Results for 'John A. Dupre'

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John Dupre
University of Exeter
  1. A Manifesto for a Processual Philosophy of Biology.John A. Dupre & Daniel J. Nicholson - 2018 - In Daniel J. Nicholson & John A. Dupre (eds.), Everything Flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology.
    This chapter argues that scientific and philosophical progress in our understanding of the living world requires that we abandon a metaphysics of things in favour of one centred on processes. We identify three main empirical motivations for adopting a process ontology in biology: metabolic turnover, life cycles, and ecological interdependence. We show how taking a processual stance in the philosophy of biology enables us to ground existing critiques of essentialism, reductionism, and mechanicism, all of which have traditionally been associated with (...)
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  2.  78
    Size Doesn’T Matter: Towards a More Inclusive Philosophy of Biology. [REVIEW]Maureen A. O’Malley & John Dupré - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):155-191.
    Philosophers of biology, along with everyone else, generally perceive life to fall into two broad categories, the microbes and macrobes, and then pay most of their attention to the latter. ‘Macrobe’ is the word we propose for larger life forms, and we use it as part of an argument for microbial equality. We suggest that taking more notice of microbes – the dominant life form on the planet, both now and throughout evolutionary history – will transform some of the philosophy (...)
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  3.  77
    Fundamental Issues in Systems Biology.Maureen A. O'Malley & John Dupré - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (12):1270-1276.
  4.  38
    Towards a Philosophy of Microbiology.Maureen A. O’Malley & John Dupré - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (4):775-779.
  5.  34
    Introduction: Towards a Philosophy of Microbiology.Maureen A. O’Malley & John Dupré - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences.
  6. Varieties of Living Things: Life at the Intersection of Lineage and Metabolism.John Dupré & Maureen A. O'Malley - 2009 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 1 (20130604).
    We address three fundamental questions: What does it mean for an entity to be living? What is the role of inter-organismic collaboration in evolution? What is a biological individual? Our central argument is that life arises when lineage-forming entities collaborate in metabolism. By conceiving of metabolism as a collaborative process performed by functional wholes, which are associations of a variety of lineage-forming entities, we avoid the standard tension between reproduction and metabolism in discussions of life – a tension particularly evident (...)
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  7.  87
    Against Reductionist Explanations of Human Behaviour: John Dupré.John Dupré - 1998 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):153–172.
    [John Dupré] This paper attacks some prominent contemporary attempts to provide reductive accounts of ever wider areas of human behaviour. In particular, I shall address the claims of sociobiology (or evolutionary psychology) to provide a universal account of human nature, and attempts to subsume ever wider domains of behaviour within the scope of economics. I shall also consider some recent suggestions as to how these approaches might be integrated. Having rejected the imperialistic ambitions of these approaches, I shall briefly (...)
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  8. Everything Flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology.Daniel J. Nicholson & John Dupré (eds.) - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    This collection of essays explores the metaphysical thesis that the living world is not made up of substantial particles or things, as has often been assumed, but is rather constituted by processes. The biological domain is organised as an interdependent hierarchy of processes, which are stabilised and actively maintained at different timescales. Even entities that intuitively appear to be paradigms of things, such as organisms, are actually better understood as processes. Unlike previous attempts to articulate processual views of biology, which (...)
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  9. Towards a Processual Microbial Ontology.Eric Bapteste & John Dupre - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):379-404.
    Standard microbial evolutionary ontology is organized according to a nested hierarchy of entities at various levels of biological organization. It typically detects and defines these entities in relation to the most stable aspects of evolutionary processes, by identifying lineages evolving by a process of vertical inheritance from an ancestral entity. However, recent advances in microbiology indicate that such an ontology has important limitations. The various dynamics detected within microbiological systems reveal that a focus on the most stable entities (or features (...)
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  10.  66
    Probabilistic Causality: A Rejoinder to Ellery Eells.John Dupré - 1990 - Philosophy of Science 57 (4):690 - 698.
