Results for 'John D. Gearhart'

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  1.  97
    Public Stem Cell Banks: Considerations of Justice in Stem Cell Research and Therapy.Ruth R. Faden, Liza Dawson, Alison S. Bateman-House, Dawn Mueller Agnew, Hilary Bok, Dan W. Brock, Aravinda Chakravarti, Xiao-Jiang Gao, Mark Greene, John A. Hansen, Patricia A. King, Stephen J. O'Brien, David H. Sachs, Kathryn E. Schill, Andrew Siegel, Davor Solter, Sonia M. Suter, Catherine M. Verfaillie, LeRoy B. Walters & John D. Gearhart - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (6):13-27.
    If stem cell-based therapies are developed, we will likely confront a difficult problem of justice: for biological reasons alone, the new therapies might benefit only a limited range of patients. In fact, they might benefit primarily white Americans, thereby exacerbating long-standing differences in health and health care.
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  2.  41
    After the Death of God.Gianni Vattimo & John D. Caputo - 2007 - Columbia University Press.
    In these original essays and interviews, leading hermeneutical philosophers and postmodern theorists John D. Caputo and Gianni Vattimo engage with each other's past and present work on the subject and reflect on our transition from ...
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  3.  49
    1. Marr on Computational-Level Theories Marr on Computational-Level Theories (pp. 477-500).Oron Shagrir, John D. Norton, Holger Andreas, Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen, Aris Spanos, Eckhart Arnold, Elliott Sober, Peter Gildenhuys & Adela Helena Roszkowski - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (4):477-500.
    According to Marr, a computational-level theory consists of two elements, the what and the why. This article highlights the distinct role of the Why element in the computational analysis of vision. Three theses are advanced: that the Why element plays an explanatory role in computational-level theories, that its goal is to explain why the computed function is appropriate for a given visual task, and that the explanation consists in showing that the functional relations between the representing cells are similar to (...)
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  4. Meditation and the neuroscience of consciousness.Antoine Lutz, John D. Dunne & Richard J. Davidson - 2007 - In Morris Moscovitch, Philip Zelazo & Evan Thompson (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 19--497.
    in Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness edited by Zelazo P., Moscovitch M. and Thompson E. (2007).
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  5. Exorcist XIV: The Wrath of Maxwell’s Demon. Part I. From Maxwell to Szilard.John Earman & John D. Norton - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 29 (4):435-471.
    In this first part of a two-part paper, we describe efforts in the early decades of this century to restrict the extent of violations of the Second Law of thermodynamics that were brought to light by the rise of the kinetic theory and the identification of fluctuation phenomena. We show how these efforts mutated into Szilard’s proposal that Maxwell’s Demon is exorcised by proper attention to the entropy costs associated with the Demon’s memory and information acquisition. In the second part (...)
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  6.  35
    Fragile lives with fragile rights: Justice for babies born at the limit of viability.Manya J. Hendriks & John D. Lantos - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (3):205-214.
    There is an inconsistency in the ways that doctors make clinical decisions regarding the treatment of babies born extremely prematurely. Many experts now recommend that clinical decisions about the treatment of such babies be individualized and consider many different factors. Nevertheless, many policies and practices throughout Europe and North America still appear to base decisions on gestational age alone or on gestational age as the primary factor that determines whether doctors recommend or even offer life-sustaining neonatal intensive care treatment. These (...)
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  7.  15
    Failure to replicate mood-dependent retrieval.Gordon H. Bower & John D. Mayer - 1985 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 23 (1):39-42.
  8. Bioethics and Human Rights: Curb Your Enthusiasm.Elizabeth Fenton & John D. Arras - 2010 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (1):127.
    The call has been made for global bioethics. In an age of pandemics, international drug trials, and genetic technology, health has gone global, and bioethics must follow suit. George Annas is one among a number of thinkers to recommend that bioethics expand beyond its traditional domain of patient–physician interactions to encompass a broader range of health-related matters. Medicine, Annas argues, must “develop a global language and a global strategy that can help to improve the health of all of the world's (...)
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  9.  46
    Differences in Perceived Mental Effort Required and Discomfort during a Working Memory Task between Individuals At-risk And Not At-risk for ADHD.Chia-Fen Hsu, John D. Eastwood & Maggie E. Toplak - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  10.  35
    Only a God can save Us.Maria P. Alter & John D. Caputo - 1976 - Philosophy Today 20 (4):267-284.
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  11.  14
    Comment: The Atmosphere of Intellect.John D. O'Connor - 2021 - New Blackfriars 102 (1100):439-441.
    New Blackfriars, Volume 102, Issue 1100, Page 439-441, July 2021.
