Erns Cassirer ha sido conocido, generalmente, como historiador de las ideas, relegando su propuesta filosófica a un segundo plano. Sin embargo, toda su fundamentación filosófica, pese a sucumbir ante el lenguaje del idealismo y el tener un trasfondo netamente kantiano, abre nuevos horizontes de comprensión dados en el símbolo. Por eso, a través de las formas simbólicas, Cassirer pasa de una crítica de la razón pura, a una crítica de la cultura, en donde todo el quehacer humano se manifiesta.
This article examines a particular debate between Eamonn Callan and William Galston concerning the need for a civic education which counters the divisive pull of pluralism by uniting the citizenry in patriotic allegiance to a single national identity. The article offers a preliminary understanding of nationalism and patriotism before setting out the terms of the debate. It then critically evaluates the central idea of Callan that one might be under an obligation morally to improve one''s own patriotic inheritance, pointing to (...) the ineliminable tension between the valuation of one''s own patria by its own terms and a detached critical reason. It concludes by suggesting that we are, in advance of our education, members of a particular patria and that any education must be particularistic. Finally, the danger is noted of presuming that, in each case, there is a single, determinate national tradition. (shrink)
Historian Candy Gunther Brown has noted that since the mid-twentieth century, "evangelicalism has reemerged as the normative form of non-Catholic American Christianity, supplanting what is usually referred to as mainline Protestantism."1 However, in the 1970s few people predicted that this would occur. In Gray Sabbath, Shawn David Young describes a lesser-known countercultural side of evangelicalism. Young explains, "This book explores a post–Jesus Movement 'Jesus People' commune that does not conform to our common understanding of evangelical Christianity or popular Christian (...) music". Through ethnographic and historical research, Young offers an analysis of how Jesus People USA... (shrink)
According to the Christian religion, Jesus was “crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again”. I take it that this rising again—the Resurrection of Jesus, as it’s sometimes called—is, according to the Christian religion, an historical event, just like his crucifixion, death, and burial. And I would have thought that to investigate whether the Resurrection occurred, we would need to do some historical research: we would need to assess the reliability of (...) the New Testament documents and related manuscripts; we would need to look into the credibility of the witnesses to his post-mortem appearances, the empty tomb, and the like. The task looks rather daunting. But, according to David Hume, we don’t have to do anything of the kind. For no matter how strong the testimony in favor of a miracle is—indeed, even if we “suppose…that the testimony considered apart and in itself, amounts to an entire proof”—we have at our disposal a “full proof…against the existence of any miracle”. So we can avoid all that tedious historical work. We can simply use Hume’s shortcut, a proof against the existence of any miracle, and hence a proof against the Resurrection. So Hume says he has a “a decisive argument,” “an everlasting check to all kinds of superstitious delusion,” superstitious delusions like the Resurrection. There is good news and bad news in Hume’s proclamation. The good news is that he really has two arguments, not just one—or, at any rate, many scholars discern in his writings two arguments. The bad news is that neither succeeds; at any rate, try as I might, I can’t see how they do. (shrink)
In this essay I examine David Clough's interpretation of the imago Dei and his use of “creaturely” language in his book On Animals: Volume 1, Systematic Theology. Contrary to Clough, I argue that the imago Dei should be interpreted as being uniquely human. Using a neuroscientific approach, I elaborate on my claim that while Jesus is the image of God perfected, the imago Dei is best understood as having the mind of Christ. In regards to language, I make the (...) case that using terms such as “creature” when referring to nonhuman animals is problematic in that it can serve to alienate human beings from their capacity to image God. In addition I argue that “creaturely” language raises concerns for the African American community given Western Christianity's history as it relates to their valuation of black bodies and human enslavement. (shrink)
Parmi les multiples énigmes de la généalogie de Jésus en Mt 1,1-17, la présence de quatre, voire de cinq femmes dans un texte où prédominent les hommes a suscité de nombreuses tentatives d’explication. Cet article part de l’observation que les quatre premières femmes sont en amont ou complices du roi David, tandis que la cinquième femme est la mère de celui qui est présenté comme Messie. Il constate par ailleurs que si l’on avait appliqué strictement les dispositions de la (...) Torah à leur égard, ni le grand roi, ni a fortiori la dynastie davidique n’auraient vu le jour. Le récit du dilemme de Joseph en 1,18-25 témoigne de son effort pour se frayer un chemin entre une certaine conformité avec la Loi et les exigences de la miséricorde en rapport avec le cas de sa femme enceinte. Ainsi, dès le début de l’évangile de Matthieu est posée la question de l’observance de la Torah face aux exigences des Prophètes et ultérieurement face à l’enseignement de Jésus. (shrink)
