"The Spanish original, 'La rebelión de las masas,' was published by 1930; this translation, authorized by Sr. Ortega y Gasset, remains anonymous at the translator's request." Contents: 1. The Coming of the Masses 2. The Rise of the Historical Level 3. The Height of the Times 4. The Increase of Life 5. A Statistical Fact 6. The Dissection of the Mass-Man Begins 7. Noble Life and Common Life, or Effort and Inertia 8. Why the Masses Intervene in Everything, and (...) Why Their Intervention is Solely by Violence 9. The Primitive and the Technical 10. Primitivism and History 11. The Self-Satisfied Age 12. The Barbarism of “Specialisation” 13. The Greatest Danger, the State 14. Who Rules the World 15. We Arrive at the Real Question. (shrink)
Cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster RCTs) randomize whole clusters of individuals in testing two or more competing interventions. Here we will present the ethical problems raised by cluster RCTs concerning their effect on inequality. We argue that some inequalities generated by cluster RCTs are larger in scope than those generated from individual RCTs. We also argue that any cluster RCT-generated inequalities, which divide groups rather than individuals, are more problematic in type than the inequalities created in individual RCTs. These concerns (...) should be taken into consideration when designing research at the cluster level, and those conducting the research should consider modified research design strategies in cases where they believe the risk of generating inequalities is large. (shrink)
Appearing in English for the first time, this book comprises two of Ortega’s most important works, ¿Qué es conocimiento? and the essay “Ideas y creencias.” This is Ortega’s attempt to systematically present the foundations of his metaphysics of human life and, on that basis, to provide a radical philosophical account of knowledge. In so doing, he criticizes idealism and overcomes it. Accordingly, this book goes well beyond a treatise on epistemology; in fact, as understood in modern philosophy, this (...) discipline and its questions are shown to be derivative and, in that sense, they are transcended here by Ortega’s systematic effort. -/- Written during the time of his maturity, these works are representative of his fruitful and radical period. Both ¿Qué es conocimiento? and “Ideas y creencias” are equally decisive not only for the understanding and radical completion of Ortega’s work, but also for their relevance to the work of continental philosophers during the same period and for years to come (e.g., Husserl, Jaspers, Heidegger, Sartre, and others). (shrink)
This chapter shows that despite cultural and linguistic differences John Dewey and José Ortega y Gasset have similar starting points in their philosophies. The chapter hopes to show that in spite of the difference in the vocabulary which each invokes to point to the starting point of his philosophical investigations, and in spite of the disparity in the detritus of their different philosophical backgrounds with which each is encumbered, their starting points are much the same. The importance of this (...) is that at the root of a philosophical vision is something which, once we recognize it, we find it is surprisingly simple, and second that the root idea must be “viewed from” to understand that vision, in order to be unearthed and unambiguously communicated to a philosophical audience. (shrink)
This original study intertwining Latina feminism, existential phenomenology, and race theory offers a new philosophical approach to understanding selfhood and identity. Focusing on writings by Gloría Anzaldúa, María Lugones, and Linda Martín Alcoff, Mariana Ortega articulates a phenomenology that introduces a conception of selfhood as both multiple and singular. Her Latina feminist phenomenological approach can account for identities belonging simultaneously to different worlds, including immigrants, exiles, and inhabitants of borderlands. Ortega’s project forges new directions not only in Latina (...) feminist thinking on such issues as borders, mestizaje, marginality, resistance, and identity politics, but also connects this analysis to the existential phenomenology of Martin Heidegger and to such concepts as being-in-the-world, authenticity, and intersubjectivity. The pairing of the personal and the political in Ortega’s work is illustrative of the primacy of lived experience in the development of theoretical understandings of who we are. In addition to bringing to light central metaphysical issues regarding the temporality and continuity of the self, Ortega models a practice of philosophy that draws from work in other disciplines and that recognizes the important contributions of Latina feminists and other theorists of color to philosophical pursuits. (shrink)
Huescar presents a systematic critique of idealism and modernity, framing Edmund Husserl's phenomenological philosophy as the most refined and far-reaching version of idealism. Contents: Prologue / Julian Marias -- Pt. I. A Textual Exposition of Ortega's Critique of Idealism. Ch. 1. A Conceptual Introduction to Ortega's Critique of Idealism. Ch. 2. Ortega's Straightforward Critique of Idealism Properly So Called. Ch. 3. Ortega's Critique of Phenomenological Philosophy as the Most Recent Historical Form of Idealism -- Pt. II. (...)Ortega's Overcoming of Idealism. Toward the System of Life Categories. Ch. 4. The Categories of Life. (shrink)
