmudic knowledge and contemporary mathematical encyclopedia are experienced as inexhaustible sources of new thoughts, structures, ideas, developments. (shrink)
This article discusses epistemological and methodological problems brought forth during the study of management practices in companies and organisations based on an ethnomethodological approach. Ethnomethodological issues and knowledge in organaisation management and the complexity of the involvement of the researcher will be discussed by way of analysis of six controversial reports on the involvement of the researcher. Our aim is to clarify the nature of the work carried out by the researcher. Therefore the questions of the neutrality of the researchers (...) and the dialectical immersion-distancing with regards to the objects being studied will be discussed. The aim of this article is to show the theoretical and epistemological interest of the organisation ethnomethodology in a constructivist perspective with regards to management sciences research. (shrink)
In the area of investment, responsibility may be expressed via four types of ethical concern: value-based ethics resulting in the exclusion of so-called "vicious" companies from the investment portfolio; fructification-oriented ethics with a view to long-term investment; consequence-based ethics aimed at initiating a behavioural change in the investment target; and ethics envisaged as a discriminating criterion in the search of the best financial performance. No single formula of responsible investment is available, and the "responsible" approach necessarily implies the active involvement (...) of a free acting subject striving to tackle fundamental ethical issues. The practice of responsible investment cannot be reduced to simply applying a particular legal rule or mathematical formula. (shrink)
In absence of effective pharmaceutical treatments, the individual's compliance with a series of behavioral recommendations provided by the public health authorities play a critical role in the control and prevention of SARS-CoV2 infection. However, we still do not know much about the rate and determinants of adoption of the recommended health behaviors. This paper examines the compliance with the main behavioral recommendations, and compares sociocultural, psychosocial, and social cognitive explanations for its variation in the French population. Based on the current (...) literature, these 3 categories of factors were identified as potential determinants of individual differences in the health preventive behaviors. The data used for these analyses are drawn from 2 cross-sectional studies conducted after the lockdown and before the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in France. The participants were drawn from a larger internet consumer panel where recruitment was stratified to generate a socio-demographically representative sample of the French adult population. Overall, the results show a very high rate of compliance with the behavioral recommendations among the participants. A hierarchical regression analysis was then performed to assess the potential explanatory power of these approaches in complying with these recommendations by successively entering sociocultural factors, psychosocial factors, social cognitive factors in the model. Only the inclusion of the cognitive variables substantially increased the explained variance of the self-reported adoption of preventive behaviors, providing better support for the social cognitive than the sociocultural and psychosocial explanations. (shrink)
Dans cet article sont menées deux réflexions. La première tente de juger du rapport de la philosophie à sa textualisation d’après le rapport des mathématiques à leur textualisation, et ce à trois niveaux : 1) en essayant de tirer des manières dont le texte mathématique excède sa forme logique des enseignements quant à la pertinence et la viabilité d’une réduction du texte philosophique à sa forme logique ; 2) en posant le problème d’une étude externaliste du texte philosophique à la (...) lumière des difficultés particulières que suscite l’approche externaliste du texte mathématique ; 3) en examinant ce qu’il en est de l’hybridation du philosophique et du mathématique dans certains textes. La seconde porte sur un aspect particulier de la textualisation : sur l’intervention du marqueur du sujet de l’énonciation (« Je ») dans les textes philosophiques. (shrink)
This ambitious work aims to shed new light on the relations between Husserlian phenomenology and the present-day efforts toward a scientific theory of cognition—with its complex structure of disciplines, levels of explanation, and ...
C’est, beaucoup plus que l’essai annoncé, une remarquable synthèse sur la philosophie des mathématiques que nous procure Jean-Michel Salanskis (J-M. S), synthèse qu’il faut placer dans la continuité de ses autres ouvrages, L’herméneutique formelle, Paris, Éditions du CNRS, 1991, Le constructivisme non standard, Lille, Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 1999, Sens et philosophie du sens, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 2001, Herméneutique et cognition, Lille, Presses universitaires du Septentri..