    In an earlier paper (Dupré 1984), I criticized a thesis sometimes defended by theorists of probabilistic causality, namely, that a probabilistic cause must raise the probability of its effect in every possible set of causally relevant background conditions (the "contextual unanimity thesis"). I also suggested that a more promising analysis of probabilistic causality might be sought in terms of statistical relevance in a fair sample. Ellery Eells (1987) has defended the contextual unanimity thesis against my objections, and also raised objections (...)
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  11. Metagenomics and Biological Ontology.John Dupré & Maureen A. O’Malley - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (4):834-846.
    Metagenomics is an emerging microbial systems science that is based on the large-scale analysis of the DNA of microbial communities in their natural environments. Studies of metagenomes are revealing the vast scope of biodiversity in a wide range of environments, as well as new functional capacities of individual cells and communities, and the complex evolutionary relationships between them. Our examination of this science focuses on the ontological implications of these studies of metagenomes and metaorganisms, and what they mean for common (...)
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  12.  73
    Human Nature and the Limits of Science.John Dupré - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    John Dupre warns that our understanding of human nature is being distorted by two faulty and harmful forms of pseudo-scientific thinking. Not just in the academic world but in everyday life, we find one set of experts who seek to explain the ends at which humans aim in terms of evolutionary theory, while the other set uses economic models to give rules of how we act to achieve those ends. Dupre demonstrates that these theorists' explanations do not (...)
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  13.  6
    Processes of Life: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology.John Dupré - 2011 - Oxford University Press UK.
    John Dupré explores recent revolutionary developments in biology and considers their relevance for our understanding of human nature and human society. Epigenetics and related areas of molecular biology have eroded the exceptional status of the gene and presented the genome as fully interactive with the rest of the cell. Developmental systems theory provides a space for a vision of evolution that takes full account of the fundamental importance of developmental processes. Dupré shows the importance of microbiology for a proper (...)
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  14.  45
    Could There Be a Science of Economics?John Dupré - 1993 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 18 (1):363-378.
    Much scientific thinking and thinking about science involves assumptions that there is a deep and pervasive order to the world that it is the business of science to disclose. A paradigmatic statement of such a view can be found in a widely discussed paper by a prominent economist, Milton Friedman (a paper which will be discussed in more detail shortly): A fundamental hypothesis of science is that appearances are deceptive and that there is a way of looking at or interpreting (...)
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  15.  53
    On the Impossibility of a Monistic Account of Species.John Dupré - 1999 - In Robert A. Wilson (ed.), Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays. Bradford Books. pp. 3-22.
  16.  7
    The Latest on the Best: Essays on Evolution and Optimality : Conference on Evolution and Information : Papers.John Dupré (ed.) - 1987 - MIT Press.
    Controversies about optimality models and adaptationist methodologies have animated the discussions of evolutionary theory in recent years. The sociobiologists, following the lead of E. O. Wilson, have argued that if Darwinian natural selection can be reliably expected to produce the best possible type of organism - one that optimizes the value of its genetic contribution to future generations - then evolution becomes a powerfully predictive theory as well as an explanatory one. The enthusiastic claims of the sociobiologists for the predictability (...)
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  17.  51
    A Process Ontology for Biology.John Dupré - 2014 - The Philosophers' Magazine 67:81-88.
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  18.  35
    Disciplinary Baptisms: A Comparison of the Naming Stories of Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genomics and Systems Biology.Alexander Powell, Maureen A. O'Malley, Staffan Mueller-Wille, Jane Calvert & John Dupré - 2007 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (1):5-32.
    Understanding how scientific activities use naming stories to achieve disciplinary status is important not only for insight into the past, but for evaluating current claims that new disciplines are emerging. In order to gain a historical understanding of how new disciplines develop in relation to these baptismal narratives, we compare two recently formed disciplines, systems biology and genomics, with two earlier related life sciences, genetics and molecular biology. These four disciplines span the twentieth century, a period in which the processes (...)
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  19.  11
    Aryeh Kosman is the John Whitehead Professor of Philosophy at Haver-Ford College in Haverford, Pennsylvania. He Works on the Interpretation of Ancient Philosophy, Particularly the Works of Plato and Aristotle. Zvi Biener is a Graduate Student at the University of Pittsburgh's Depart-Ment of History and Philosophy of Science. He Specializes in the History Of. [REVIEW]John Dupré & Stathis Psillos - 2004 - Perspectives on Science 12 (3).