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  12.  44
    Sequencing Newborns: A Call for Nuanced Use of Genomic Technologies.Josephine Johnston, John D. Lantos, Aaron Goldenberg, Flavia Chen, Erik Parens, Barbara A. Koenig, Members of the Nsight Ethics & Policy Advisory Board - forthcoming - Zygon.
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  13.  34
    Institutional Impediments to Voluntary Ethics Measurement Systems.O. Scott Stovall, John D. Neill & Brad Reid - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 66 (2/3):169 - 175.
    In this paper, we argue that calls for widespread implementation of ethics measurement systems would be better informed by institutional economic analysis. Specifically, we assert that proponents of such systems must first recognize and understand the institutions that potentially impede such efforts. We identify two potential institutional impediments to measuring ethics and social responsibility. First, we suggest that neoclassical economics, supported by traditional business education and legal precedent, serves to reinforce the notion that shareholders are the primary corporate constituency group. (...)
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  14. Wrong Again—Rejoinder to Annas.Elizabeth Fenton & John D. Arras - 2010 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (1):141.
    It is clear from George Annas's response to our arguments that he has misunderstood and misrepresented our positions on several key points. We suspect that this may be due in part to significant differences between our respective agendas and points of view, so we begin this exchange with an exploration of these differences.
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  15.  19
    A Politics of Virtue: Hinduism, Sexuality, and Countercolonial Discourse in Fiji.William S. Sax & John D. Kelly - 1997 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 117 (1):222.
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  16.  11
    On Norton’s “…Shook…” and Myrvold’s “Shakin’…”.Wayne C. Myrvold & John D. Norton - 2023 - Philosophy of Physics 1 (1).
    Norton’s and Myrvold’s recent analyses of fluctuations and Landauer’s principle are compatible.
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  17.  33
    Effect of concurrent responses on the evocation and generalization of the conditioned eyeblink.G. Robert Grice & John D. Davis - 1960 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 59 (6):391.
  18.  18
    Muon spin rotation in GdSr 2 Cu 2 RuO 8 : implications.Dale R. Harshman, John D. Dow, W. J. Kossler, D. R. Noakes, C. E. Stronach, A. J. Greer, E. Koster, Z. F. Ren & D. Z. Wang - 2003 - Philosophical Magazine 83 (26):1-1.
  19.  34
    Patient Autonomy and the Twenty-First Century Physician.Jeremy R. Garrett & John D. Lantos - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (5):3-3.
    In this issue of the Report, Daniel Groll suggests new ways to understand old tensions between autonomy and paternalism. He categorizes disagreements between doctors and patients in four ways. Some are about the ends or goals of medical treatment. For these, he claims, patient choices are based upon patient values, and physicians should neither challenge nor assess them. More common are disagreements about the appropriate means to achieve an agreed-upon goal. These subdivide into two distinct categories—those in which the relative (...)
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  20.  55
    The Very Idea of Free Will.John D. Glenn Jr - 2011 - Southwest Philosophy Review 27 (1):65-71.
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  21. Issn/isbn: 00344346.John D. Sykes Jr - 2003 - Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature (Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, Wi) 55 (2):163-175.
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  22.  17
    Meditation and the neuroscience of consciousness: An introduction.Antoine Lutz, John D. Dunne & Richard J. Davidson - 2007 - In Morris Moscovitch, Philip Zelazo & Evan Thompson (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    in Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness edited by Zelazo P., Moscovitch M. and Thompson E. (2007).
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  23.  20
    Functional Analysis of Continuous, High-Resolution Measures in Aging Research: A Demonstration Using Cerebral Oxygenation Data From the Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging.John D. O’Connor, Matthew D. L. O’Connell, Roman Romero-Ortuno, Belinda Hernández, Louise Newman, Richard B. Reilly, Rose Anne Kenny & Silvin P. Knight - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
  24.  47
    Functional neuroimaging of short-term memory: The neural mechanisms of mental storage.Bart Rypma & John D. E. Gabrieli - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):143-144.
    Cowan argues that the true short-term memory (STM) capacity limit is about 4 items. Functional neuroimaging data converge with this conclusion, indicating distinct neural activity patterns depending on whether or not memory task-demands exceed this limit. STM for verbal information within that capacity invokes focal prefrontal cortical activation that increases with memory load. STM for verbal information exceeding that capacity invokes widespread prefrontal activation in regions associated with executive and attentional processes that may mediate chunking processes to accommodate STM capacity (...)
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  25. Agricultural Discontent in the Middle West, 1900-1939.Theodore Saloutos & John D. Hicks - 1952 - Science and Society 16 (4):368-370.
     
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  26.  39
    Using programs to solve problems: Imitation versus insight.Stan A. Kuczaj, John D. Gory & Mark J. Xitco - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):695-696.
