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Johan Graafland [23]Johan J. Graafland [15]
  1.  31
    Strategies and Instruments for Organising CSR by Small and Large Businesses in the Netherlands.Johan Graafland, Bert van de Ven & Nelleke Stoffele - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 47 (1):45-60.
    This paper analyses the use of strategies and instruments for organising ethics by small and large business in the Netherlands. We find that large firms mostly prefer an integrity strategy to foster ethical behaviour in the organisation, whereas small enterprises prefer a dialogue strategy. Both large and small firms make least use of a compliance strategy that focuses on controlling and sanctioning the ethical behaviour of workers. The size of the business is found to have a positive impact on the (...)
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  2. Adam Smith’s Bourgeois Virtues in Competition.Thomas Wells & Johan Graafland - 2012 - Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (2):319-350.
    Whether or not capitalism is compatible with ethics is a long standing dispute. We take up an approach to virtue ethics inspired by Adam Smith and consider how market competition influences the virtues most associated with modern commercial society. Up to a point, competition nurtures and supports such virtues as prudence, temperance, civility, industriousness and honesty. But there are also various mechanisms by which competition can have deleterious effects on the institutions and incentives necessary for sustaining even these most commercially (...)
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  3.  15
    Decoupling Among CSR Policies, Programs, and Impacts: An Empirical Study.Hugo Smid & Johan Graafland - 2019 - Business and Society 58 (2):231-267.
    There are relatively few empirical studies on the impacts of corporate social responsibility policies and programs. This article addresses the research gap by analyzing the incidence of, and the conditions that affect, decoupling among CSR policies, implementation of CSR programs, and CSR impacts for various environmental and social issues. Complete decoupling is a condition of full divergence among policies, programs, and impacts amounting to purely ceremonial CSR. Using ratings from a sustainability rating agency on a sample of about 1,000 large (...)
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  4.  29
    The Credit Crisis and the Moral Responsibility of Professionals in Finance.Johan J. Graafland & Bert W. van de Ven - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 103 (4):605-619.
    Starting from MacIntyre’s virtue ethics, we investigate several codes of conduct of banks to identify the type of virtues that are needed to realize their mission. Based on this analysis, we define three core virtues: honesty, due care, and accuracy. We compare and contrast these codes of conduct with the actual behavior of banks that led to the credit crisis and find that in some cases banks did not behave according to the moral standards they set themselves. However, although banks (...)
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  5.  31
    The Credit Crisis and the Moral Responsibility of Professionals in Finance.Johan J. Graafland & Bert W. Ven - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 103 (4):605-619.
    Starting from MacIntyre’s virtue ethics, we investigate several codes of conduct of banks to identify the type of virtues that are needed to realize their mission. Based on this analysis, we define three core virtues: honesty, due care, and accuracy. We compare and contrast these codes of conduct with the actual behavior of banks that led to the credit crisis and find that in some cases banks did not behave according to the moral standards they set themselves. However, although banks (...)
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  6.  17
    Religiosity, Attitude, and the Demand for Socially Responsible Products.Johan Graafland - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (1):121-138.
    In this paper, we examine the relationship between various Christian denominations and attitude and behavior regarding consumption of socially responsible products. Literature on the relationship between religiosity and pro-social behavior has shown that religiosity strengthens positive attitudes towards pro-social behavior, but does not affect social behavior itself. This seems to contradict the theory of planned behavior that predicts that attitude fosters behavior. One would therefore expect that if religiosity encourages attitude towards SR products, it would also increase the demand for (...)
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  7.  37
    Corporate Social Responsibility in China: Implementation and Challenges.Johan Graafland & Lei Zhang - 2014 - Business Ethics: A European Review 23 (1):34-49.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming increasingly important in China. This paper investigates the implementation of instruments for dimensions of CSR that are relevant for the Chinese context and the challenges that Chinese companies face. Based on a survey among 109 Chinese companies, we find that formal instruments to implement CSR are rather common. Companies spend most effort in improving the economic aspects of CSR, such as competitiveness, product innovation and process innovation. Only a small minority of the companies set (...)
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  8.  40
    Sourcing Ethics in the Textile Sector: The Case of C&A.Johan J. Graafland - 2002 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 11 (3):282–294.
    During the last years competition in the textile sector has increased, putting financial returns under considerable pressure. As a result, production has shifted to low wage countries in the third world. This has raised the relevance of ethical procedures. This paper analyses how C&A, as one of the largest Western apparel companies, organises its sourcing ethics, notwithstanding the financial pressure in the market. Based on interviews with Asian suppliers of C&A during the second half of 2000, we review the opinions (...)
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  9.  32
    Religiosity, CSR Attitudes, and CSR Behavior: An Empirical Study of Executives’ Religiosity and CSR.Corrie Mazereeuw-van der Duijn Schouten, Johan Graafland & Muel Kaptein - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (3):437-459.
