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John Forge
University College, London (Alumnus)
  1.  1
    The Responsible Scientist: A Philosophical Inquiry.John Forge - 2008 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    When Fat Boy, the first atomic bomb was detonated at Los Alamos, New Mexico in 1945, moral responsibility in science was forever thrust into the forefront of philosophical debate. The culmination of the famed Manhattan Project, which employed many of the world's best scientific minds, was a singular event that signaled a new age of science for power and profit and the monumental responsibility that these actions entailed. Today, the drive for technological advances in areas such as pharmaceuticals, biosciences, communications, (...)
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  2. Reflections on Structuralism and Scientific Explanation.John Forge - 2002 - Synthese 130 (1):109 - 121.
    This paper is about structuralism as a form of reconstructing theories, associated with the work Sneed, Balzar and Moulines among others, and not about "structuralism" is any of its other manifold senses. The paper is a reflection in that it looks back on some earlier work of my own on the subject of structuralism and explanation, in which I argued that structuralism and my 'instance view' of explanation go well together, with structuralism providing the means to develop the idea of (...)
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  3.  49
    A Note on the Definition of “Dual Use”.John Forge - 2009 - Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (1):111-118.
    While there has been much interest in this topic, no generally accepted definition of dual use has been forthcoming. As a contribution to this issue, it is maintained that three related kinds of things comprise the category of dual use: research, technologies and artefacts. In regard to all three kinds, difficulties are identified in making clear distinctions between those that are and are not dual use. It is suggested that our classification should take account of actual capacities and willingness to (...)
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  4.  2
    Explanation, Quantity, and Law.John Forge - 1999 - Ashgate.
    'Explanation, Quantity and Law' is a sustained elaboration and defence of a theory of explanation, called the instance view, that is able to deal with the characteristic aspects of physical science, such as the use of mathematics, the fact that errors of measurement are ubiquitous, and so forth. The book begins with a summary of 'new directions' in the theory of explanation and continues with a systematic account of the view that to explain is to show that something is an (...)
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  5.  37
    The Structure of Physical Explanation.John Forge - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (2):203-226.
    Some features of physical science relevant for a discussion of physical explanation are mentioned. The D-N account of physical explanation is discussed, and it is seen to restrict the scope of explanation in physical science because it imposes the requirement that the explanandum must be deducible from the explanans. Analysis shows that an alternative view of scientific explanation, called the instance view, allows a wider range of physical explanations. The view is seen to be free from a certain class of (...)
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  6.  61
    David Armstrong on Functional Laws.John Forge - 1986 - Philosophy of Science 53 (4):584-587.
    In his new book What is a Law of Nature?, David Armstrong gives an account of functional laws on the basis of the theory, originally proposed independently by Armstrong himself, Dretske, and Tooley, and further developed in this work, which asserts that laws are relations of necessitation between properties. On the theory, properties and relations are universals, and so a law is a relation between universals and is itself a universal. There are two reasons why Armstrong's account of functional laws (...)
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  7.  18
    The Instance Theory of Explanation.John Forge - 1986 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (2):127 – 142.
  8.  57
    Bigelow and Pargetter on Quantities.John Forge - 1995 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 73 (4):594 – 605.
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  9.  46
    Theoretical Explanation in Physical Science.John Forge - 1985 - Erkenntnis 23 (3):269 - 294.
    An account of physical explanation derived from the instance view of scientific explanation is outlined, and it is shown that this account does not cover explanations by theories which contain theoretical functions. An alternative account, also derived from the instance view, is proposed on the basis of Sneed's account of theories. It is shown that this account does cover theoretical explanations. Finally, it is shown that this account can accommodate explananda that record errors of measurement.
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  10. Proportionality, Just War Theory and Weapons Innovation.John Forge - 2009 - Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (1):25-38.
    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding ‘interpretation problem’: what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a ‘measurement problem’: how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons (...)
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  11.  29
    Theoretical Functions, Theory and Evidence.John Forge - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (3):443-463.
    Glymour's account of confirmation is seen to have paradoxical consequences when applied to the confirmation of theories containing theoretical functions. An alternative conception of instances derived from Sneed's reconstruction of physical theories is conjoined with the instance view of confirmation to produce an account of confirmation that avoids these problems. The topic of selective confirmation is discussed, and it is argued that theories containing theoretical functions are not selectively confirmable.
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  12.  30
    Theoretical Explanation and Errors of Measurement.John Forge - 1990 - Erkenntnis 33 (3):371 - 390.