The aim of this article is to examine whether informational manipulation, used intentionally by the researcher to increase recruitment in the research study, can be morally acceptable. We argue that this question is better answered by following a non-normative account, according to which the ethical justifiability of informational manipulation should not be relevant to its definition. The most appropriate criterion by which informational manipulation should be considered as morally acceptable or not is the researcher’s special moral duties towards their subjects. (...) We also propose that a broader definition of manipulation of information should be adopted (than that already existing in the literature) since informational manipulation can affect not only a person’s beliefs but also their desires in decision-making. We conclude that manipulation of information can either be used to protect the potential subject and facilitate the informed consent process or be used to exploit and merely use a person for scientific goals. (shrink)
Translation of "Origen y epílogo de la filosofía" (1960). Contents: Editor's Note; 1. The Philosophic Past; 2. Aspects and the Entirety; 3. Dialectical Series; The Unity of Philosophy; 5. The Authentic Name; Philosophy Embarks on the Discovery of Another World; 7. Man's Permanent Possibilities; 8. The Attitude of Parmenides and Heraclitus; 9. Philosophy and a Period of Freedom; 10. The Historical Origin of the Profession of Philosophy. "This concise, elegant essay on the roots and historical justification of philosophy marks a (...) decisive step in posing the problem of what philosophy is.". (shrink)
Many word forms in natural language are polysemous, but only some of them allow for co-predication, that is, they allow for simultaneous predications selecting for two different meanings or senses of a nominal in a sentence. In this paper, we try to explain (i) why some groups of senses allow co-predication and others do not, and (ii) how we interpret co-predicative sentences. The paper focuses on those groups of senses that allow co-predication in an especially robust and stable way. We (...) argue, using these cases, but focusing particularly on the multiply polysemous word ‘school’, that the senses involved in co-predication form especially robust activation packages, which allow hearers and readers to access all the different senses in interpretation. (shrink)
Clinical research under the usual regulatory constraints may be difficult or even impossible in a public health emergency. Regulators must seek to strike a good balance in granting as wide therapeutic access to new drugs as possible at the same time as gathering sound evidence of safety and effectiveness. To inform current policy, I reexamine the philosophical rationale for restricting new medicines to clinical trials, at any stage and for any population of patients (which resides in the precautionary principle), to (...) show that its objective to protect public health, now or in the future, could soon be defeated in a pandemic. Providing wider therapeutic access and coordinating observations and natural experiments, including service delivery by cluster (wedged cluster trials), may provide such a balance. However, there are important questions of fairness to resolve before any such research can proceed. (shrink)
The aim of this essay is to carry out an analysis of the multi-voiced, multi-cultural self discussed by Latina feminists in light of a Heideggerian phenomenological account of persons or "Existential Analytic." In so doing, it (a) points out similarities as well as differences between the Heideggerian description of the self and Latina feminists' phenomenological accounts of self, and (b) critically assesses María Lugones's important notion of "world-traveling." In the end, the essay defends the view of a "multiplicitous" self which (...) takes insights from Lugones's view of the self that "travels 'worlds'" and from other Latina feminists' accounts of self as well as from Martin Heidegger's account of Dasein. (shrink)
RESUMEN Este artículo explora si hay algún fundamento sólido para atribuir a Leonardo da Vinci prioridad en la formulación del símil que lleva a concebir el ojo como una cámara obscura. Aquí, se defiende una posición pesimista. No obstante, el artículo resalta algunos aportes del pintor renacentista que pueden considerarse contribuciones a la consolidación del símil. ABSTRACT The article explores whether there is any solid basis for attributing to Leonardo da Vinci the priority in formulating the simile that leads to (...) conceiving the eye as a camera obscura. Here, a pessimistic position is defended, however, the article highlights some of Leonardo's contributions to the consolidation of the simile. (shrink)
