Results for 'Jens Tuider'

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  1.  10
    Dürfen wir Tiere essen?Jens Tuider - 2013 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 88 (1):269-280.
    Is it morally permissible to eat animals? To answer this question, two relevant aspects need to be distinguished: causing suffering and killing. A non-metaphysical moral conception of animal rights centred on the consideration of animals' subjective well-being suggests that, provided certain demanding conditions are fulfilled, consuming products from living and dead animals can be morally permissible. Killing animals for food, however, conflicts strongly with common moral beliefs. Despite the theoretical possibility of procuring animal products in a morally acceptable manner, prudential (...)
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  2.  3
    Jagd.Jens Tuider - 2018 - In Johann S. Ach & Dagmar Bochers (eds.), Handbuch Tierethik: Grundlagen – Kontexte – Perspektiven. J.B. Metzler. pp. 247-251.
    Die Praxis der Jagd reicht in der Kulturgeschichte weit zurück. Sie stellt vermutlich die älteste Nutzungsform von Tieren durch den Menschen dar. Unsere frühen Vorfahren waren für ihr Überleben auf das Erbeuten von Wild angewiesen, um daraus Nahrung und verschiedene Gebrauchsgegenstände zu gewinnen. Welche Bedeutung die Jagd jedoch insbesondere für ihre Ernährung hatte, wird kontrovers diskutiert, da die frühen Menschen nicht nur Jäger, sondern auch Sammler und generell Nahrungsopportunisten waren. Heute dient die Jagd fast ausschließlich anderen Zwecken als dem bloßen (...)
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  3. Kantian Dilemmas? Moral Conflict in Kant’s Ethical Theory.Jens Timmermann - 2013 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 95 (1):36-64.
    This paper explores the possibility of moral conflict in Kant’s ethics. An analysis of the only explicit discussion of the topic in his published writings confirms that there is no room for genuine moral dilemmas. Conflict is limited to nonconclusive ‘grounds’ of obligation. They arise only in the sphere of ethical duty and, though defeasible, ought to be construed as the result of valid arguments an agent correctly judges to apply in the situation at hand. While it is difficult to (...)
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  4. Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: A Commentary.Jens Timmermann - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals is Kant's central contribution to moral philosophy, and has inspired controversy ever since it was first published in 1785. Kant champions the insights of 'common human understanding' against what he sees as the dangerous perversions of ethical theory. Morality is revealed to be a matter of human autonomy: Kant locates the source of the 'categorical imperative' within each and every human will. However, he also portrays everyday morality in a way that many readers (...)
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  5. Good but Not Required?—Assessing the Demands of Kantian Ethics.Jens Timmermann - 2005 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (1):9-27.
    There seems to be a strong sentiment in pre-philosophical moral thought that actions can be morally valuable without at the same time being morally required. Yet Kant, who takes great pride in developing an ethical system firmly grounded in common moral thought, makes no provision for any such extraordinary acts of virtue. Rather, he supports a classification of actions as either obligatory, permissible or prohibited, which in the eyes of his critics makes it totally inadequate to the facts of morality. (...)
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  6.  62
    Autonomy, Progress and Virtue : Why Kant has Nothing to Fear From the Overdemandingness Objection.Jens Timmermann - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (3):379-397.
    Is Kant’s ethical theory too demanding? Do its commands ask too much of us, either by calling for self-sacrifice on particular occasions, or by pervading our lives to the extent that there is no room for permissible action? In this article, I argue that Kant’s ethics is very demanding, but not excessively so. The notion of ‘latitude’ does not help. But we need to bear in mind that moral laws are self-imposed and cannot be externally enforced; that ‘right action’ is (...)
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  7. Normativität in den Cultural Studies : Intellektuelle Praxis Als Politik.Elisabeth Tuider - 2011 - In Johannes Ahrens, Raphael Beer, Uwe H. Bittlingmayer & Jürgen Gerdes (eds.), Normativität: Über Die Hintergründe Sozialwissenschaftlicher Theoriebildung. Vs Verlag.
     
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  8. Kant on Conscience, “Indirect” Duty, and Moral Error.Jens Timmermann - 2006 - International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (3):293-308.
    Kant’s concept of conscience has been largely neglected by scholars and contemporary moral philosophers alike, as has his concept of “indirect” duty. Admittedly, neither of them is foundational within his ethical theory, but a correct account of both in their own right and in combination can shed some new light on Kant’s moral philosophy as a whole. In this paper, I first examine a key passage in which Kant systematically discusses the role of conscience, then give a systematic account of (...)