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  20. Is ‘Natural Kind’ a Natural Kind Term?John Dupré - 2002 - The Monist 85 (1):29-49.
    The traditional home for the concept of a natural kind in biology is of course taxonomy, the sorting of organisms into a nested hierarchy of kinds. Many taxonomists and most philosophers of biology now deny that it is possible to sort organisms into natural kinds. Many do not think that biological taxonomy sorts them into kinds at all, but rather identifies them as parts of historical individuals. But at any rate if the species, genera and so on of biological taxonomy (...)
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  21.  93
    The Tree of Life: Introduction to an Evolutionary Debate. [REVIEW]Maureen A. O’Malley, William Martin & John Dupré - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):441-453.
    The ‘Tree of Life’ is intended to represent the pattern of evolutionary processes that result in bifurcating species lineages. Often justified in reference to Darwin’s discussions of trees, the Tree of Life has run up against numerous challenges especially in regard to prokaryote evolution. This special issue examines scientific, historical and philosophical aspects of debates about the Tree of Life, with the aim of turning these criticisms towards a reconstruction of prokaryote phylogeny and even some aspects of the standard evolutionary (...)
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  22.  16
    Metagenomics and Biological Ontology.John Dupré & Maureen A. O’Malley - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (4):834-846.
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  23. Disciplinary Baptisms: A Comparison of the Naming Stories of Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genomics, and Systems Biology.Alexander Powell, Maureen A. O. Malley, Staffan Muller-Wille, Jane Calvert & John Dupré - 2007 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (1):5.
     
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  24.  43
    The Study of Socioethical Issues in Systems Biology.Maureen A. O'Malley, Jane Calvert & John Dupré - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (4):67-78.
    Systems biology is the rapidly growing and heavily funded successor science to genomics. Its mission is to integrate extensive bodies of molecular data into a detailed mathematical understanding of all life processes, with an ultimate view to their prediction and control. Despite its high profile and widespread practice, there has so far been almost no bioethical attention paid to systems biology and its potential social consequences. We outline some of systems biology's most important socioethical issues by contrasting the concept of (...)
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  25.  40
    Humans and Other Animals.John Dupré - 2002 - Clarendon Press.
    John Dupré explores the ways in which we categorize animals, including humans, and comes to refreshingly radical conclusions. He opposes the idea that there is only one legitimate way of classifying things in the natural world, the 'scientific' way. The lesson we should learn from Darwin is to reject the idea that each organism has an essence that determines its necessary place in the unique hierarchy of things. Nature is not like that: it is not organized in a single (...)
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  26.  21
    Concepts and Methods in Evolutionary Biology.John Dupré - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (2):292-296.
    This book is a collection of essays by a leading philosopher of biology and spans his career over almost the last twenty years. Most of the topics that have been of concern to philosophers of biology in this period are touched on to some extent, and the collection of these essays in a convenient volume will certainly be welcomed by everyone working in this field. The essays are arranged chronologically, and divided into three sections. Although the chapters in the first (...)
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  27.  72
    The Lure of the Simplistic.John Dupré - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (S3):S284-S293.
    This paper attacks the perennial philosophical and scientific quest for a simple and unified vision of the world. Without denying the attraction of this vision, I argue that such a goal often seriously distorts our understanding of complex phenomena. The argument is illustrated with reference to simplistic attempts to provide extremely general views of biology, and especially of human nature, through the theory of evolution. Although that theory is a fundamental ingredient of our scientific world view, it provides only one (...)
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  28. A Fine Book, but Who’s It For?: Evelyn Fox Keller: The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2010, Vii+107pp, £12.99 PB.John Dupré - 2012 - Metascience 21 (1):175-177.
    A fine book, but who’s it for? Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9582-9 Authors John Dupré, ESRC Centre for Genomics in Society (Egenis), University of Exeter, Byrne House, St. German’s Road, Exeter, EX4 4PJ UK Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  29.  22
    It’s a Process: Searching for Meaning Among the Microbes: John Dupré: Processes of Life: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, 368pp, £35.00, $55.00 HB. [REVIEW]Chris Haufe - 2014 - Metascience 23 (2):293-296.
