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John K. Davis
California State University, Fullerton
John Davis
Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary
  1. The Theory of the Individual in Economics: Identity and Value.John Bryan Davis - 2003 - Routledge.
    The concept of the individual and his/her motivations is a bedrock of philosophy. All strands of thought at heart contain to a particular theory of the individual. Economics, though, is guilty of taking this hugely important concept without questioning how we theorize it. This superb book remedies this oversight. The new approach put forward by Davies is to pay more attention to what moral philosophy may offer us in the study of personal identity, self consciousness and will. This crosses the (...)
     
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  2. Individuals and Identity in Economics.John B. Davis - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book examines the different conceptions of the individual that have emerged in recent new approaches in economics, including behavioral economics, experimental economics, social preferences approaches, game theory, neuroeconomics, evolutionary and complexity economics, and the capability approach. These conceptions are classified according to whether they seek to revise the traditional atomist individual conception, put new emphasis on interaction and relations between individuals, account for individuals as evolving and self-organizing, and explain individuals in terms of capabilities. The method of analysis uses (...)
     
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  3.  28
    Transformation Without Paternalism.Thomas R. Wells & John B. Davis - 2016 - Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 17 (3):360-376.
    Human development is meant to be transformational in that it aims to improve people's lives by enhancing their capabilities. But who does it target: people as they are or the people they will become? This paper argues that the human development approach relies on an understanding of personal identity as dynamic rather than as static collections of preferences, and that this distinguishes human development from conventional approaches to development. Nevertheless, this dynamic understanding of personal identity is presently poorly conceptualized and (...)
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  4. An Alternative to Relativism.John K. Davis - 2010 - Philosophical Topics 38 (2):17-37.
    Some moral disagreements are so persistent that we suspect they are deep : we would disagree even when we have all relevant information and no one makes any mistakes. The possibility of deep disagreement is thought to drive cognitivists toward relativism, but most cognitivists reject relativism. There is an alternative. According to divergentism, cognitivists can reject relativism while allowing for deep disagreement. This view has rarely been defended at length, but many philosophers have implicitly endorsed its elements. I will defend (...)
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  5.  98
    Faultless Disagreement, Cognitive Command, and Epistemic Peers.John K. Davis - 2015 - Synthese 192 (1):1-24.
    Relativism and contextualism are the most popular accounts of faultless disagreement, but Crispin Wright once argued for an account I call divergentism. According to divergentism, parties who possess all relevant information and use the same standards of assessment in the same context of utterance can disagree about the same proposition without either party being in epistemic fault, yet only one of them is right. This view is an alternative to relativism, indexical contextualism, and nonindexical contextualism, and has advantages over those (...)
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  6.  9
    What Topic Modeling Could Reveal About the Evolution of Economics.Angela Ambrosino, Mario Cedrini, John B. Davis, Stefano Fiori, Marco Guerzoni & Massimiliano Nuccio - 2018 - Journal of Economic Methodology 25 (4):329-348.
  7.  3
    A Model for the Control of Ingestion.John D. Davis & Michael W. Levine - 1977 - Psychological Review 84 (4):379-412.
  8.  75
    Precedent Autonomy and Subsequent Consent.John K. Davis - 2004 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (3):267-291.
    Honoring a living will typically involves treating an incompetent patient in accord with preferences she once had, but whose objects she can no longer understand. How do we respect her precedent autonomy by giving her what she used to want? There is a similar problem with subsequent consent: How can we justify interfering with someone''s autonomy on the grounds that she will later consent to the interference, if she refuses now?Both problems arise on the assumption that, to respect someone''s autonomy, (...)
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  9.  54
    Conscientious Refusal and a Doctors's Right to Quit.John K. Davis - 2004 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (1):75 – 91.
    Patients sometimes request procedures their doctors find morally objectionable. Do doctors have a right of conscientious refusal? I argue that conscientious refusal is justified only if the doctor's refusal does not make the patient worse off than she would have been had she gone to another doctor in the first place. From this approach I derive conclusions about the duty to refer and facilitate transfer, whether doctors may provide 'moral counseling,' whether doctors are obligated to provide objectionable procedures when no (...)