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  9. The Individualist Lottery: How People Count, but Not Their Numbers.Jens Timmermann - 2004 - Analysis 64 (2):106–112.
  10.  62
    When Bad Things Happen to Good People: Luck Egalitarianism and Costly Rescues.Jens Damgaard Thaysen & Andreas Albertsen - 2017 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 16 (1):93-112.
    According to luck egalitarianism, it is not unfair when people are disadvantaged by choices they are responsible for. This implies that those who are disadvantaged by choices that prevent disadvantage to others are not eligible for compensation. This is counterintuitive. We argue that the problem such cases pose for luck egalitarianism reveals an important distinction between responsibility for creating disadvantage and responsibility for distributing disadvantage which has hitherto been overlooked. We develop and defend a version of luck egalitarianism which only (...)
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  11. Hermeneutics: A Very Short Introduction.Jens Zimmermann - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Hermeneutics is the branch of knowledge that deals with interpretation, a behaviour that is intrinsic to our daily lives. As humans, we decipher the meaning of newspaper articles, books, legal matters, religious texts, political speeches, emails, and even dinner conversations every day. But how is knowledge mediated through these forms? What constitutes the process of interpretation? And how do we draw meaning from the world around us so that we might understand our position in it? In this Very Short Introduction (...)
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  12. Value Without Regress: Kant's 'Formula of Humanity' Revisited.Jens Timmermann - 2006 - European Journal of Philosophy 14 (1):69–93.
  13. Kantian Duties to the Self, Explained and Defended.Jens Timmermann - 2006 - Philosophy 81 (3):505-530.
    The present article is an attempt to clarify the Kantian conception of duties to the self and to defend them against common objections. Kant’s thesis that all duty rests on duties to the self is shown to follow from the autonomy of the human will; and the allegation that they are impossible because the agent could always release himself from such a duty turns out to be question-begging. There is no attempt to prove that there are such duties, but they (...)
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  14. On Counterpossibles.Jens Christian Bjerring - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 168 (2):327-353.
    The traditional Lewis–Stalnaker semantics treats all counterfactuals with an impossible antecedent as trivially or vacuously true. Many have regarded this as a serious defect of the semantics. For intuitively, it seems, counterfactuals with impossible antecedents—counterpossibles—can be non-trivially true and non-trivially false. Whereas the counterpossible "If Hobbes had squared the circle, then the mathematical community at the time would have been surprised" seems true, "If Hobbes had squared the circle, then sick children in the mountains of Afghanistan at the time would (...)
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  15. Artificial Intelligence and Patient-Centered Decision Making.Jens Christian Bjerring & Jacob Busch - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-23.
    Advanced AI systems are rapidly making their way into medical research and practice, and, arguably, it is only a matter of time before they will surpass human practitioners in terms of accuracy, reliability, and knowledge. If this is true, practitioners will have a prima facie epistemic and professional obligation to align their medical verdicts with those of advanced AI systems. However, in light of their complexity, these AI systems will often function as black boxes: ​the details of their contents, calculations, (...)
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  16.  22
    When Bad Things Happen to Good People: Luck Egalitarianism and Costly Rescues.Jens Damgaard Thaysen & Andreas Albertsen - 2017 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 16 (1):93-112.
    According to luck egalitarianism, it is not unfair when people are disadvantaged by choices they are responsible for. This implies that those who are disadvantaged by choices that prevent disadvantage to others are not eligible for compensation. This is counterintuitive. We argue that the problem such cases pose for luck egalitarianism reveals an important distinction between responsibility for creating disadvantage and responsibility for distributing disadvantage which has hitherto been overlooked. We develop and defend a version of luck egalitarianism which only (...)
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  17. Kant’s Puzzling Ethics of Maxims.Jens Timmermann - 2000 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 8 (1):39-52.
  18. Reversal or Retreat? Kant's Deductions of Freedom and Morality.Jens Timmermann - 2010 - In Andrews Reath & Jens Timmermann (eds.), Kant's Critique of Practical Reason: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
  19. When the Tail Wags the Dog: Animal Welfare and Indirect Duty in Kantian Ethics.Jens Timmermann - 2005 - Kantian Review 10:128-149.
    Even the most sympathetic readers of Kant's moral philosophy usually disagree with him about some aspect of his theory, or some particular moral judgement. His unqualified condemnation of lying in the essay ‘On a supposed right to lie from philanthropy’ is a classical case in question, as is his strong endorsement of retributive justice and the death penalty. A third prominent source of discontent are Kant's repeated verdicts on the moral status of non-human animals, or rather the lack thereof. For, (...)
