El siguiente monográfico sobre Perú acoge diferentes reflexiones y aportaciones de un total de nueve trabajos que buscan problematizar y arrojar luz sobre algunos aspectos que han acompañado al proceso de construcción democrática que el país ha venido experimentando desde 1980. Como otros escenarios de la región, la democracia se erige tras décadas convulsas para un sistema político cooptado por elites caudillistas, encono político, intromisión militar y condiciones estructurales irresolutas. Este conjunto de factores, inscritos en un contexto de guerra fría, (...) y al albor de la revolución cubana, inspiró movimientos guerrilleros a inicios de los sesenta, como el Ejército de Liberación Nacional o el Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria. Su escasa relevancia nada tendría que ver con la fuerza disruptiva que experimentaría el Partido Comunista del Perú - Sendero Luminoso. Un grupo armado de marcada impronta maoísta que, si bien hunde sus raíces en la ruptura sino-soviética de 1962, construye sus fundamentos ideológicos y sus bases revolucionarias durante la década de los setenta. (shrink)
Un 8 de octubre de 1993 sería publicado un video en todos los medios de comunicación televisivos de Perú. En él, el histórico líder de la organización terrorista Sendero Luminoso, Abimael Guzmán Reynoso, aparecía junto a su lugarteniente y pareja, Elena Iparraguirre Revoredo, también recluida en un penal de máxima seguridad en el puerto del Callao. En dicha aparición, el otrora "Camarada Gonzalo" declaraba la rendición de su organización armada y demandaba la necesidad de un acuerdo de paz con el (...) Estado peruano. De esa forma, comenzaba un primer epílogo del proceso de violencia y terror que se había instalado en el seno de la sociedad peruana durante más de trece años, y que formalmente había iniciado un 17 de mayo de 1980, con la quema de ánforas en la ciudad de Chuschi en Ayacucho, autodenominado por ellos como el "Inicio de la Lucha Armada". (shrink)
La obra de Lévinas propone asumir la ética como Filosofía Primera. Allí convergen dos fuentes de inspiración filosófica, el pensamiento judío y la fenomenología, y la experiencia histórica de persecución, violencia y desconocimiento del otro que exigió a Lévinas criticar el totalitarismo ontológico griego con el propósito de hacer justicia a la Alteridad y dar primacía así a la Responsabilidad para con el Otro sobre la Libertad autónoma del Yo. Luego, el autor retorna la crítica de Lévinas a la fenomenología (...) de la conciencia y a la ontología hermenéutica de Heidegger, con la que Occidente lleva a término su limitada opción por el conocimiento y la manifestación del Ser. Rubio y Lévinas, en tercer lugar, señalan hacia una hermenéutica encarnada de nuestras relaciones con el Otro, a una reivindicación de la antropología filosófica que recupere el Sentido desde el Otro. Finalmente, el autor se refiere al terna de la muerte en Lévinas, y subraya, en relación con la desaparición del maestro Rubio que, nuestro adiós a él, significa el 'ante Dios' de todas nuestras relaciones no tematizables con el Otro y antes que todo. (shrink)
In the current socioeconomic environment, brands increasingly need to portray societal and ethical commitments at a corporate level, in order to remain competitive and improve their reputation. However, studies that relate business ethics to corporate brands are either purely conceptual or have been empirically conducted in relation to the field of products/goods. This is surprising because corporate brands are even more relevant in the services sector, due to the different nature of services, and the subsequent need to provide a consistent (...) high-quality customer experience across all the brand–customer interactions and touch-points. Thus, the purpose of this article is to study, at a corporate brand level and in the field of services, the effect of customer perceived ethicality of a brand on brand equity. The model is tested by structural equations, using data collected for eight service categories by means of a panel composed of 2179 customers. The test of measurement equivalence between these categories is conducted using generalizability theory. Confirmatory factor analysis marker technique is applied in order to check for common method variance. The results of the hypothesized model indicate that customer perceived ethicality has a positive, indirect impact on brand equity, through the mediators of brand affect and perceived quality. However, there is no empirical evidence for a direct effect of customer perceived ethicality on brand equity. (shrink)