    John Dupré has spent his career pushing against boundaries in biology and its philosophy. In the process of building a cottage industry out of disrupting what appeared to be fairly settled biological categories, Dupré managed to articulate an influential general metaphysics of science that was able to give us much of what we wanted from scientific realism while still remaining faithful to the heterodox duprévity of the “Disunity of Science” school. All the while, his work in these domains maintained (...)
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  30.  7
    Book Review:From a Biological Point of View: Essays in Evolutionary Philosophy Elliott Sober. [REVIEW]John Dupre - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (1):143-.
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  31. Living Causes.John Dupré - 2013 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 87 (1):19-37.
    This paper considers the applicability of standard accounts of causation to living systems. In particular it examines critically the increasing tendency to equate causal explanation with the identification of a mechanism. A range of differences between living systems and paradigm mechanisms are identified and discussed. While in principle it might be possible to accommodate an account of mechanism to these features, the attempt to do so risks reducing the idea of a mechanism to vacuity. It is proposed that the solution (...)
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  32.  57
    Life as Process.John Dupré - 2020 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 57 (2):96-113.
    The thesis of this paper is that our understanding of life, as reflected in the biological and medical sciences but also in our everyday transactions, has been hampered by an inappropriate metaphysics. The metaphysics that has dominated Western philosophy, and that currently shapes most understanding of life and the life sciences, sees the world as composed of things and their properties. While these things appear to undergo all kinds of changes, it has often been supposed that this amounts to no (...)
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  33.  90
    From Molecules to Systems: The Importance of Looking Both Ways.Alexander Powell & John Dupré - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 40 (1):54-64.
    Although molecular biology has meant different things at different times, the term is often associated with a tendency to view cellular causation as conforming to simple linear schemas in which macro-scale effects are specified by micro-scale structures. The early achievements of molecular biologists were important for the formation of such an outlook, one to which the discovery of recombinant DNA techniques, and a number of other findings, gave new life even after the complexity of genotype–phenotype
    relations had become apparent. Against this (...)
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  34.  20
    "Contraception and Catholics: A New Appraisal," by L. Dupré.John Underwood Lewis - 1967 - Modern Schoolman 44 (4):391-395.
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  35. In Defence of Classification.John Dupré - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 32 (2):203-219.
    It has increasingly been recognised that units of biological classification cannot be identified with the units of evolution. After briefly defending the necessity of this distinction I argue, contrary to the prevailing orthodoxy, that species should be treated as the fundamental units of classification and not, therefore, as units of evolution. This perspective fits well with the increasing tendency to reject the search for a monistic basis of classification and embrace a pluralistic and pragmatic account of the species category. It (...)
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  36.  34
    Daniel J. Nicholson and John Dupré, Eds., Everything Flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press , 416 Pp., $70.00.Katherine Valde - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (2):375-378.
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  37.  22
    I—Living Causes.John Dupré - 2013 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 87 (1):19-37.
    This paper considers the applicability of standard accounts of causation to living systems. In particular it examines critically the increasing tendency to equate causal explanation with the identification of a mechanism. A range of differences between living systems and paradigm mechanisms are identified and discussed. While in principle it might be possible to accommodate an account of mechanism to these features, the attempt to do so risks reducing the idea of a mechanism to vacuity. It is proposed that the solution (...)
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  38.  4
    The Metaphysics of Biology.John Dupré - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element is an introduction to the metaphysics of biology, a very general account of the nature of the living world. The first part of the Element addresses more traditionally philosophical questions - whether biological systems are reducible to the properties of their physical parts, causation and laws of nature, substantialist and processualist accounts of life, and the nature of biological kinds. The second half will offer an understanding of important biological entities, drawing on the earlier discussions. This division should (...)
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  39.  35
    Science in a Democratic Society. By Philip Kitcher. (New York: Prometheus Books, 2011. Pp. 270. Price £24.95.).John Dupré - 2013 - Philosophical Quarterly 63 (251):408-410.
  40.  75
    Animalism and the Persistence of Human Organisms.John Dupré - 2014 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 52 (S1):6-23.