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  20. Acting From Duty: Inclination, Reason and Moral Worth.Jens Timmermann - 2009 - In Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
    Section I of Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals is meant to lead us from our everyday conception of morality to the supreme principle of all moral action, officially christened the ‘categorical imperative’ some twenty Academy pages further into the treatise. It is quite striking that in this first section Kant dispenses with the notorious technical language that pervades not just other parts of the Groundwork but also most of the remaining philosophical writings of the critical period. The mere (...)
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  21.  93
    The Preemption Problem.Jens Johansson & Olle Risberg - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (2):351-365.
    According to the standard version of the counterfactual comparative account of harm, an event is overall harmful for an individual if and only if she would have been on balance better off if it had not occurred. This view faces the “preemption problem.” In the recent literature, there are various ingenious attempts to deal with this problem, some of which involve slight additions to, or modifications of, the counterfactual comparative account. We argue, however, that none of these attempts work, and (...)
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  22. Granularity Problems.Jens Christian Bjerring & Wolfgang Schwarz - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (266):22-37.
    Possible-worlds accounts of mental or linguistic content are often criticized for being too coarse-grained. To make room for more fine-grained distinctions among contents, several authors have recently proposed extending the space of possible worlds by "impossible worlds". We argue that this strategy comes with serious costs: we would effectively have to abandon most of the features that make the possible-worlds framework attractive. More generally, we argue that while there are intuitive and theoretical considerations against overly coarse-grained notions of content, the (...)
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  23.  73
    Kant's 'Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals': A Critical Guide.Jens Timmermann (ed.) - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    The essays in this volume, by international Kant scholars and moral philosophers, discuss Kant's philosophical development and his rejection of earlier moral theories, the role of happiness and inclination in the Groundwork, Kant's moral ...
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  24. Impossible Worlds and Logical Omniscience: An Impossibility Result.Jens Christian Bjerring - 2013 - Synthese 190 (13):2505-2524.
    In this paper, I investigate whether we can use a world-involving framework to model the epistemic states of non-ideal agents. The standard possible-world framework falters in this respect because of a commitment to logical omniscience. A familiar attempt to overcome this problem centers around the use of impossible worlds where the truths of logic can be false. As we shall see, if we admit impossible worlds where “anything goes” in modal space, it is easy to model extremely non-ideal agents that (...)
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  25. Why Kant Could Not Have Been a Utilitarian.Jens Timmermann - 2005 - Utilitas 17 (3):243-264.
    In 1993, Richard Hare argued that, contrary to received opinion, Kant could have been a utilitarian. In this article, I argue that Hare was wrong. Kant's theory would not have been utilitarian or consequentialist even if his practical recommendations coincided with utilitarian commands: Kant's theory of value is essentially anti-utilitarian; there is no place for rational contradiction as the source of moral imperatives in utilitarianism; Kant would reject the move to separate levels of moral thinking: first-order moral judgement makes use (...)
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  26.  59
    The Study of Visual and Multimodal Argumentation.Jens E. Kjeldsen - 2015 - Argumentation 29 (2):115-132.
    IntroductionIf we were to identify the beginning of the study of visual argumentation, we would have to choose 1996 as the starting point. This was the year that Leo Groarke published “Logic, art and argument” in Informal logic, and it was the year that he and David Birdsell co-edited a special double issue of Argumentation and Advocacy on visual argumentation . Among other papers, the issue included Anthony Blair’s “The possibility and actuality of visual arguments”. It was also the year (...)
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  27.  34
    A Tale of Two Conflicts: On Pauline Kleingeld’s New Reading of the Formula of Universal Law.Jens Timmermann - 2018 - Kant-Studien 109 (4):581-596.
    Pauline Kleingeld’s “Contradiction and Kant’s Formula of Universal Law”, published in this journal in 2017, presents a powerful challenge to what has become the standard reconstruction of the categorical imperative. In this response to Kleingeld, I argue that she is right to emphasise the ‘simultaneity requirement’ - that we must be able to will a proposed maxim and ‘simulataneously’, ‘also’ or ‘at the same time’ the maxim in its universalised form - but I deny that this removes the categorical imperative (...)
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  28.  11
    Value Without Regress: Kant's ‘Formula of Humanity’ Revisited.Jens Timmermann - 2006 - European Journal of Philosophy 14 (1):69-93.
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  29.  63
    Mechanistic Constitution in Neurobiological Explanations.Jens Harbecke - 2010 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (3):267-285.