    In this paper, we examine the relationship between Christian religiosity, attitudes towards corporate social responsibility, and CSR behavior of executives. We distinguish four types of CSR attitudes and five types of CSR behavior. Based on empirical research conducted among 473 Dutch executives, we find that CSR attitudes mediate the influence of religiosity on CSR behavior. Intrinsic religiosity positively affects the ethical CSR attitude and negatively affects the financial CSR attitude, whereas extrinsic religiosity stimulates the philanthropic CSR attitude. Financial, ethical, and (...)
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  10.  52
    CSR, Transparency and the Role of Intermediate Organisations.Wim Dubbink, Johan Graafland & Luc van Liedekerke - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):391 - 406.
    Transparency is a crucial condition to implement a CSR policy based on the reputation mechanism. The central question of this contribution is how a transparency policy ought to be organised in order to enhance the CSR behaviour of companies. Governments endorsing CSR as a new means of governance have different strategies to foster CSR transparency. In this paper we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of two conventional policy strategies: the facilitation policy and the command and control strategy. Using three criteria (...)
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  11.  44
    Business Dilemmas and Religious Belief: An Explorative Study Among Dutch Executives.Johan Graafland, Muel Kaptein & Corrie Mazereeuw-van der Duijn Schouten - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 66 (1):53-70.
    This paper explores the relationship between religious belief and the dilemmas Dutch executives confront in daily business practice. We find that the frequency with which dilemmas arise is directly related to various aspects of religious belief, such as the belief in a transcendental being and the intensity of religious practice. Despite this relationship, only 17% of the dilemmas examined involve a religious standard. Most dilemmas originate from a conflict between moral and practical standards. We also find that 79% of the (...)
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  12.  57
    Benchmarking of Corporate Social Responsibility: Methodological Problems and Robustness. [REVIEW]Johan J. Graafland, S. C. W. Eijffinger & H. SmidJohan - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):137-152.
    This paper investigates the possibilities and problems of benchmarking Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). After a methodological analysis of the advantages and problems of benchmarking, we develop a benchmark method that includes economic, social and environmental aspects as well as national and international aspects of CSR. The overall benchmark is based on a weighted average of these aspects. The weights are based on the opinions of companies and NGO's. Using different methods of weighting, we find that the outcome of the benchmark (...)
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  13.  40
    Profits and Principles: Four Perspectives. [REVIEW]Johan J. Graafland - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 35 (4):293 - 305.
    This article clarifies the relationship between profits and principles by distinguishing four alternative perspectives: the win-win perspective in which ethical behaviour generates the highest profits; a licence-to-operate perspective in which a minimum ethical performance is required to receive legitimation from the society; an acceptable profits perspective, in which an acceptable profitability is required to assure the financial continuity; and an integrated perspective. These four perspectives are illustrated by statements from Shell reports and from interviews with managers of a large European (...)
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  14.  24
    Collusion, Reputation Damage and Interest in Codes of Conduct: The Case of a Dutch Construction Company.Johan J. Graafland - 2004 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 13 (2-3):127-142.
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  15.  8
    CSR, Transparency and the Role of Intermediate Organisations.Wim Dubbink, Johan Graafland & Luc Liedekerke - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):391-406.
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  16.  81
    Concepts of Price Fairness: Empirical Research Into the Dutch Coffee Market.Robert Gielissen & Johan Graafland - 2009 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 18 (2):165-178.
    This paper researches perceptions of the concept of price fairness in the Dutch coffee market. We distinguish four alternative standards of fair prices based on egalitarian, basic rights, capitalistic and libertarian approaches. We investigate which standards are guiding the perceptions of price fairness of citizens and coffee trade organizations. We find that there is a divergence in views between citizens and key players in the coffee market. Whereas citizens support the concept of fairness derived from the basic rights approach, holding (...)
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  17.  7
    Collusion, Reputation Damage and Interest in Codes of Conduct: The Case of a Dutch Construction Company.Johan J. Graafland - 2004 - Business Ethics: A European Review 13 (2-3):127-142.
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  18.  7
    Concepts of Price Fairness: Empirical Research Into the Dutch Coffee Market.Robert Gielissen & Johan Graafland - 2009 - Business Ethics: A European Review 18 (2):165-178.
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  19.  36
    Distribution of Responsibility, Ability and Competition.Johan J. Graafland - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 45 (1-2):133 - 147.
    This paper considers the distribution of responsibility for prevention of negative social or ecological effects of production and consumption. Responsibility is related to ability and ability depends on welfare. An increase in competition between Western companies depresses their profitability, but increases the welfare of Western consumers and,hence, their ability to acknowledge social values. Therefore, an increase in competition on consumer markets shifts the balance in responsibility from companies to consumers to prevent negative external effects from production and consumption patterns. An (...)
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  20.  21
    Conceptions of God, Normative Convictions, and Socially Responsible Business Conduct An Explorative Study Among Executives.Johan Graafland, Muel Kaptein & Corrie Mazereeuw-van der Duijn Schouten - 2007 - Business and Society 46 (3):331-368.
