The present study aims to examine the relationship between the cortical midline structures (CMS), which have been regarded to be associated with selfhood, and moral decision making processes at the neural level. Traditional moral psychological studies have suggested the role of moral self as the moderator of moral cognition, so activity of moral self would present at the neural level. The present study examined the interaction between the CMS and other moral-related regions by conducting psycho-physiological interaction analysis of functional images (...) acquired while 16 subjects were solving moral dilemmas. Furthermore, we performed Granger causality analysis to demonstrate the direction of influences between activities in the regions in moral decision-making. We first demonstrate there are significant positive interactions between two central CMS seed regions—i.e., the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)—and brain regions associated with moral functioning including the cerebellum, brainstem, midbrain, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula (AI); on the other hand, the posterior insula (PI) showed significant negative interaction with the seed regions. Second, several significant Granger causality was found from CMS to insula regions particularly under the moral-personal condition. Furthermore, significant dominant influence from the AI to PI was reported. Moral psychological implications of these findings are discussed. The present study demonstrated the significant interaction and influence between the CMS and morality-related regions while subject were solving moral dilemmas. Given that, activity in the CMS is significantly involved in human moral functioning. (shrink)
Monetary intelligence theory asserts that individuals apply their money attitude to frame critical concerns in the context and strategically select certain options to achieve financial goals and ultimate happiness. This study explores the dark side of monetary Intelligence and behavioral economics—dishonesty. Dishonesty, a risky prospect, involves cost–benefit analysis of self-interest. We frame good or bad barrels in the environmental context as a proxy of high or low probability of getting caught for dishonesty, respectively. We theorize: The magnitude and intensity of (...) the relationship between love of money and dishonest prospect may reveal how individuals frame dishonesty in the context of two levels of subjective norm—perceived corporate ethical values at the micro-level and Corruption Perceptions Index at the macro-level, collected from multiple sources. Based on 6382 managers in 31 geopolitical entities across six continents, our cross-level three-way interaction effect illustrates: As expected, managers in good barrels, mixed barrels, and bad barrels display low, medium, and high magnitude of dishonesty, respectively. With high CEV, the intensity is the same across cultures. With low CEV, the intensity of dishonesty is the highest in high CPI entities —the Enron Effect, but the lowest in low CPI entities. CPI has a strong impact on the magnitude of dishonesty, whereas CEV has a strong impact on the intensity of dishonesty. We demonstrate dishonesty in light of monetary values and two frames of social norm, revealing critical implications to the field of behavioral economics and business ethics. (shrink)
In Study 1, we test a theoretical model involving temptation, monetary intelligence (MI), a mediator, and unethical intentions and investigate the direct and indirect paths simultaneously based on multiple-wave panel data collected in open classrooms from 492 American and 256 Chinese students. For the whole sample, temptation is related to low unethical intentions indirectly. Multi-group analyses reveal that temptation predicts unethical intentions both indirectly and directly for male American students only; but not for female American students. For Chinese students, both (...) paths are non-significant. Love of money contributes significantly to MI for all students. In Study 2, using money as a temptation and giving them opportunities to cheat on a matrix task, most Chinese students (78.4 %) do not cheat in open classrooms; supporting survey and structural equation modeling (SEM) results in Study 1. However, students in private cubicles cheat significantly more (53.4 %) than those in open classrooms (21.6 %). Finally, students’ love of money attitude predicts cheating. Factor rich predicts the cheating amount, whereas factor motivator predicts the cheating percentage. Our results shed new light on the impact of temptation and love of money as dispositional traits, money as a temptation, and environmental context (public vs. private) on unethical intentions and cheating behaviors. (shrink)
Monetary Intelligence theory asserts that individuals apply their money attitude to frame critical concerns in the context and strategically select certain options to achieve financial goals and ultimate happiness. This study explores the bright side of Monetary Intelligence and behavioral economics, frames money attitude in the context of pay and life satisfaction, and controls money at the macro-level and micro-level. We theorize: Managers with low love of money motive but high stewardship behavior will have high subjective well-being: pay satisfaction and (...) quality of life. Data collected from 6586 managers in 32 cultures across six continents support our theory. Interestingly, GDP per capita is related to life satisfaction, but not to pay satisfaction. Individual income is related to both life and pay satisfaction. Neither GDP nor income is related to Happiness. Our theoretical model across three GDP groups offers new discoveries: In high GDP entities, “high income” not only reduces aspirations—“Rich, Motivator, and Power,” but also promotes stewardship behavior—“Budget, Give/Donate, and Contribute” and appreciation of “Achievement.” After controlling income, we demonstrate the bright side of Monetary Intelligence: Low love of money motive but high stewardship behavior define Monetary Intelligence. “Good apples enjoy good quality of life in good barrels.” This notion adds another explanation to managers’ low magnitude of dishonesty in entities with high Corruption Perceptions Index. In low GDP entities, high income is related to poor Budgeting skills and escalated Happiness. These managers experience equal satisfaction with pay and life. We add a new vocabulary to the conversation of monetary intelligence, income, GDP, happiness, subjective well-being, good and bad apples and barrels, corruption, and behavioral ethics. (shrink)
The parameter estimation problem of the ARX model is studied in this paper. First, some traditional identification algorithms are briefly introduced, and then a new parameter estimation algorithm—the modified momentum gradient descent algorithm—is developed. Two gradient directions with their corresponding step sizes are derived in each iteration. Compared with the traditional parameter identification algorithms, the modified momentum gradient descent algorithm has a faster convergence rate. A simulation example shows that the proposed algorithm is effective.