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  10.  40
    How to Justify Enforcing a Ulysses Contract When Ulysses is Competent to Refuse.John K. Davis - 2008 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (1):pp. 87-106.
    Sometimes the mentally ill have sufficient mental capacity to refuse treatment competently, and others have a moral duty to respect their refusal. However, those with episodic mental disorders may wish to precommit themselves to treatment, using Ulysses contracts known as “mental health advance directives.” How can health care providers justify enforcing such contracts over an agent’s current, competent refusal? I argue that providers respect an agent’s autonomy not retrospectively—by reference to his or her past wishes—and not merely synchronically—so that the (...)
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  11. Intuition and the Junctures of Judgment in Decision Procedures for Clinical Ethics.John K. Davis - 2007 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (1):1-30.
    Moral decision procedures such as principlism or casuistry require intuition at certain junctures, as when a principle seems indeterminate, or principles conflict, or we wonder which paradigm case is most relevantly similar to the instant case. However, intuitions are widely thought to lack epistemic justification, and many ethicists urge that such decision procedures dispense with intuition in favor of forms of reasoning that provide discursive justification. I argue that discursive justification does not eliminate or minimize the need for intuition, or (...)
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  12.  16
    Social Identity Strategies in Recent Economics.John B. Davis - 2006 - Journal of Economic Methodology 13 (3):371-390.
    This paper reviews three distinct strategies in recent economics for using the concept of social identity in the explanation of individual behavior: Akerlof and Kranton's neoclassical approach, Sen's commitment approach and Kirman et al.'s complexity approach. The primary focus is the multiple selves problem and the difficulties associated with failing to explain social identity and personal identity together. The argument of the paper is that too narrow a scope for reflexivity in individual decision?making renders the problem intractable, but that enlarging (...)
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  13. Identity and Commitment: Sen's Conception of the Individual.John Davis - 2007 - In Fabienne Peter & Hans Bernhard Schmid (eds.), Rationality and Commitment. Oxford University Press.
     
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  14.  26
    The Idea of Public Reasoning.John B. Davis - 2012 - Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (2):169-172.
  15.  29
    The Turn in Economics and the Turn in Economic Methodology.John B. Davis - 2007 - Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (3):275-290.
  16.  52
    Reflexivity: Curse or Cure?John B. Davis & Matthias Klaes - 2003 - Journal of Economic Methodology 10 (3):329-352.
    Reflexivity has been argued to be self?defeating and potentially devastating for the sociology of scientific knowledge. We first survey various meanings associated with the concept of reflexivity and then provide an interpretation of Velázquez's Las Meñinas to generate a three?part taxonomy of reflexivity, distinguishing between ?immanent?, ?epistemic? and ?transcendent? reflexivity. This provides the basis for engaging with reflexivity as a problem in the economic methodology literature, focusing on recent contributions to the topic by Hands, Sent, Mäki and Mirowski. Employment of (...)
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  17.  76
    Subjectivity, Judgment, and the Basing Relationship.John K. Davis - 2009 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (1):21-40.
    Moral and legal judgments sometimes depend on personal traits in this sense: the subject offers good reasons for her judgment, but if she had a different social or ideological background, her judgment would be different. If you would judge the constitutionality of restrictions on abortion differently if you were not a secular liberal, is your judgment really based on the arguments you find convincing, or do you find them so only because you are a secular liberal? I argue that a (...)
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  18.  21
    Person-Centered Health Care: Capabilities and Identity.John B. Davis - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (8):61-62.
    Entwhistle and Watt (2013) make an important contribution to the person-centred view of health care by reframing past thinking on the subject in terms of the capability approach. Past thinking about person-centred care employs a range of normative values that are arguably supportive of the concept of a person. But ironically these values are not clearly grounded in any account of what the person is. Thus, it is not clear what anchors these values and so how they are to be (...)
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  19.  85
    Life-Extension and the Malthusian Objection.John K. Davis - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (1):27 – 44.
    The worst possible way to resolve this issue is to leave it up to individual choice. There is no known social good coming from the conquest of death (Bailey, 1999). - Daniel Callahan Dramatically extending the human lifespan seems increasingly possible. Many bioethicists object that life-extension will have Malthusian consequences as new Methuselahs accumulate, generation by generation. I argue for a Life-Years Response to the Malthusian Objection. If even a minority of each generation chooses life-extension, denying it to them deprives (...)