    Humans are a kind of animal, and it is a natural and sensible idea that the way to understand what it is for a human person to persist over time is to reflect on what it is for an animal to persist. This paper accepts this strategy. However, especially in the light of a range of recent biological findings, the persistence of animals turns out to be much more problematic than is generally supposed. The main philosophical premise of the paper (...)
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  41. The Miracle of Monism.John Dupré - 2004 - In Mario De Caro & David Macarthur (eds.), Naturalism in Question. Harvard University Press. pp. 36--58.
    This chapter defends a pluralistic view of science: the various projects of enquiry that fall under the general rubric of science share neither a methodology nor a subject matter. Ontologically, it is argued that sciences need have nothing in common beyond an antipathy to the supernatural. Epistemically one central virtue is defended, empiricism, meaning just that scientific knowledge must ultimately be answerable to experience. Prima facie science is as diverse as the world it studies; and rejection of this prima facie (...)
     
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  42.  81
    Scientific Pluralism and the Plurality of the Sciences: Comments on David Hull’s S Cience as a Process.John Dupré - 1990 - Philosophical Studies 60 (1-2):61 - 76.
  43.  71
    Understanding Contemporary Genomics.John Dupré - 2004 - Perspectives on Science 12 (3):320-338.
    Recent molecular biology has seen the development of genomics as a successor to traditional genetics. This paper offers an overview of the structure, epistemology, and history of contemporary genomics. A particular focus is on the question to what extent the genome contains, or is composed of, anything that corresponds to traditional conceptions of genes. It is concluded that the only interpretation of genes that has much contemporary scientific relevance is what is described as the "developmental defect" gene concept. However, developmental (...)
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  44. What Price Optimality? A Review of John Dupré , "The Latest on the Best: Essays on Evolution and Optimality". [REVIEW]Barbara L. Horan - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):89.
  45.  13
    Review of From a Biological Point of View: Essays in Evolutionary Philosophy by Elliott Sober. [REVIEW]John Dupre - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (1):143-145.
    Biological knowledge has increased exponentially in the last century or so, and it would be surprising if some of this knowledge did not have implications for philosophy. In contrast with a good deal of Elliott Sober's best known work, which aims to bring philosophical methods to bear on issues within biology, the theme of this collection of essays is to explore some ways in which biological ideas, or more specifically evolutionary ideas, may be brought to bear on philosophical issues. Sober (...)
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  46.  1
    Darwin's Legacy: What Evolution Means Today.John Dupré - 2003 - Oxford University Press on Demand.
    Charles Darwin transformed our understanding of the universe and our place in it with his development of the theory of evolution. 150 years later, we are still puzzling over the implications. John Dupré presents a lucid, witty introduction to evolution and what it means for our view of humanity, the natural world, and religion. He explains the right and the wrong ways to understand evolution: in the latter category fall most of the claims of evolutionary psychology, of which Dupré (...)
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  47. Discussion. In Defence of the Baldwin Effect: A Reply to Watkins.John Dupré - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (3):477-479.
  48. Promiscuous Realism: Reply to Wilson.John Dupré - 1996 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (3):441-444.
    This paper presents a brief response to Robert A. Wilson's critical discussion of Promiscuous Realism [1996]. I argue that, although convergence on a unique conception of species cannot be ruled out, the evidence against such an outcome is stronger than Wilson allows. In addition, given the failure of biological science to come up with a unique and privileged set of biological kinds, the relevance of the various overlapping kinds of ordinary language to the metaphysics of biological kinds is greater than (...)
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  49.  14
    Evolution as Entropy: Toward a Unified Theory of Biology. Daniel R. Brooks, E. O. Wiley.John Dupré - 1990 - Isis 81 (1):149-150.
  50.  17
    In Defence of the Baldwin Effect: A Reply to Watkins.John Dupré - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (3):477 - 479.
    A recent paper by John Watkins argues that the Baldwin effect, a hypothetical evolutionary process by which a culturally evolved behavior might promote the evolution of a genetic basis for that behavior, is inconsistent with evolutionary theory. In this reply, I argue that in case the genetic basis of the behavior in question determines separable constituents of the behavior, Watkins's argument is unsound.
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