The spatial distribution pattern of jobs and housing plays a vital role in urban planning and traffic construction. However, obtaining the jobs-housing distribution at a fine scale presents difficulties due to a lack of social media data and useful models. With user data acquired from a location-based service provider in China, this study employs a deep bag-of-features network to classify remote-sensing images into various jobs-housing types. Considering Wuhan, one of the fastest developing cities in China, as a case study area, (...) three jobs-housing types at the land-parcel level are obtained. We demonstrate that the multiscale random sampling method can reduce the influence of image noise, increase the utilization of training data, and reduce network overfitting. By altering the network structure and the training strategy, BagNet achieved excellent fitting accuracy for identifying each jobs-housing type. For the first time, we demonstrate that urban socioeconomic characteristics can be obtained from high-resolution RS images using deep learning techniques. Additionally, we conclude that the total level of mixing within Wuhan is not high at present; however, Wuhan is continuously improving the mixture of jobs and housing. This study has reference value for extracting urban socioeconomic characteristics from RS images and could be used in urban planning as well as government management. (shrink)
An exhaustive work on Confucius' pedagogic thinking by Chen Jingpan, who is among modern China's first group of scholars with a doctoral degree in education. He started his research into Confucius' teachings on education as early as the 1930s, and the present book, written in English, is the fruit of his long years of study. Chapters: the importance of a scientific study of Confucius; the place of Confucius in Chinese civilization; honors, titles, and ranks conferred upon Confucius throughout Chinese history; (...) modern attitudes towards Confucius; the objective of this study of the philosophy of Confucius, to show the place of Confucius as a teacher, and his contribution as a teacher. (shrink)
Amid the social background of China where the Internet has penetrated into every corner of an adolescent’s life, we were concerned of the role of Internet usage in influencing the educational gap among social classes. We investigated the mediating role of Internet usage preference for entertainment in the relationship between the family socioeconomic status and the adolescent’s academic achievement and explored the moderating role of future orientation in the relationship. A total of 614 junior high school students were recruited to (...) complete a questionnaire survey, including questionnaires for family SES, Internet usage preference, and adolescent future orientation. The results showed that the relationship between family SES and academic achievement was mediated by Internet usage preference for entertainment; the indirect effect was moderated by future orientation, such that the negative association between family SES and Internet usage preference for entertainment was only indicated in adolescents with low future orientation; and the direct association between family SES and Internet usage preference for entertainment was moderated by future orientation. (shrink)
ABSTRACTThe present study examined the effect of stimulus valence on two levels of selection in the cognitive system, selection of a task-set and selection of a response. In the first experiment, participants performed a spatial compatibility task in which stimulus-response mappings were determined by stimulus valence. There was a standard spatial stimulus-response compatibility effect for positive stimuli and a reversed SRC effect for negative stimuli, but the same data could be interpreted as showing faster responses when positive and negative stimuli (...) were assigned to compatible and incompatible mappings, respectively, than when the assignment was opposite. Experiment 2 disentangled these interpretations, showing that valence did not influence a spatial SRC effect when task-set retrieval was unnecessary. Experiments 3 and 4 replaced keypress responses with joystick deflections that afforded appr... (shrink)
There is a high need for cognition on earthquake risk to improve the public’s risk knowledge and risk awareness, so that they can make right decisions and take quick actions regarding mitigation measures and adjustments. In this study, search engine query data from the Baidu Index were extracted to reveal the information search behaviors of the Chinese public regarding the earthquake risk from 2010 to 2012. The data were also analyzed to discuss the characteristics of need for cognition on a (...) nationwide scale and over the long term. The results showed that graphic representations of need for cognition adhere to a “half-peak pattern” before and after earthquake events and dimensions in psychological distance theory, such as temporal distance, spatial distance, and social distance influence the need for cognition on earthquake risk that was the time and spatial discount effect. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication and management are discussed and concluded. (shrink)