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  20.  81
    Precedent Autonomy, Advance Directives, and End-of-Life Care.John Davis - 2007 - In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.
    Bioethicists are widely agreed that patients have a right of self-determination over how they are treated. Our duty to respect this is said to be based on the principle of respect for autonomy. In end-of-life care the patient may be incompetent and unable to exercise that right. One solution is to exercise it in advance. Advance directives, which include living wills and powers of attorney for health care, enable people to decide what medical treatment they will receive later, when they (...)
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  21.  22
    The Idea of Public Reasoning.John B. Davis - 2012 - Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (2):169 - 172.
    Journal of Economic Methodology, Volume 19, Issue 2, Page 169-172, June 2012.
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  22.  13
    Plasma Oxytocin Explains Individual Differences in Neural Substrates of Social Perception.Katie Lancaster, C. Sue Carter, Hossein Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Themistoclis Karaoli, Travis S. Lillard, Allison Jack, John M. Davis, James P. Morris & Jessica J. Connelly - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  23.  10
    Mark Blaug on the Historiography of Economics.John B. Davis - 2013 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 6 (3):44.
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  24. Collective Intentionality, Complex Economic Behavior, and Valuation.John B. Davis - 2004 - In John Bryan Davis & Alain Marciano (eds.), The Elgar Companion to Economics and Philosophy. Edward Elgar Publishers. pp. 386-402.
     
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  25. The Design Argument, Cosmic “Fine Tuning,” and the Anthropic Principle.John Jefferson Davis - 1987 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 22 (3):139 - 150.
  26.  27
    Keynes's Philosophical Development.John B. Davis - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this compelling book, John B. Davis examines the change and development in Keynes's philosophical thinking, from his earliest work through to The General Theory, arguing that Keynes came to believe himself mistaken about a number of his early philosophical concepts. The author begins by looking at the unpublished 'Apostles' papers, written under the influence of the philosopher G. E. Moore. These display the tensions in Keynes's early philosophical views, and outline his philosophical concepts of the time, including the concept (...)
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  27.  33
    The Individual in Mainstream Health Economics: A Case of Persona Non-Grata. [REVIEW]John B. Davis & Robert McMaster - 2007 - Health Care Analysis 15 (3):195-210.
    This paper is motivated by Davis’ [14] theory of the individual in economics. Davis’ analysis is applied to health economics, where the individual is conceived as a utility maximiser, although capable of regarding others’ welfare through interdependent utility functions. Nonetheless, this provides a restrictive and flawed account, engendering a narrow and abstract conception of care grounded in Paretian value and Cartesian analytical frames. Instead, a richer account of the socially embedded individual is advocated, which employs collective intentionality analysis. This provides (...)
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  28.  58
    Identity and Individual Economic Agents: A Narrative Approach.John B. Davis - manuscript
    This paper offers an account of how individuals act as agents when we employ a narrative approach to explaining their personal identities. It applies Korsgaard's idea of a "reflective structure of consciousness" to provide foundations for a richer account of the individual economic agent, and uses this to explain and distinguish the concepts of personal identity, individual identity, and social identity. The paper argues that individuals' personal identities may be in conflict with their socially constructed individual identities. Individuals' social identities (...)
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  29.  31
    Soros's Reflexivity Concept in a Complex World: Cauchy Distributions, Rational Expectations, and Rational Addiction.John B. Davis - 2013 - Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (4):368-376.
    George Soros makes an important analytical contribution to understanding the concept of reflexivity in social science by explaining reflexivity in terms of how his cognitive and manipulative causal functions are connected to one another by a pair of feedback loops (Soros, 2013). Fallibility, reflexivity and the human uncertainty principle. Here I put aside the issue of how the natural sciences and social sciences are related, an issue he discusses, and focus on how his thinking applies in economics. I argue that (...)
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  30.  20
    Cooter and Rappoport on the Normative: John B. Davis.John B. Davis - 1990 - Economics and Philosophy 6 (1):139-146.
