The transition of gene switch induced by external noises and external signals is investigated in the genetic regulatory system. Results show that the state-to-state transition of gene switch as well as resonant behaviors, such as the explicit coherence resonance, implicit coherence resonance and control parameter coherence biresonance, can appear when noises are injected into the genetic regulatory system. The ECR is increased with the increase of the control parameter value when starting from the supercritical Hopf bifurcation parameter point, and there (...) exists a critical control parameter value for the occurrence of ECR. However, the ICR is decreased as the control parameter value is increased when starting from the subcritical Hopf bifurcation point. In particular, the coherence of ECR is higher and more sensitive to noise than that of ICR. When an external signal is introduced into the system, the enhancement or suppression of the CPCBR and the number of peaks strongly depend on the frequency and amplitude of the external signal. Furthermore, the gene regulation system can selectively enhance or decrease the noise-induced oscillation signals at preferred frequency and amplitude of an external signal. (shrink)
A novel iterative learning control algorithm for a two-wheeled self-balancing mobile robot with time-varying, nonlinear, and strong-coupling dynamics properties is presented to resolve the trajectory tracking problem in this research. A kinematics model and dynamic model of a two-wheeled self-balancing mobile robot are deduced in this paper, and the combination of an open-closed-loop PD-ILC law and a variable forgetting factor is presented. The open-closed-loop PD-ILC algorithm adopts current and past learning items to drive the state variables and input variables, and (...) the output variables converge to the bounded scope of their desired values. In addition, introducing a variable forgetting factor can enhance the robustness and stability of ILC. Numerous simulation and experimental data demonstrate that the proposed control scheme has better feasibility and effectiveness than the traditional control algorithm. (shrink)
EDITOR’ ABSTRACTZhang Jian believes that an all too narrow definition of the word “sinicization” by New Qing historians has created a conflict where there is none, namely, between Manchu sinicization, properly understood, on the one hand, and Manchu ethnic identity on the other. Zhang argues that tensions can be seen as the result of “sociopolitical class-based differences between officials and citizens.”.
Using a sample of Chinese listed firms for the period of 2004–2010, this study examines the impact of religion on corporate philanthropic giving. Based on hand-collected data of religion and corporate philanthropic giving, we provide strong and robust evidence that religion is significantly positively associated with Chinese listed firms’ philanthropic giving. This finding is consistent with the view that religiosity has remarkable effects on individual thinking and behavior, and can serve as social norms to influence corporate philanthropy. Moreover, religion and (...) corporate philanthropic giving have a significantly weaker (less pronounced) positive association for state-owned enterprises than for non-state-owned enterprises. The results are robust to a variety of sensitivity tests. Our results highlight religious influence on corporate philanthropic giving in contemporary China, an old traditional country with a typical communist economy. (shrink)
Using a sample of Chinese listed firms in polluting industries for the period of 2008–2010, we empirically investigate whether and how Buddhism, China’s most influential religion, affects corporate environmental responsibility (CER). In this study, we measure Buddhist variables as the number of Buddhist monasteries within a certain radius around Chinese listed firms’ registered addresses. In addition, we hand-collect corporate environmental disclosure scores based on the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) sustainability reporting guidelines. Using hand-collected Buddhism data and corporate environmental disclosure scores, (...) we provide strong and robust evidence that Buddhism is significantly positively associated with CER. This finding is consistent with the following view: Buddhism can serve as social norms to evoke the consciousness of social responsibility, and thereof strengthen CER. Our findings also reveal that the positive association between Buddhism and CER is attenuated for firms with higher law enforcement index. The results are robust to various measures of Buddhism and a variety of sensitivity tests. (shrink)
The issue of trust has increasingly attracted attention in the business ethics literature. Our aim is to contribute further to this literature by examining how the use of the carbon copy function in email communication influences felt trust. We develop the argument that the use of cc enhances transparency—representing an important characteristic of workplace ethics—and hence promotes trust. We further argue that a downside of the cc option may be that it can also be experienced as a control mechanism, which (...) may therefore negatively affect trust. The results of our first study showed that the use of cc indeed enhances perceived transparency, but at the same time also leads to the experience of increased control. Building upon this insight, the findings of five subsequent studies consistently revealed that the use of cc negatively influences felt trust. More precisely, employees felt trusted the least when the supervisor was always included in cc. This effect on felt trust also negatively influenced how trustworthy the organizational climate was perceived. We further replicated these results in two field surveys, which showed that the negative effect of cc on felt trust lowered perceptions of psychological safety and contributed to a culture of fear. Taken together, our findings suggest that when transparency in email communications is experienced as a control mechanism, its use is perceived as unethical, rather than as ethical. Implications and recommendations for future business ethics research are discussed. (shrink)
As an important variant of membrane computing models, fuzzy reasoning spiking neural P systems were introduced to build a link between P systems and fault diagnosis applications. An FRSN P system offers an intuitive illustration based on a strictly mathematical expression, a good fault-tolerant capacity, a good description for the relationships between protective devices and faults, and an understandable diagnosis model-building process. However, the implementation of FRSN P systems is still at a manual process, which is a time-consuming and hard (...) labor work, especially impossible to perform on large-scale complex power systems. This manual process seriously limits the use of FRSN P systems to diagnose faults in large-scale complex power systems and has always been a challenging and ongoing task for many years. In this work we develop an automatic implementation method for automatically fulfilling the hard task, named membrane computing fault diagnosis method. This is a very significant attempt in the development of FRSN P systems and even of the membrane computing applications. MCFD is realized by automating input and output, and diagnosis processes consists of network topology analysis, suspicious fault component analysis, construction of FRSN P systems for suspicious fault components, and fuzzy inference. Also, the feasibility of the FRSN P system is verified on the IEEE14, IEEE 39, and IEEE 118 node systems. (shrink)
Controversy persists over the ethics of compensating research participants and providing posttrial benefits to communities in developing countries. Little is known about residents' views on these subjects. In this study, interviews about compensation and posttrial benefits from a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial were conducted in Uganda’s Rakai District. Most respondents said researchers owed the community posttrial benefits and research compensation, but opinions differed as to what these should be. Debates about posttrial benefits and compensation rarely include residents' views like these, (...) but future ones should. (shrink)