Neste artigo, estudamos as características que o filósofo espanhol Ortega y Gasset atribuiu à vida. Mostramos que o essencial de sua meditação girou em torno do assunto. No entanto, o tema ganhou densidade metafísica somente no final dos anos 1920, quando suas considerações foram inseridas na tradição filosófica do ocidente. Foi quando ele apontou a insuficiência do realismo e do idealismo na abordagem do fundamento pretendido pela Filosofia e apresentou a filosofia da razão vital como um passo adiante das (...) duas grandes perspectivas filosóficas que marcaram a história da metafísica. In this article, we study the characteristics that the Spanish philosopher Ortega y Gasset attributed to life. We show that the essence of his meditations revolved around the subject. However, the issue gained metaphysical density only in the late 1920s, when his remarks were inserted into the philosophical tradition of the West. That is when he pointed out the failure of realism and idealism in the approach to foundations pretended by philosophy, and presented the philosophy of vital reason as a step forward from the two great philosophical perspectives that have marked the history of metaphysics. (shrink)
La “percepción” es uno de los elementos imprescindibles para la comprensión del pensamiento orteguiano: es la vía por la que nuestra consciencia se abre a lo circundante, fundamento de toda perspectiva y, en consecuencia, elemento fundamental para el autor. A su vez, es uno de los elementos que convierte al pensador madrileño en uno de los estudiosos más originales en este campo. El presente artículo pretende mostrar cómo, para Ortega, ya desde sus inicios, su filosofía de la percepción –de (...) matriz perspectivista–, al fundamentarse en la mundaneidad del individuo y apoyar su percepción cognoscitiva sobre el fenómeno de la atención, incluye o muda, de un modo nada forzado, a una filosofía de la cultura, pues cuando Ortega habla de percepción, lo hace siempre en tanto percepción con predicados culturales. Fue Ortega uno de los primeros en advertir lo ineludible de dicha cualidad. (shrink)
Ligado directamente a la dinámica de los movimientos renovadores del arte que surgieron en la España de los años veinte, el texto de Ortega y Gasset ofrece unas perspectivas más amplias y entronca con la renovación de la estética y la historia del arte que había iniciado la tradición teórica e historiográfica alemana a finales del siglo XIX. Ofrecemos, además otros escritos que, como «¿Una exposición Zuloaga?», «La Gioconda», «Diálogo sobre el arte nuevo», «Ensayo de estética a manera de (...) prólogo» y «Sobre la crítica del arte», permiten una mejor comprensión del pensamiento de Ortega y del debate artístico y estético en España. La presente edición va precedida de un prólogo de Valeriano Bozal. (shrink)
En este artículo defendemos el valor de la perspectiva de Ortega sobre el problema del anacronismo en historia. Para ello, exponemos dicho problema en la Escuela de París. Seguidamente, explicamos las aportaciones de Ortega sobre ese problema en los años 40. Finalmente, hacemos un balance de las aportaciones de Ortega y su actualidad.
Contents: The Sportive Origin of the State – Unity and Diversity of Europe – Man the Technician – History as a System. Translation of "El origen deportivo del Estado"; (1924); "Prólogo para franceses" (1937); and Meditación de la técnica (1939). "History as a System" was published originally in English in Philosophy and History: Essays Presented to Ernst Cassirer. Edited by Raymond Klibansky and H. J. Paton. Oxford: at the Clarendon Press (London, H. Milford), 1936, pp. 283-322.
The aim of this essay is to analyze the notion of “loving, knowing ignorance,” a type of “arrogant perception” that produces ignorance about women of color and their work at the same time that it proclaims to have both knowledge about and loving perception toward them. The first part discusses Marilyn Frye's accounts of “arrogant” as well as of “loving” perception and presents an explanation of “loving, knowing ignorance.” The second part discusses the work of Audre Lorde, Elizabeth Spelman, and (...) María Lugones in their attempts to deal with the issue of arrogant perception within feminism, and examines how Lugones's notion of “‘world’-traveling” may help us deal with “loving, knowing ignorance.” Ultimately, the author suggests that we need to become aware of instances of “loving, knowing ignorance,” especially if we are to stay true to Third Wave feminism's commitment to diversity. (shrink)
Includes "The Sportive Origin of the State" (El origen deportivo del Estado, 1924); "Unity and Disunity of Europe" (Prólogo para franceses, 1937); "Man the Technician" (Meditación de la técnica, 1939); and "History as a System" (Historia como sistema, 1935).
Originally published 1961. Translation of "Meditaciones del Quijote :Meditacion preliminar. Meditacion primera." (1914). Contents: Reader...; Preliminary Meditation; First Meditation (Brief Treatise on the Novel).
Page generated Sat Jul 24 05:08:48 2021 on philpapers-web-786f65f869-f4vwm
cache stats: hit=25415, miss=26751, save= autohandler : 2141 ms called component : 2116 ms search.pl : 1938 ms render loop : 1601 ms addfields : 898 ms publicCats : 730 ms next : 622 ms initIterator : 333 ms quotes : 148 ms menu : 120 ms retrieve cache object : 118 ms save cache object : 118 ms search_quotes : 80 ms autosense : 42 ms match_cats : 37 ms prepCit : 31 ms applytpl : 9 ms match_other : 3 ms intermediate : 2 ms match_authors : 1 ms init renderer : 1 ms setup : 0 ms auth : 0 ms writelog : 0 ms