    In a recent examination of the origins of ordinal utility theory in neoclassical economics, Robert D. Cooter and Peter Rappoport argue that the ordinalist revolution of the 1930s, after which most economists abandoned interpersonal utility comparisons as normative and unscientific, constituted neither unambiguous progress in economic science nor the abandonment of normative theorizing, as many economists and historians of economic thought have generally believed. Rather, the widespread acceptance of ordinalism, with its focus on Pareto optimality, simply represented the emergence of (...)
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  31.  17
    The Elgar Companion to Economics and Philosophy.John Bryan Davis & Alain Marciano (eds.) - 2004 - Edward Elgar.
    Read this excellent collection of informative papers in the field to stimulate your ow the field and readers interested in the nature of the discipline of ...
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  32.  63
    Should We Treat Depression with Drugs or Psychological Interventions? A Reply to Ioannidis.John Davis, William Giakas, Jie Que, Pavan Passad & Stefan Leucht - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:8-.
    We reply to the Ioannidis's paper "Effectiveness of antidepressants; an evidence based myth constructed from a thousand controlled trials." We disagree that antidepressants have no greater efficacy than placebo. We present the efficacy from hundreds of trials in terms of the percentage of patients with a substantial clinical response (a 50% improvement or more symptomatic reduction). This meta-analysis finds that 42-70% of depressed patients improve with drug and 21%-39% improve with placebo. The response benefit of antidepressant treatment is 33%-11% greater (...)
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  33.  4
    Collective Intentionality Analysis, Complex Economic Behavior, and Valuation.John Davis - 2003 - ProtoSociology 18:163-183.
    This paper argues that collective intentionality analysis provides a theoretical framework, complementary to traditional instrumental rationality analysis, that allows us to explain economic behavior as ‘complex.’ Economic behavior may be regarded as complex if it cannot be reduced to a single explanatory framework. Contemporary mainstream economics, in its reliance on instrumental rationality as the exclusive basis for explaining economic behavior, does not offer an account of economic behavior as complex. Coupling collective intentionality analysis with instrumental rationality analysis, however, makes such (...)
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  34. Selecting Potential Children and Unconditional Parental Love.John Davis - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (5):258–268.
    For now, the best way to select a child's genes is to select a potential child who has those genes, using genetic testing and either selective abortion, sperm and egg donors, or selecting embryos for implantation. Some people even wish to select against genes that are only mildly undesirable, or to select for superior genes. I call this selection drift– the standard for acceptable children is creeping upwards. The President's Council on Bioethics and others have raised the parental love objection: (...)
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  35.  34
    Dr. Google and Premature Consent: Patients Who Trust the Internet More Than They Trust Their Provider.John K. Davis - 2018 - HEC Forum 30 (3):253-265.
    A growing number of patients make up their minds about some medical issue before they see their provider, either by googling their symptoms or asking a friend. They’ve made up their minds before coming in, and they resist their provider’s recommendations even after receiving information and advice from their provider. This is a new kind of medical autonomy problem; it differs from cases of standard consent, futility, or conscientious refusal. Providers sometimes call this problem “Dr. Google.” I call it premature (...)
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  36.  8
    Exchange.John Davis - 1992 - Univ of Minnesota Press.
    In the introduction to Geography and Ethics: Journeys in a Moral Terrain, Proctor claims that 'there is a strong resonance among all the essays [in the edited volume] as to the geographical embeddedness of ethics, an argument made implicitly or explicitly that geography matters in finding clarifications of, or solutions to, ethical questions'. There is no doubt that geography, broadly enough construed, can function so as to clarify not only ethical questions but political, social and legal ones as well. While (...)
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  37.  4
    How Personal Agents Are Located in Space: Implications for Worship, Eucharist, and Union with Christ.John Jefferson Davis - 2011 - Philosophia Christi 13 (2):437-444.
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  38.  6
    Introduction.John B. Davis - 2004 - Journal of Economic Methodology 11 (3):273-273.
  39.  35
    Personal Identity and Standard Economic Theory.John B. Davis - 1995 - Journal of Economic Methodology 2 (1):35-52.