My first goal is to question a received view about the development of Analytical Philosophy. According to this received view Analytical Philosophy is born out of a Linguistic Turn establishing the study of language as the foundation of the discipline; this primacy of language is then overthrown by the return of the study of mind as philosophia prima through a second Cognitive Turn taken in the mid-sixties. My contention is that this picture is a gross oversimplification and that the Cognitive (...) Turn should better be seen as an extension of the Linguistic one. Indeed, if the Cognitive Turn gives explicit logical priority to the study of mind over the study of language, one of its central features is to see the mind as a representational system offering no substantial difference with a linguistic one. However, no justification is offered for the fundamental assimilation of the nature of a mental representation with that of a linguistic symbol supporting this picture of the mind, although the idea that a system of mental representations is identical in structure with a system of linguistic symbols has been argued over and over. I try to demonstrate this point through a close critical examination of Fodor's paradigmatic notion of 'double reduction.' My second claim is that the widespread contemporary assimilation of a mental representation with a symbol of a linguistic kind is no more than a prejudice. Finally I indicate that this prejudice cannot survive a rigorous critical examination. (shrink)
In this book, Moati systematically replays the historical encounter between Austin, Derrida, and Searle and the disruption that caused the lasting break between Anglo-American language philosophy and continental traditions of phenomenology ...
Michèle Stanton-Jean | : Le bien commun est un concept fréquemment utilisé pour aborder la question du vivre ensemble. Rarement défini, on l’utilise pour le critiquer comme le fruit d’une vision occidentale et chrétienne non applicable sur le plan universel ou encore pour en proposer une vision moderne affranchie de sa rigidité traditionnelle. Le texte qui suit se base sur une thèse qui a examiné les principes et les valeurs qui pourraient fonder une vision renouvelée du bien commun, susceptible (...) d’être utilisée dans tous les contextes culturels et historiques, en prenant comme exemple l’élaboration de la Déclaration universelle sur la bioéthique et les droits de l’homme adoptée à la conférence générale de l’UNESCO en 2005. | : Common good is frequently mentioned to discuss how we can live together. Rarely defined, it is often described as a concept based on a Western and Christian vision that cannot be applied universally, or as a concept that could be revisited to develop a modern and non-rigid vision of it. The following text is based on a PhD thesis that studied what principles and values could contribute to the development of a renewed vision of common good that could be used in every cultural and historical context, taking as an example the elaboration of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights adopted at the General Conference of UNESCO in 2005. (shrink)
A Controlled Not variant of the standard quantum teleportation protocol affords a step-by-step analysis of what is, or can be said to be, achieved in the process in either location. Dominant interpretations of what quantum teleportation consists in and implies are reviewed in this light. Being mindful of the statistical significance of the terms and operations involved, as well as awareness of classical analogies, can help sort out what is specifically quantum-mechanical, and what is not, in so-called teleportation. What the (...) latter achieves appears to be the transmission, without the involvement of mysterious channels, of what a quantum state encapsulates: the multitiered probabilistic characterization of a given preparation, which might be all we can possibly know about a physical system in a given experimental situation. (shrink)
Quelle place donner a l'histoire de la philosophie? Tradition analytique et tradition francaise ont eu longtemps des reponses tellement opposees, qu'une tradition pouvait rejeter l'autre d'apres ce seul critere; ceux qui condamnaient la reduction de la philosophie a l'histoire des idees et denoncaient l'oubli de la dimension intemporelle des argumentations valides, etaient eux memes critiques pour la naivete de leur silence sur la dimension historique de toute reflexion philosophique. Les positions ont evolue de chaque cote: un nouveau tournant philosophique, l'existence (...) d'un courant post-analytique, la qualite du travail historique, la percee de la philosophie analytique sur le continent,... ont change les rapports. Des specialistes de chaque tradition dressent ici une carte de la situation, et, ce faisant, definissent ce qu'ils entendent par philosopher. (shrink)
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