This article reviews the effects of malnutrition on early brain development using data generated from animal experiments and human clinical studies. Three related processes, each with their own functional consequences, are implicated in the alteration of brain development. (1) Maternal undernutrition at the start of pregnancy results in reduced transfer of nutrients across the placenta, allowing the conservation of effort for future reproductive episodes. (2) Differential allocation to growing organs by the fetus in response to nutritional stress spares the brain (...) to a large though still limited degree, reflecting the organ’s relative contribution to survival and reproductive success. (3) Prenatal malnutrition disrupts developing neurotransmitter systems, which results in the expression of specific cognitive and affective traits. It is argued that the increasing size and therefore cost of the brain, in conjunction with increasing ecological instability and marginality, reinforced selection for maternally controlled growth suppression of offspring, reallocation of organ growth rates by offspring, and behavioral changes related to development of neurotransmitter systems. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to bring to light all the available information upon the circumstances and import of the course on "Matter and spirit. The system of atomist logic" that Bertrand Russell gave in Barcelona in the spring of 1920, which has received no attention to date. The paper relies upon the letters kept at the Russell Archives and the papers left by the two Catalan philosophers who were the organizers of Russell's visit, Joan Crexells (1896-1926) and (...) Eugenio d'Ors (1881-1954). Also a tentative assessment of Russell's influence on Spanish philosophy is put forward. -/- . (shrink)
This article examines Artaud's 1920s cinema texts, arguing that like other theorists writing at the time, Artaud envisaged the medium of cinema as capable of forging new types of corporeal experience, both through the types of bodies that were portrayed onscreen, and their relationship to the body of the audience, conceived as collective force rather than an individual spectator. It pays particular attention to Artaud's theories of corporeal materiality, and argues that these are relevant to more recent approaches to embodiment (...) and identification in film studies. Whilst Artaud never successfully put his own cinematic theories into practice, these are discussed in relation to Carl Theodor Dreyer's The Passion of Joan of Arc ( La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc , 1928), a film which puts distinctions between bodies into question in an unprecedented manner. Finally, through an analysis of the various different critical interpretations of Dreyer's film, the article considers the difficulties inherent in the notion of a universally intelligible affective body, arguing that there is a distinction to be made between a fascist appropriation of collective affect, and a type of body that overcomes the boundaries between self and other. (shrink)
NOTES: Based on the book Socrates on trial written by Andrew Irvine and published by the University of Toronto Press. Performed at the Chan Centre for the Performing Arts, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, May 31-June 7, 2008. CONTENTS: Trailer, Who was Socrates?, Selected scenes, The production, Credits. UBC Library Catalogue Permanent URL: http://resolve.library.ubc.ca/cgi-bin/catsearch?bid=3956307.
Marjolaine Deschênes | : C’est surtout de Joan C. Tronto que les ambassadrices du care se réclament en France, davantage que de Carol Gilligan. Je montre ici qu’une certaine tendance du discours français sur le care peut être diagnostiquée comme le symptôme d’une culture désenchantée, dépouillant le monde non de ses dieux, mais de ses dimensions esthétique, artistique et imaginative. Le renversement que ce discours tend à opérer, de la figure morale de l’autonomie à celle de la vulnérabilité, illustrerait (...) ce « symptôme ». C’est plus précisément l’idée du care comme « maintien du monde » chez Tronto que je critique, puisque l’auteure exclut de ces activités les domaines esthétique, artistique et intellectuel. Je discute trois auteures ayant déjà critiqué cette notion de care, qui chacune font progresser mon propos vers ce que je considère être un oubli du monde « existentiellement » habitable chez la philosophe. Enfin je contribue à combler ce qui manque dans la théorie de Tronto, soit un horizon esthétique et une réflexion sur le langage qui s’encastre dans une herméneutique du soi. Je me penche alors sur un care qui consiste à veiller sur la « fragilité du langage politique » chez Paul Ricoeur. Je conclus que s’agissant de faire du care une valeur publique à la fois féministe et soucieuse non seulement de la vie, mais aussi du monde, les activités artistiques, intellectuelles et éducationnelles sont de loin les plus efficaces, contrairement à ce que Tronto semble penser. | : In France, the ambassadresses of care ethics mainly align themselves with Joan C. Tronto’s theory—rather more than with Carol Gilligan’s. Here I want to state that a certain tendency of French discourse of “care” might be diagnosed as a symptom of a disenchanted culture, since it strips the world of its aesthetic, artistic, and imaginative dimensions. I contend that we can find the best illustration of this symptom when that discourse tends to shift from the moral figure of autonomy to the moral figure of vulnerability. More precisely, I aim to challenge Tronto’s idea of “care” as a “maintaining of the world”, since she excludes from it the areas of aesthetics, the arts, and intellectual activities. I shall discuss three authors who have already criticized Tronto’s notion of “care”. Each of them presents an opportunity for me to refine my reflection on what I consider to be Tronto’s disregard for an existentially liveable world. Finally, I help to fill in what is lacking from Tronto’s theory —that is to say, an aesthetic horizon and a real reflection on language, a reflection framed by a hermeneutics of the self. To this end, I focus on a “care” consisting in keeping watch over the “political language’s fragility” in Paul Ricoeur. I conclude by stating that if we really want to make “care” a public value, this feminist value should be concerned not only with life, but also with world. Artistic, intellectual, and educational activities are by far the most efficient at making such a value public. (shrink)
While best known for the immensely popular and controversial novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe is also the author of an extensive body of additional work on American culture and politics. Playing many roles--journalist, pamphleteer, novelist, preacher, and advisor on domestic affairs--Stowe used the written word as a vehicle for religious, social, and political commentaries, often leavening them with entertainment in order to reach a broad audience. She had a profound effect on American culture, not because her ideas were (...) unique, but because they were common. What made her so radical was that she insisted on putting her ideas into action. The Oxford Harriet Beecher Stowe Reader offers a focused collection of Stowe's writings from the 1830s through the 1860s. Illustrating her broad range, rhetorical strategies, and cultural designs on the world, it is ideal for courses in nineteenth-century American literature, women's literature, and American history. The volume collects those selections best suited for classroom use, reprinting many pieces here for the first time. Editor Joan D. Hedrick provides a substantial introduction that assesses Stowe's vital impact on nineteenth-century American literature, politics, and culture. The readings are divided into three sections: Early Sketches, Antislavery Writings, and Domestic Culture and Politics. Early Sketches presents the finest writing of Stowe's literary apprenticeship. Antislavery Writings includes Uncle Tom's Cabin in its entirety, placing it in the context of Stowe's considerable and often-overlooked body of other antislavery writings. This section also includes a generous selection from A Key To Uncle Tom's Cabin, a companion volume to the novel. Domestic Culture and Politics shows the scope of Stowe's thinking on the Victorian home, for which she was a major propagandist. The inclusion here of "The True Story of Lady Byron's Life," an exposé of male debauchery and incest at the core of a nineteenth-century home, represents Stowe's willingness to tackle the most challenging political and social issues of her time. (shrink)