Trois voix ou groupes de voix témoignent des Écritures juives au temps de Jésus, tant sur la terre nationale que dans la diaspora de langue grecque: les manuscrits de la Mer Morte, les oeuvres de Philon d'Alexandrie et les livres du Nouveau Testament. Cette situation littéraire Se présente à la vérité comme contradictoire, révélant une réalité complexe, flottante et incertaine : qu'est-ce qu'on mettait exactement sous les désignations « Prophètes », « David » ou même « Loi de Moïse (...) » ? En-deçà des conceptions canoniques des Écritures enjudaïsme et Christianisme, se révèle un « pluriel textuel » dépendant des besoins de groupes et de communautés, d'habitudes et de conceptions de transmission des textes totalement différentes des nôtres, ce qui explique la grande liberté de Jésus, de ses disciples et des auteurs dans leur utilisation des Écritures, en attendant la fixation de ce qu'on désignera par le mot « Bible ».Three voices or groups of voices witness to the jewish Scriptures both on national territory at the time of Jesus, as well as in the Greek language Diaspora : the Dead Sea Scrolls, the works of Philo of Alexandria, and the books of the New Testament. This literary situation seems contradictory and reveals a complex reality, intangible and uncertain. What exactly is found under the designation « Prophets », « David », or even « Law of Moses » ? Beyond canonical understanding of the Scriptures in Judaism and Christianity, there lies a « textual plurality » totally different from ours, depending on the needs of groups and communities, and customs and ideas about transmission of texts. This explains the great freedom o Jesus, of his disciples, and some authors in their use of the Scriptures, before the text was to be designated by what would be called the “Bible”. (shrink)
David Friedrich Strauss is best known for his mythical interpretation of the Gospel narratives. He opposed both the supernaturalists (who regarded the Gospel stories as reliable) and the rationalists (who offered natural explanations of purportedly supernatural events). His mythical interpretation suggests that many of the stories about Jesus were woven out of pre-existing messianic beliefs and expectations. Picking up this suggestion, I argue that the Gospel writers thought paradigmatically rather than historically. A paradigmatic explanation assimilates the event-to-be- explained to (...) what is thought to be a prototypical instance of divine action. It differs from a historical or scientific explanation insofar as it does not specify the conditions under which it should be applied. It is, therefore, a wonderfully flexible way to understand the present in the light of the past. (shrink)
I examine Hume’s proposal about rationally considering testimonial evidence for miracles. He proposes that we compare the probability of the miracle (independently of the testimony) with the probability that the testimony is false, rejecting whichever has the lower probability. However, this superficially plausible proposal is massively ignored in our treatment of testimonial evidence in nonreligious contexts. I argue that it should be ignored, because in many cases, including the resurrection of Jesus, neither we nor Hume have any experience which is (...) at all relevant to assigning a prior probability to the alleged event. (shrink)
Peer review is a widely accepted instrument for raising the quality of science. Peer review limits the enormous unstructured influx of information and the sheer amount of dubious data, which in its absence would plunge science into chaos. In particular, peer review offers the benefit of eliminating papers that suffer from poor craftsmanship or methodological shortcomings, especially in the experimental sciences. However, we believe that peer review is not always appropriate for the evaluation of controversial hypothetical science. We argue that (...) the process of peer review can be prone to bias towards ideas that affirm the prior convictions of reviewers and against innovation and radical new ideas. Innovative hypotheses are thus highly vulnerable to being “filtered out” or made to accord with conventional wisdom by the peer review process. Consequently, having introduced peer review, the Elsevier journal Medical Hypotheses may be unable to continue its tradition as a radical journal allowing discussion of improbable or unconventional ideas. Hence we conclude by asking the publisher to consider re-introducing the system of editorial review to Medical Hypotheses. (shrink)
Die politischen Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Restauration und Reformbewegung im Deutschland der 1830er Jahre sind schon häufig zum Gegenstand gemacht worden, und ebenso die wenig rühmliche Rolle, die die damalige Theologie und Kirche in diesen Auseinandersetzungen gespielt haben. Das Besondere an Marilyn Masseys Darstellung dieses Themenkreises ist es aber, daß sie es versteht, die innere Einheit der damaligen theologischen und politischen Optionen klar herauszustellen - am Beispiel von David Friedrich Strauß’ Leben Jesu. Daß diese Einheit in bisherigen Arbeiten über die damalige (...) Epoche bislang nicht wirklich erfaßt worden ist, sieht Massey ganz zu Recht in der Struktur des gegenwärtigen Forschungsbetriebs begründet: Die Aufspaltung historischer Gegenstände unter die Philosophie, die Theologie, die Literaturgeschichte, die Sozialgeschichte, und die Politikwissenschaft verhindert gerade diejenige Erkenntnis der Phänomene, die sie doch eigentlich befördern sollte. (shrink)
There are secrets but they are not the secrets of the filmmakers; the whispers remain inaudible to all: *Silencio*. The significance of _Mulholland Dr._ will be revealed indirectly, in a kind of articulate silence, like Kierkegaard's incognito Jesus.
van de Kamp, Gerrit Interest in various types of Spirit Christology has remained constant throughout the past. This type of Christology is usually recognised and valued for the attention it devotes to the true humanity of Christ. In this area Spirit Christology has an advantage over classical Christology, as the latter is blamed for not doing justice, or for being incapable of doing justice, in its expositions, to the fact that Christ is truly man. On the other hand Spirit Christology (...) fails to escape the charge that it cannot do justice to maintaining the uniqueness of Christ. In discussing the work of theologians who advocate some kind of Spirit Christology, therefore, we encounter the names of historical propositions that have been condemned in pronouncements of authoritative church fathers and councils. In Christological perspective this generally means adoptionism or in one instance psilanthropism, the proposition that Jesus was merely man. At the base of this rejection lies the fear of putting church teaching on the Trinity at risk through modalism or binitarianism. So we often see that those sympathising with Spirit Christology still opt for classical Christology. (shrink)