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  1.  5
    The behavioural ecology of irrational behaviours.Philippe Huneman & Johannes Martens - 2017 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 39 (3):23.
    Natural selection is often envisaged as the ultimate cause of the apparent rationality exhibited by organisms in their specific habitat. Given the equivalence between selection and rationality as maximizing processes, one would indeed expect organisms to implement rational decision-makers. Yet, many violations of the clauses of rationality have been witnessed in various species such as starlings, hummingbirds, amoebas and honeybees. This paper attempts to interpret such discrepancies between economic rationality and biological rationality. After having distinguished two kinds of rationality we (...)
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    Organisms in Evolution.Johannes Martens - 2010 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (2/3).
  3.  27
    Social Evolution and Strategic Thinking.Johannes Martens - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):697-715.
    Thinking about organisms as if they were rational agents which could choose their own phenotypic traits according to their fitness values is a common heuristic in the field of evolutionary theory. In a 1998 paper, however, Elliott Sober has emphasized several alleged shortcomings of this kind of analogical reasoning when applied to the analysis of social behaviors. According to him, the main flaw of this heuristic is that it proves to be a misleading tool when it is used for predicting (...)
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    Inclusive Fitness and the Maximizing-Agent Analogy.Johannes Martens - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axw003.
    ABSTRACT In social evolution theory, biological individuals are often represented on the model of rational agents, that is, as if they were ‘seeking’ to maximize their own reproductive success. In the 1990s, important criticisms of this mode of thinking were made by Brian Skyrms and Elliott Sober, who both argued that ‘rational agent’ models can lead to incorrect predictions when there are positive correlations between individuals’ phenotypes. In this article, I argue that one model of rational choice—namely, Savage’s model —can (...)
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