    This paper discusses the constitution relation within the framework of the mechanistic approach to neurobiological explanation. It develops a regularity theory of constitution as an alternative to the manipulationist theory of constitution advocated by some of the proponents of the mechanistic approach. After the main problems of the manipulationist account of constitution have been reviewed, the regularity account is developed based on the notion of a minimal type relevance theory. A minimal type relevance theory expresses a minimally necessary condition of (...)
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  30.  3
    Laudatio auf Katharina Kraus.Jens Timmermann - 2018 - In Violetta L. Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur Und Freiheit. Akten des Xii. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. De Gruyter. pp. 57-60.
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  31.  3
    The Law and the Good. Kant’s Paradox of Method.Jens Timmermann - 2018 - In Violetta L. Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur Und Freiheit. Akten des Xii. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. De Gruyter. pp. 675-692.
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  32. Higher-Order Knowledge and Sensitivity.Jens Christian Bjerring & Lars Bo Gundersen - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):339-349.
    It has recently been argued that a sensitivity theory of knowledge cannot account for intuitively appealing instances of higher-order knowledge. In this paper, we argue that it can once careful attention is paid to the methods or processes by which we typically form higher-order beliefs. We base our argument on what we take to be a well-motivated and commonsensical view on how higher-order knowledge is typically acquired, and we show how higher-order knowledge is possible in a sensitivity theory once this (...)
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  33. Imagined Futures: Fictional Expectations in the Economy. [REVIEW]Jens Beckert - 2013 - Theory and Society 42 (3):219-240.
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  34.  6
    Food-Pics: An Image Database for Experimental Research on Eating and Appetite.Jens Blechert, Adrian Meule, Niko A. Busch & Kathrin Ohla - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  35. Being and Betterness.Jens Johansson - 2010 - Utilitas 22 (3):285-302.
    In this article I discuss the question of whether a person’s existence can be better (or worse) for him than his non-existence. Recently, Nils Holtug and Melinda A. Roberts have defended an affirmative answer. These defenses, I shall argue, do not succeed. In different ways, Holtug and Roberts have got the metaphysics and axiology wrong. However, I also argue that a person’s existence can after all be better (or worse) for him than his non-existence, though for reasons other than those (...)
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  36. Past and Future Non-Existence.Jens Johansson - 2013 - The Journal of Ethics 17 (1-2):51-64.
    According to the “deprivation approach,” a person’s death is bad for her to the extent that it deprives her of goods. This approach faces the Lucretian problem that prenatal non-existence deprives us of goods just as much as death does, but does not seem bad at all. The two most prominent responses to this challenge—one of which is provided by Frederik Kaufman (inspired by Thomas Nagel) and the other by Anthony Brueckner and John Martin Fischer—claim that prenatal non-existence is relevantly (...)
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  37. Deep Brain Stimulation and the Search for Identity.Karsten Witt, Jens Kuhn, Lars Timmermann, Mateusz Zurowski & Christiane Woopen - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (3):499-511.
    Ethical evaluation of deep brain stimulation as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease is complicated by results that can be described as involving changes in the patient’s identity. The risk of becoming another person following surgery is alarming for patients, caregivers and clinicians alike. It is one of the most urgent conceptual and ethical problems facing deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease at this time. In our paper we take issue with this problem on two accounts. First, we elucidate what is (...)
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  38. Sollen und Können.“Du kannst, denn du sollst” und “Sollen impliziert Können” im Vergleich.Jens Timmermann - 2003 - Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 6:113-122.
    In this paper, I explore two closely related ethical principles, ‘Ought implies Can’ and the Kantian ‘Du kannst, denn du sollst’ . The former principle is mainly used to diffuse moral dilemmas and other problem cases. Possibility is a necessary condition of obligation. Recent criticism notwithstanding, the principle is shown to be defensible and useful in the case of genuine, action-guiding oughts. The latter principle makes use of the former, but it in addition presupposes the validity of a moral command (...)
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  39.  4
    Duties to Oneself as Such.Jens Timmermann - 2013 - In Andreas Trampota, Oliver Sensen & Jens Timmermann (eds.), Kant’s “Tugendlehre”. A Comprehensive Commentary. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 207-220.