In order to be competitive in an era of ethical consumerism, brands are facing an ever-increasing pressure to integrate ethical values into their identities and to display their ethical commitment at a corporate level. Nevertheless, studies that relate business ethics to corporate brands are either theoretical or have predominantly been developed empirically in goods contexts. This is surprising, because corporate brands are more relevant in services settings, given the nature of services, and the fact that services settings comprise a greater (...) number of customer–brand interactions and touch points than goods contexts. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to empirically examine the effects of customer perceived ethicality of corporate brands that operate in the services sector. Based on data collected for eight service categories using a panel of 2179 customers, the hypothesized structural model is tested using path analysis. The generalizability theory is applied to test for measurement equivalence between these categories. The results of the hypothesized model show that, in addition to a direct impact, customer perceived ethicality has a positive and indirect impact on brand equity, through the mediators of recognition benefits and brand image. Moreover, brand heritage negatively influences the impact of customer perceived ethicality on brand image. The main implication is that managers need to be aware of the need to reinforce brand image and recognition benefits, as this can facilitate the translation of customer perceived ethicality into brand equity. (shrink)
Depersonalization is characterised by a profound disruption of self-awareness mainly characterised by feelings of disembodiment and subjective emotional numbing.It has been proposed that depersonalization is caused by a fronto-limbic suppressive mechanism – presumably mediated via attention – which manifests subjectively as emotional numbing, and disables the process by which perception and cognition normally become emotionally coloured, giving rise to a subjective feeling of ‘unreality’.Our functional neuroimaging and psychophysiological studies support the above model and indicate that, compared with normal and clinical (...) controls, DPD patients show increased prefrontal activation as well as reduced activation in insula/limbic-related areas to aversive, arousing emotional stimuli.Although a putative inhibitory mechanism on emotional processing might account for the emotional numbing and characteristic perceptual detachment, it is likely, as suggested by some studies, that parietal mechanisms underpin feelings of disembodiment and lack of agency feelings. (shrink)
In this work, a new intelligent control strategy based on neural networks is proposed to cope with some external disturbances that can affect quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles dynamics. Specifically, the variation of the system mass during logistic tasks and the influence of the wind are considered. An adaptive neuromass estimator and an adaptive neural disturbance estimator complement the action of a set of PID controllers, stabilizing the UAV and improving the system performance. The control strategy has been extensively tested with (...) different trajectories: linear, helical, circular, and even a lemniscate one. During the experiments, the mass of the UAV is triplicated and winds of 6 and 9 in Beaufort’s scale are introduced. Simulation results show how the online learning of the estimator increases the robustness of the controller, reducing the effects of the changes in the mass and of the wind on the quadrotor. (shrink)
In the past few decades, a growth in ethical consumerism has led brands to increasingly develop conscientiousness and depict ethical image at a corporate level. However, most of the research studying business ethics in the field of corporate brand management is either conceptual or has been empirically conducted in relation to goods/products contexts. This is surprising because corporate brands are more relevant in services contexts, because of the distinct nature of services and the key role that employees have in the (...) services sector. Accordingly, this article aims at empirically examining the effects of customer perceived ethicality in the context of corporate services brands. Based on data collected for eight service categories using a panel of 2179 customers, the hypothesized structural model is tested using path analysis. The results show that, in addition to a direct effect, customer perceived ethicality has a positive and indirect effect on customer loyalty, through the mediators of customer affective commitment and customer perceived quality. Further, employee empathy positively influences the impact of customer perceived ethicality on customer affective commitment, and customer loyalty positively impacts customer positive word-of-mouth. The first implication of these results is that corporate brand strategy needs to be aligned with human resources policies and practices if brands want to turn ethical strategies into employee behavior. Second, corporate brands should build more authentic communications grounded in their ethical beliefs and supported by evidence from actual employees. (shrink)
One of the key challenges for firms is to manage sustainability along the supply chain. To extend sustainability to suppliers, organizations have developed different governance mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of two different mechanisms (i.e., supplier assessment and collaboration with suppliers) to improve one dimension of sustainability: environmental performance. Structural Equation Modeling and cluster analysis were used to analyze the relationships between supplier assessment, collaboration with suppliers, and environmental performance. The results suggest that (1) (...) both mechanisms, supplier assessment and collaboration with suppliers, have a positive and synergistic effect on environmental performance, and (2) assessment acts as an enabler of collaboration. Finally, the paper also contributes to the literature by providing a framework of sustainability governance mechanisms. (shrink)