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  21.  6
    Islam and Socially Responsible Business Conduct: An Empirical Study of Dutch Entrepreneurs.Johan Graafland, Corrie Mazereeuw & Aziza Yahia - 2006 - Business Ethics: A European Review 15 (4):390-406.
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  22.  12
    Islam and Socially Responsible Business Conduct: An Empirical Study of Dutch Entrepreneurs.Johan Graafland, Corrie Mazereeuw & Aziza Yahia - 2006 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 15 (4):390–406.
  23.  57
    Lying in Business: Insights From Hannah Arendt's 'Lying in Politics'.Piet Eenkhoorn & Johan J. Graafland - 2011 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 20 (4):359-374.
    The political philosopher Hannah Arendt develops several arguments regarding why truthfulness cannot be counted among the political virtues. This article shows that similar arguments apply to lying in business. Based on Hannah Arendt's theory, we distinguish five reasons why lying is a structural temptation to businessmen: business is about action to change the world and therefore businessmen need the capacity to deny current reality; commerce requires successful image-making and liars have the advantage to come up with plausible stories; business communication (...)
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  24.  11
    Lying in Business: Insights From Hannah Arendt's ‘Lying in Politics’.Piet Eenkhoorn & Johan J. Graafland - 2011 - Business Ethics: A European Review 20 (4):359-374.
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  25. Subsidiariteit, soevereiniteit in eigen kring en de bouwfraude.Mathilde Blok & Johan Graafland - 2004 - Philosophia Reformata 69 (1):2-13.
    Is Nederland een fraudeland geworden? Na alle berichten over boekhoudschandalen en het bekend worden van illegale prijsafspraken is het terecht dat die vraag wordt gesteld. Het oplichten van aandeelhouders of van klanten gaat in tegen verschillende ethische noties. Het verstrekken van onjuiste informatie is niet alleen vanuit een utilistisch standpunt verwerpelijk vanwege de economische schade die ontstaat doordat een optimale marktwerking belemmerd wordt. Ook vanuit een deontologisch perspectief staan de ethische seinen op rood: het bedriegen van aandeelhouders of klanten getuigt (...)
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  26.  1
    Tensions in the Paradigm of Environmental EconomicsAn Analysis Inspired by Dooyeweerd’s Philosophy.Ad van Geesbergen, Johan Graafland & Jan Hoogland - 2020 - Philosophia Reformata 85 (1):66-88.
    This article critically analyzes the environmental economics paradigm of David Pearce and Robert Kerry Turner. Our analysis is inspired by the philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd, in particular his transcendental criticism and theory of modalities. We describe how Pearce and Turner theorize the concept of sustainable development. On the basis of this description we identify immanent tensions in their approach and analyze to what extent these tensions are caused by implicit normative presuppositions in the key concepts used by Pearce and Turner. (...)
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  27.  19
    Adam Smith as Theologian, Edited by Paul Oslington. London: Routledge, 2011, 146 Pp. [REVIEW]Johan Graafland - 2011 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 4 (2):109.
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  28.  19
    Christian Faith, Economy and the Economic Crisis.Johan J. Graafland - 2013 - Philosophia Reformata 78 (2):108-114.
    "We live in an uncertain world. The politics of the United States affects our lives more often than what is decided in the Hague or Brussels. Many people experience in their daily work a kind of powerlessness when they have to face the consequences of decisions that are taken far away, for example because they work with the daughter company of a multinational. More than ever we are depending on the “global economy”. We are — whether we like it or (...)
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  29.  8
    In Adam Smith’s Own Words: The Role of Virtues in the Relationship Between Free Market Economies and Societal Flourishing, A Semantic Network Data-Mining Approach.Johan Graafland & Thomas R. Wells - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 2020.
    Among business ethicists, Adam Smith is widely viewed as the defender of an amoral if not anti-moral economics in which individuals’ pursuit of their private self-interest is converted by an ‘invisible hand’ into shared economic prosperity. This is often justified by reference to a select few quotations from The Wealth of Nations. We use new empirical methods to investigate what Smith actually had to say, firstly about the relationship between free market institutions and individuals’ moral virtues, and secondly about the (...)
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  30.  38
    62 Self-Interest.Johan J. Graafland - 2009 - In Jan Peil & Irene van Staveren (eds.), Handbook of Economics and Ethics. Edward Elgar. pp. 477.
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  31.  7
    Tomas Sedlacek's Economics of Good and Evil: The Quest for Economic Meaning From Gilgamesh to Wall Street. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011, 384 Pp. [REVIEW]Johan Graafland - 2013 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 6 (2):108.
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  32. 72 Utilitarianism.Johan J. Graafland - 2009 - In Jan Peil & Irene van Staveren (eds.), Handbook of Economics and Ethics. Edward Elgar.
     
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