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  40.  7
    Food-Pics_Extended—An Image Database for Experimental Research on Eating and Appetite: Additional Images, Normative Ratings and an Updated Review.Jens Blechert, Anja Lender, Sarah Polk, Niko A. Busch & Kathrin Ohla - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
  41. Accountability or Good Decisions.Jens Steffek & Maria Paola Ferretti - 2009 - Global Society 23 (1):37-57.
    Civil society participation in international and European governance is often promoted as a remedy to its much-lamented democratic deficit. We argue in this paper that this claim needs refinement because civil society participation may serve two quite different purposes: it may either enhance the democratic accountability of intergovernmental organisations and regimes, or the epistemic quality of rules and decisions made within them. (...).
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  42. Objections to Virtue Ethics.Jens Johansson & Frans Svensson - 2018 - In Nancy Snow (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Virtue. Oxford University Press.
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  43. On the Rationality of Pluralistic Ignorance.Jens Christian Bjerring, Jens Ulrik Hansen & Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen - 2014 - Synthese 191 (11):2445-2470.
    Pluralistic ignorance is a socio-psychological phenomenon that involves a systematic discrepancy between people’s private beliefs and public behavior in certain social contexts. Recently, pluralistic ignorance has gained increased attention in formal and social epistemology. But to get clear on what precisely a formal and social epistemological account of pluralistic ignorance should look like, we need answers to at least the following two questions: What exactly is the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance? And can the phenomenon arise among perfectly rational agents? In (...)
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  44.  49
    The Rhetoric of Thick Representation: How Pictures Render the Importance and Strength of an Argument Salient.Jens E. Kjeldsen - 2015 - Argumentation 29 (2):197-215.
    Some forms of argumentation are best performed through words. However, there are also some forms of argumentation that may be best presented visually. Thus, this paper examines the virtues of visual argumentation. What makes visual argumentation distinct from verbal argumentation? What aspects of visual argumentation may be considered especially beneficial?
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  45.  22
    The Regularity Theory of Mechanistic Constitution and a Methodology for Constitutive Inference.Jens Harbecke - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54:10-19.
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  46.  38
    Regularity Constitution and the Location of Mechanistic Levels.Jens Harbecke - 2015 - Foundations of Science 20 (3):323-338.
    This paper discusses the role of levels and level-bound theoretical terms in neurobiological explanations under the presupposition of a regularity theory of constitution. After presenting the definitions for the constitution relation and the notion of a mechanistic level in the sense of the regularity theory, the paper develops a set of inference rules that allow to determine whether two mechanisms referred to by one or more accepted explanations belong to the same level, or to different levels. The rules are characterized (...)
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  47.  84
    The Role of Supervenience and Constitution in Neuroscientific Research.Jens Harbecke - 2014 - Synthese 191 (5):1-19.
    This paper is concerned with the notions of supervenience and mechanistic constitution as they have been discussed in the philosophy of neuroscience. Since both notions essentially involve specific dependence and determination relations among properties and sets of properties, the question arises whether the notions are systematically connected and how they connect to science. In a first step, some definitions of supervenience and mechanistic constitution are presented and tested for logical independence. Afterwards, certain assumptions fundamental to neuroscientific inquiry are made explicit (...)
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  48. Problems in Epistemic Space.Jens Christian Bjerring - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (1):153-170.
    When a proposition might be the case, for all an agent knows, we can say that the proposition is epistemically possible for the agent. In the standard possible worlds framework, we analyze modal claims using quantification over possible worlds. It is natural to expect that something similar can be done for modal claims involving epistemic possibility. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the prospects of constructing a space of worlds—epistemic space—that allows us to model what is epistemically (...)
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  49. Simplicity and Authority: Reflections on Theory and Practice in Kant's Moral Philosophy.Jens Timmermann - 2007 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 4 (2):167-182.
    What is the proper task of Kantian ethical theory? This paper seeks to answer this question with reference to Kant's reply to Christian Garve in Section I of his 1793 essay on Theory and Practice . Kant reasserts the distinctness and natural authority of our consciousness of the moral law. Every mature human being is a moral professional—even philosophers like Garve, if only they forget about their ill-conceived ethical systems and listen to the voice of pure practical reason. Normative theory, (...)
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  50.  49
    Actual and Counterfactual Attitudes: Reply to Brueckner and Fischer.Jens Johansson - 2014 - The Journal of Ethics 18 (1):11-18.
    In a recent article, I criticized Anthony L. Brueckner and John Martin Fischer’s influential argument—appealing to the rationality of our asymmetric attitudes towards past and future pleasures—against the Lucretian claim that death and prenatal non-existence are relevantly similar. Brueckner and Fischer have replied, however, that my critique involves an unjustified shift in temporal perspectives. In this paper, I respond to this charge and also argue that even if it were correct, it would fail to defend Brueckner and Fischer’s proposal against (...)
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