In recent years, there has been a surge in popularity of the fair-trade industry, which seeks to improve trading conditions and to promote the rights of marginalized workers. Although research suggests that fair-trade products are perceived as promoting social and economic responsibility, some individuals—namely, those who seek to maintain existing group inequalities or those induced to think inequality is a good thing—may not share this perception. Across three studies, we found that SDO relates negatively to fair-trade consumption, and this relationship (...) is mediated by the tendency for high-SDO individuals to see fair-trade products as less compatible with their conception of social justice. Our findings held after controlling for related individual-differences variables, and regardless of whether SDO was measured or manipulated. Implications for how to maximize the likelihood that people will perceive fair-trade products as “fair” are discussed. (shrink)
Although the pedagogy literature indicates significant relationships between cheating intentions and both personal and situational factors, no published research has examined the joint effect of personal moral philosophy and perceived moral intensity components on students’ cheating intentions. Hence, a structural equation model that relates magnitude of consequences, relativism, and idealism to willingness to cheat, is developed and tested. Using data from undergraduate business students, the empirical results provide insight into these relationships and evidence of mediation for magnitude of consequences on (...) idealism and students’ cheating intentions. Implications for educators are offered. (shrink)
The current ethical structure for collaborative international health research stems largely from developed countries' standards of proper ethical practices. The result is that ethical committees in developing countries are required to adhere to standards that might impose practices that conflict with local culture and unintended interpretations of ethics, treatments, and research. This paper presents a case example of a joint international research project that successfully established inclusive ethical review processes as well as other groundwork and components necessary for the conduct (...) of human behavior research and research capacity building in the host country. (shrink)
This article seeks to clarify the concepts of risk and uncertainty, restricting its focus to environmental problems and to three strands of reflection. Firstly, I suggest that we should apply the label riscophrenia to the tendency to envisage most environmental problems excessively in terms of probabilistic risk, erecting the concept to a core dogma of certainty based on the image it offers of safety and control of the random. Looking at the most serious environmental problems of the twenty-first century through (...) the prism of "animal spirits" is above all an exercise which shows that unpredictability and uncertainties are constituent elements of human existence and social life. Secondly, I argue that the assessment of uncertainty has political and normative implications. I hold that uncertainty may make it possible to invoke precautionary, not just preventive, measures, and that alternative "contextualised" research strategies, open to a variety of points of view, are possible. Lastly, I claim that the language of risk and its excessive application is generally laden with a type of ambiguity which tends not to emphasize society's current problems, and so facilitates the continuation rather than the questioning of our society's dominant technocratic and technological model. (shrink)
We define a multi-modal version of Computation Tree Logic (ctl) by extending the language with path quantifiers E δ and A δ where δ denotes one of finitely many dimensions, interpreted over Kripke structures with one total relation for each dimension. As expected, the logic is axiomatised by taking a copy of a ctl axiomatisation for each dimension. Completeness is proved by employing the completeness result for ctl to obtain a model along each dimension in turn. We also show that (...) the logic is decidable and that its satisfiability problem is no harder than the corresponding problem for ctl. We then demonstrate how Normative Systems can be conceived as a natural interpretation of such a multi-dimensional ctl logic. (shrink)
After decades of neglect of Dewey and of his contribution, there is a strong feeling not only that his conception of things is important to understand the century that came to a close, but that Dewey -along with Peirce and other American classical pragmatists- may very well prove to be a key t..
Suárez, talvez o principal expoente da Escolástica do século XVI, em suas Disputationes metaphysicae, trabalha, entre outros temas, o do conceito objetivo. Atendo-se principalmente à disputação 2, secção n• 1, procura-se mostrar a fecundidade de tal noção, desenvolvendo, para tanto, os temas: o conceito formal enquanto ato mental e enquanto imago, a doutrina da denominação extrínseca: a denominação extrínseca e os entia rationis, a denominação extrínseca e os possíveis.