    Dolphins exhibit both action-level imitation (ALI) and program-level imitation (PLI). Dolphins may use ALI primarily for social cohesion, whereas PLI seems more likely to occur in goal-directed, problem-solving contexts. Both PLI and insightful problem solving require a recognition of the functional relations between actions and outcomes. Insightful problem solving, however, involves the creation of a program in the absence of a model, and therefore requires a higher order appreciation and application of the relations between actions and outcomes.
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  27.  18
    The role of ingestional delay in taste-mediated environmental potentiation.Michael R. Best, John D. Batson & Mark T. Bowman - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (3):215-218.
  28.  10
    Seeking Meaning and Making Sense by John Haldane. [REVIEW]John D. O'connor - 2009 - New Blackfriars 90 (1027):390-392.
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  29.  8
    The Christian idea of God: A philosophical foundation for faith by Keith ward, cambridge university press, cambridge, 2017, pp. VI + 229, £24.99, pbk. [REVIEW]John D. O'connor - 2019 - New Blackfriars 100 (1089):609-611.
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  30.  44
    Stigma and conversational competence: A conversation analytic study of the mentally handicapped. [REVIEW]Steven Yearley & John D. Brewer - 1989 - Human Studies 12 (1-2):97 - 115.
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  31.  62
    Reviews. [REVIEW]Tom Rockmore, John D. Windhausen, Maurice A. Finocchiaro, Irving H. Anellis & Heinrich Bortis - 1987 - Studies in East European Thought 33 (4):265-267.
  32.  94
    Correction to John D. Norton “How to build an infinite lottery machine”.John D. Norton & Alexander R. Pruss - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (1):143-144.
    An infinite lottery machine is used as a foil for testing the reach of inductive inference, since inferences concerning it require novel extensions of probability. Its use is defensible if there is some sense in which the lottery is physically possible, even if exotic physics is needed. I argue that exotic physics is needed and describe several proposals that fail and at least one that succeeds well enough.
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  33.  45
    The material theory of induction.John D. Norton - 2021 - Calgary, Alberta, Canada: University of Calgary Press.
    The inaugural title in the new, Open Access series BSPS Open, The Material Theory of Induction will initiate a new tradition in the analysis of inductive inference. The fundamental burden of a theory of inductive inference is to determine which are the good inductive inferences or relations of inductive support and why it is that they are so. The traditional approach is modeled on that taken in accounts of deductive inference. It seeks universally applicable schemas or rules or a single (...)
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  34. The anthropic cosmological principle.John D. Barrow - 1986 - New York: Oxford University Press. Edited by Frank J. Tipler.
    Ever since Copernicus, scientists have continually adjusted their view of human nature, moving it further and further from its ancient position at the center of Creation. But in recent years, a startling new concept has evolved that places it more firmly than ever in a special position. Known as the Anthropic Cosmological Principle, this collection of ideas holds that the existence of intelligent observers determines the fundamental structure of the Universe. In its most radical version, the Anthropic Principle asserts that (...)
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  35. Ignorance and Indifference.John D. Norton - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (1):45-68.
    The epistemic state of complete ignorance is not a probability distribution. In it, we assign the same, unique, ignorance degree of belief to any contingent outcome and each of its contingent, disjunctive parts. That this is the appropriate way to represent complete ignorance is established by two instruments, each individually strong enough to identify this state. They are the principle of indifference (PI) and the notion that ignorance is invariant under certain redescriptions of the outcome space, here developed into the (...)
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  36.  80
    Radical Hermeneutics: Repetition, Deconstruction, and the Hermeneutic Project.John D. Caputo - 1986 - Indiana University Press.
    "This is a remarkable book: wide-ranging, resonant, and well-written; it is also reflective and personable, warm and engaging." —Philosophy and Literature "With this book Caputo takes his place firmly as the foremost American, continental post-modernist... " —International Philosophical Quarterly "One cannot but be impressed by the scope of Radical Hermeneutics." —Man and World "Caputo’s study is stunning in its scope and scholarship." —Robert E. Lauder, St. John’s University, The Thomist For John D. Caputo, hermeneutics means radical thinking without (...)
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  37.  29
    The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning.John D. Arras, Albert R. Jonsen & Stephen Toulmin - 1990 - Hastings Center Report 20 (4):35.
    Book reviewed in this article: The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. By Albert R. Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin.
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  38. Cosmic Confusions: Not Supporting versus Supporting Not.John D. Norton - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (4):501-523.
    Bayesian probabilistic explication of inductive inference conflates neutrality of supporting evidence for some hypothesis H (“not supporting H”) with disfavoring evidence (“supporting not-H”). This expressive inadequacy leads to spurious results that are artifacts of a poor choice of inductive logic. I illustrate how such artifacts have arisen in simple inductive inferences in cosmology. In the inductive disjunctive fallacy, neutral support for many possibilities is spuriously converted into strong support for their disjunction. The Bayesian “doomsday argument” is shown to rely entirely (...)