    This paper investigates the topic of personal identity in standard neoclassical theory. It looks first at the traditional utility theory of maximizing consumers and then at the extension of that analysis in the time-allocation-household-production model to see how relatively settled ontological commitments in the neoclassical research program undergo modification with its development. David Hume's skeptical treatment of personal identity is employed to assess the traditional view. The time-allocation model is shown to escape some of Hume's problems, but encounters difficulties of (...)
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  40. Collective Intentionality, Complex Economic Behavior, and Valuation.John B. Davis - 2003 - ProtoSociology 18:163-183.
    This paper argues that collective intentionality analysis provides a theoretical framework, complementary to traditional instrumental rationality analysis, that allows us to explain economic behavior as ‘complex.’ Economic behavior may be regarded as complex if it cannot be reduced to a single explanatory framework. Contemporary mainstream economics, in its reliance on instrumental rationality as the exclusive basis for explaining economic behavior, does not offer an account of economic behavior as complex. Coupling collective intentionality analysis with instrumental rationality analysis, however, makes such (...)
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  41.  7
    Behavioral Economics and the Positive- Normative Distinction: Sunstein’s Choosing Not to Choose and Behavioral Economics Imperialism.John B. Davis - 2018 - Ethics and Economics 15 (1).
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  42.  78
    Applying Principles to Cases and the Problem of Judgment.John K. Davis - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (4):563 - 577.
    We sometimes decide what to do by applying moral principles to cases, but this is harder than it looks. Principles are more general than cases, and sometimes it is hard to tell whether and how a principle applies to a given case. Sometimes two conflicting principles seem to apply to the same case. To handle these problems, we use a kind of judgment to ascertain whether and how a principle applies to a given case, or which principle to follow when (...)
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  43.  50
    Identity Problems: An Interview with John B. Davis.Thomas R. Wells & John B. Davis - 2012 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 5 (2):81-103.
    In this interview, professor Davis discusses the evolution of his career and research interests as a philosopher-economist and gives his perspective on a number of important issues in the field. He argues that historians and methodologists of economics should be engaged in the practice of economics, and that historians should be more open to philosophical analysis of the content of economic ideas. He suggests that the history of recent economics is a particularly fruitful and important area for research exactly because (...)
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  44.  10
    Weather Foreasting and the Development of Meteorological Theory at the Paris Observatory, 1853–1878.John L. Davis - 1984 - Annals of Science 41 (4):359-382.
    (1984). Weather foreasting and the development of meteorological theory at the Paris Observatory, 1853–1878. Annals of Science: Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 359-382.
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  45.  24
    Bayle, Berkeley and Hume’s Metaphysics.John W. Davis - 1988 - Philosophie Et Culture: Actes du XVIIe Congrès Mondial de Philosophie 4:358-364.
  46.  5
    Value-Ladenness in Economics: Reply to Rosenbaum.John B. Davis - 1996 - Journal of Economic Methodology 3 (1):121-125.
  47.  41
    Will Social Values Influence the Development of HMOs?John B. Davis - 2002 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 11 (4):418-421.
    Among industrialized nations the United States is relatively unique in relying on a mix of public and private financing and delivery of healthcare: federal and federal-state programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid; employment-based health insurance ; and state-subsidized insurance pools for high-risk individuals. In recent years, however, there have been efforts to apply the principles of private employment-based health insurance to the other forms of healthcare, and there is speculation that rising healthcare costs can only be addressed by further extending (...)
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  48.  5
    Surviving Interests and Living Wills.John K. Davis - 2006 - Public Affairs Quarterly 20 (1):17-30.
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  49.  33
    Four Ways Life Extension Will Change Our Relationship with Death.John K. Davis - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (3):165-172.
    Discussions of life extension ethics have focused mainly on whether an extended life would be desirable to have, and on the social consequences of widely available life extension. I want to explore a different range of issues: four ways in which the advent of life extension will change our relationship with death, not only for those who live extended lives, but also for those who cannot or choose not to. Although I believe that, on balance, the reasons in favor of (...)
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  50. Identity and Commitment: Sen's Fourth Aspect of the Self.John Davis - 2007 - In Fabienne Peter (ed.), Rationality and Commitment. Oxford University Press, Usa. pp. 313--335.
     
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