Fílon de Alexandria é mencionado frequentemente como exemplo de exegeta que adotava o método da interpretação alegórica. Por vezes, entende-se, de modo pré-concebido, que sua hermenêutica é imaginativa, descuidada e pouco responsável. Neste artigo, a partir de uma pesquisa bibliográfica abrangente e estudo de fontes primárias em suas línguas originais, apresento o alexandrino como um exegeta inserido em seu tempo, dotado de recursos, que observava parâmetros. Além de uma apresentação inicial, abordo detidamente um caso específico: a identificação que Fílon faz (...) entre Noé e Deucalião em Sobre Penas e Recompensas 23. Meu objetivo é compreender como esse procedimento, que é incomum, uma vez que o alexandrino evita recorrer à mitologia comparada, se insere no corpus filoninano. Demonstro que é razoável que não se trate de uma intencional associação entre mitos, mas entre personagens históricos. O trecho não deixa de ser atípico, especialmente quando visto de nossa perspectiva, mas é coerente com a estratégia do exegeta de Alexandria, quando visto a partir da perspectiva dele. (shrink)
We define a multi-modal version of Computation Tree Logic (CTL) by extending the language with path quantifiers $E^\delta $ and $E^\delta $ where δ denotes one of finitely many dimensions, interpreted over Kripke structures with one total relation for each dimension. As expected, the logic is axiomatised by taking a copy of a CTL axiomatisation for each dimension. Completeness is proved by employing the completeness result for CTL to obtain a model along each dimension in turn. We also show that (...) the logic is decidable and that its satisfiability problem is no harder than the corresponding problem for CTL. We then demonstrate how Normative Systems can be conceived as a natural interpretation of such a multi-dimensional CTL logic. (shrink)
The Baldwin effect is a process by which learnt traits become gradually incorporated into the genome through a Darwinian mechanism. From its inception, the Baldwin effect has been regarded with skepticism. The objective of this paper is to relativize this assessment. Our contribution is two-fold. To begin with, we provide a taxonomy of the different arguments that have been advocated in its defense, and distinguish between three justificatory dimensions—feasibility, explanatory relevance and likelihood—that have been unduly conflated. Second, we sharpen the (...) debate by providing an evolutionary game theoretic perspective that is able to generalize previous results. The upshot of this paper is that the mechanism envisaged by Baldwin is less puzzling than commonly thought. (shrink)
O discurso sobre o ser em Tomás deAquino é algo que deixa mais ansiosos og mo-demos que o próprio Tomás. A panir destaconstatação abrem-se as portas para uma leituracritica da história da filosofia e da própria filosofia— não só a medieval -, procurando situá-las emseu ambiente socicantropológico.
Este articulo presenta una compresion fenomenologica de la ciudad, problematizando dos enfoques teoricos utiles para lograr una descripcion esclarecedora, sobre todo, en su version contemporanea. Se exploraran tesis en las que se habla de un habitat humano donde reinan la desatencion cortes, el cooperativismo competitivo y las relaciones instrumentales, resultado del desarrollo biotico sublimado en la organizacion social y la cultura; en razon de esto, la ciudad sera entendida como un producto de la naturaleza humana o, si se quiere, como (...) la maxima expresión de lo humano en tanto ser natural-cultural. Por otro lado, esta una comprension de la ciudad como un gran zoologico humano donde conviven: el individualismo, la ansiedad, el aburrimiento, el estres, la represion y la tension; razon por la cual los urbanitas se hallan, cada vez mas, en constante peligro de enloquecer. Al analizar ambas perspectivas, la ciudad se revela como un campo de interacciones del animal humano, caracterizadas por la cruenta competitividad, las relaciones fragmentadas, egoistas, intermitentes, microscopicas, fugaces y liquidas, basadas en la heterogeneidad, la hibridacion y el juego de mascaras en diversos micro-eventos, pero tambien en la estructuracion de una serie de pautas que garantizan minimos de convivencia entre un conglomerado de desconocidos que luchan cada uno por sobrevivir y hacer pervivir sus representaciones de la realidad. (shrink)
As brands have emerged as key organizational assets and primary capital, branding has become the essence of many businesses. Companies and their brands are evermore expected to behave in a responsible way towards society. This article develops a model that allows companies that are interested in brand building towards social values to identify which kinds of public services are better for them to associate with in order to develop a socially responsible strategy.