We show that the algebra of the group SL(2, C) naturally leads to the notion of gyrogroups and gyrovector spaces for dealing with the Lorentz group and its underlying hyperbolic geometry. The superiority of the use of the gyrogroup formalism over the use of the SL(2, C) formalism for dealing with the Lorentz group in some cases is indicated by (i) the validity of gyrogroups and gyrovector spaces in higher dimensions, by (ii) the analogies that they share with groups and (...) vector spaces, and by (iii) the demonstration that gyrovector spaces form the setting for hyperbolic geometry in the same way that vector spaces form the setting for Euclidean geometry. As such, gyrogroups and gyrovector spaces provide powerful tools for the study of relativity physics. (shrink)
The present study examines how collectivism, an important cultural value, plays a moderating role in the association between job attitudes and actual turnover in a sample of 781 Chinese female workers. Results show that collectivism moderates the relationships between job attitude variables and turnover intention. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are more powerful in predicting turnover intention when levels of collectivism are high rather than low. However, collectivism only moderates the mediation of turnover intention in the relationship between job satisfaction (...) and actual turnover. The study deepens the understanding of the moderating effect of cultural values in organizational behavioral outcomes as Taras et al. suggest. Also discussed are the practical implications on how to control the voluntary termination of female laborers who constitute an important part in Chinese manufacturing. (shrink)
Hengxian, one of the bamboo books of the Chu State during the Warring States Period that is kept in the Shanghai Museum, was collected by the museum in 1994, and is an important piece of literature that discusses cosmic issues prior to Huainanzi. Based on Li Lingâs work on the text, as well as hermeneutic work by some other scholars, this essay represents another attempt to determine the words and meanings of the Hengxian, with a focus on its cosmological commentary.
Hyperbolic vectors are called gyrovectors. We show that the Bloch vector of quantum mechanics is a gyrovector. The Bures fidelity between two states of a qubit is generated by two Bloch vectors. Treating these as gyrovectors rather than vectors results in our novel expression for the Bures fidelity, expressed in terms of its two generating Bloch gyrovectors. Taming the Thomas precession of Einstein's special theory of relativity led to the advent of the theory of gyrogroups and gyrovector spaces. Gyrovector spaces, (...) in turn, form the setting for various models of the hyperbolic geometry of Bolyai and Lobachevski just as vector spaces form the setting for the standard model of Euclidean geometry. It is the recent advent of the theory of gyrogroups and gyrovector spaces that allows the Bures fidelity to be studied in its natural context, hyperbolic geometry, resulting in our new representation of the Bures fidelity, that reveals simplicity, elegance, and hyperbolic geometric significance. (shrink)
Most children experience some form of grouping in the classroom every day. Understanding how teachers make grouping decisions and their impacts on children’s social development can shed light on effective teacher practices for promoting positive social dynamics in the classroom. This study examined the influence of teachers’ grouping strategies on changes in young children’s social experiences with peers across an academic year. A total of 1,463 children and 79 teachers from kindergarten to third-grade classrooms participated in this study. Teachers rated (...) children’s behavioral problems as the most important consideration when creating seating charts or assigning children to small groups. Promoting existing or new friendships was rated as the least important consideration. Heterogeneous ability grouping, rated as somewhat important by the teachers, was associated with a decrease in children’s friendships and yet also a decrease in girls’ experience with peer conflicts. Our findings begin to fill in the gaps in the literature on the social impacts of ability grouping for young children. (shrink)