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  39. Thought Experiments in Einstein's Work.John D. Norton - 1982 - In John Norton (ed.).
    Preface: This volume originated in a conference on "The Place of Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy" which was organized by us and held at the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh, April 18-20, 1986. The idea behind this conference was to encourage philosophers and scientists to talk to each other about the role of thought experiments in their various disciplines. These papers were either written for the conference, or were written after it by commentators and (...)
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  40. The way we reason now: reflective equilibrium in bioethics.John D. Arras - 2007 - In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford handbook of bioethics. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 46--71.
    This article begins with some preliminary remarks about the general features and basic varieties of reflective equilibrium in moral reflection. It then considers a couple of preliminary doubts about this method. One of these doubts claims that the most plausible interpretation of RE is so comprehensive that it risks paralyzing our thinking, while the other claims that this same version of RE is insufficiently determinate in practical contexts and will thus fail to be sufficiently action-guiding. The article then explicates the (...)
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  41.  37
    The defensibility of zoroastrian dualism: John D. Kronen and Sandra Menssen.John D. Kronen - 2010 - Religious Studies 46 (2):185-205.
    Contemporary philosophical discussion of religion neglects dualistic religions: although Manichaeism from time to time is accorded mention, Zoroastrianism, a more plausible form of religious dualism, is almost entirely ignored. We seek to change this state of affairs. To this end we present the basic tenets of Zoroastrian dualism, argue that objections to the Zoroastrian conception of God are less strong than typically imagined, argue that objections to the Zoroastrian conception of the devil are less strong than typically imagined, and offer (...)
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  42.  50
    How Einstein Found His Field Equations: 1912-1915.John D. Norton - unknown
  43. Time really passes.John D. Norton - 2010 - Humana. Mente: Journal of Philosophical Studies 13:23-24.
  44. General covariance, gauge theories and the kretschmann objection.John D. Norton - 2002 - In Katherine Brading & Elena Castellani (eds.), Symmetries in Physics: Philosophical Reflections. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 110--123.
    How can we reconcile two claims that are now both widely accepted: Kretschmann's claim that a requirement of general covariance is physically vacuous and the standard view that the general covariance of general relativity expresses the physically important diffeomorphism gauge freedom of general relativity? I urge that both claims can be held without contradiction if we attend to the context in which each is made.
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  45. The force of Newtonian cosmology: Acceleration is relative.John D. Norton - 1995 - Philosophy of Science 62 (4):511-522.
    1. Introduction. David Malament has described a natural and satisfying resolution of the traditional problems of Newtonian cosmology—natural in the sense that it effects the escape by altering Newtonian gravitation theory in a way that leaves its observational predictions completely unaffected. I am in full agreement with his approach. There is one part of his account, however, over which Malament has been excessively modest. The resolution requires a modification to Newtonian gravitation theory. Malament presents the modification as so straightforward as (...)
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  46. A material theory of induction.John D. Norton - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (4):647-670.
    Contrary to formal theories of induction, I argue that there are no universal inductive inference schemas. The inductive inferences of science are grounded in matters of fact that hold only in particular domains, so that all inductive inference is local. Some are so localized as to defy familiar characterization. Since inductive inference schemas are underwritten by facts, we can assess and control the inductive risk taken in an induction by investigating the warrant for its underwriting facts. In learning more facts, (...)
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  47. The Future of Folk Psychology: Intentionality and Cognitive Science.John D. Greenwood (ed.) - 1991 - Cambridge University Press.
  48.  39
    The Worst Thought Experiment.John D. Norton - 2018 - In Michael T. Stuart, Yiftach Fehige & James Robert Brown (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Thought Experiments. London: Routledge.
    In Leo Szilard’s 1929 thought experiment, a Maxwell demon manipulates a one-molecule gas to reverse the second law of thermodynamics. The demon must fail, Szilard argued, since there is hidden entropy creation in the demon’s collecting of information. This thought experiment is an inconsistent muddle of improper idealizations. It diverted an already successful literature of exorcism into degenerating speculations about about a connection between thermodynamic entropy and information. These confusions persist today in a voluminous literature. Narrative conventions in a thought (...)
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  49.  30
    How We Know About Electrons.John D. Norton - 1982 - In John Norton (ed.).
  50.  59
    A method in search of a purpose: The internal morality of medicine.John D. Arras - 2001 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (6):643 – 662.
    I begin this commentary with an expanded typology of theories that endorse an internal morality of medicine. I then subject these theories to a philosophical critique. I argue that the more robust claims for an internal morality fail to establish a stand-alone method for bioethics because they ignore crucial non-medical values, violate norms of justice and fail to establish the normativity of medical values. I then argue that weaker versions of internalism avoid such problems, but at the cost of failing (...)
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