    By using the concept of a uniformity, the Structuralists have given us a most useful means of representing approximations. In the second section of this paper, I have made use of this technique to show how we can deal with errors of measurement — imprecise explananda — in the context of theoretical explanation. As well as (I hope) providing further demonstration of the power of the Structuralist approach, this also serves to support the ontic conception of explanation by showing that (...)
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  13. How Should We Explain Remote Correlations?John Forge - 1993 - Philosophica 51.
  14.  31
    What Are the Moral Limits of Weapons Research?John Forge - 2007 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 14 (1):76-87.
    The paper tries to locate the moral limits of weapons research, an issue that comes about because weapons harm and unjustified harms are wrong.Doing research does not itself harm, so first it is shown that a means principle holds. Weapons research then needs to be justified, and two ways to do this arecanvassed, historical and a historical. The former takes account of the context in which the work is done and the circumstances the products used. It is arguedthat there can (...)
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  15.  58
    The Morality of Weapons Research.John Forge - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (3):531-542.
    I ask whether weapons research is ever justified. Weapons research is identified as the business of the engineer. It is argued that the engineer has responsibility for the uses to which the tools that he designs can be put, and that responsibility extends to the use of weapons. It is maintained that there are no inherently defensive weapons, and hence there is no such thing as ‘defensive’ weapons research. The issue then is what responsibilities as a professional the engineer has (...)
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  16.  13
    Theoretical Functions in Physical Science.John Forge - 1984 - Erkenntnis 21 (1):1 - 29.
    The aim of this paper is to give an account of theoreticity which captures the preanalytic conception of a theoretical function, which is precise and yet which expresses what is significant about theoretical functions. The point of departure for this account is a recent discussion of the topic by Balzer and Moulines. On the basis of criticism of this discussion and on the basis of an examination of laboratory measurement, an account of theoreticity is proposed.
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  17. Untitled Contribution to Review Symposium‹ Finitism Interruptus?‹ Interests' and the Foundations of SSK.John Forge - 1996 - Metascience 11:34-41.
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  18. Laws of Nature as Relations Between Quantities?John Forge - 1999 - In Howard Sankey (ed.), Causation and Laws of Nature. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 111--124.
  19. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science.Lars Bergstrom, John Forge, Louis Marinoff, John Leslie & Sami Pihlstrom - 1996 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science: Isps 10:187.
     
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  20. A. Franklin: "The Neglect of Experiment". [REVIEW]John Forge - 1988 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 66:116.
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  21. H. I. Brown: "Observation and Objectivity". [REVIEW]John Forge - 1989 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 67:358.
  22. Nola, R. : "Relativism and Realism in Science". [REVIEW]John Forge - 1990 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 68:355.
     
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  23.  6
    The Morality of Weapons Research : Why It is Wrong to Design Weapons.John Forge - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
    This book addresses the morality of engaging in weapons research, a topic that has been neglected but which is extremely important. It is argued that this activity is both morally wrong and morally unjustifiable, and this implies that moral persons should not engage in it. The argument is not based on any pacifist assumptions: it is not assumed that neither individuals nor states should not defend themselves. What is wrong with weapons research is that it is the first step in (...)
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  24.  40
    Science and the 'Modern Values of Control'.John Forge - 2000 - Metascience 9 (3):326-333.
    This is a challenging book and it addresses important questions. This review has focused on what I think is the most important question of all: just what is the relationship between the ‘strategies’ which drive modern science and the social values which guide the societies we live in. I have much sympathy with the way in which Lacey tries to answer this question and how he tries to open up alternative possibilities and give us a view of the future which (...)
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  25.  42
    Corporate Responsibility Revisited.John Forge - 2002 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (1):13-32.
    The fact that corporate responsibility supervenes on human action implies that there are two possible kinds of account of the former, namely reductive accounts in which the responsibility of the corporation devolves down without remainder to its officers, and those in which it does not. Two versions of the latter are discussed here. The first, due to Peter French, tries to satisfy the supervenience requirement by defining corporate action in terms of human action. It is argued that the corresponding view (...)
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  26. Moral Responsibility and the 'Ignorant Scientist'.John Forge - 2000 - Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (3):341-349.
    The question whether a scientist can be responsible for an outcome of her work which she does not foresee, and so is ignorant of, is addressed. It is argued that ignorance can be a ground for the attribution of responsibility, on condition that there are general principles, rules or norms, that the subject should be aware of. It is maintained that there are such rules which inform the practice of science as a social institution.
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  27.  14
    Science and Technology as a Mixed Blessing: Seumas Miller: Dual Use Science and Technology, Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction. Springer Briefs in Ethics. Dordrecht: Springer, 2018, 122pp, US$69.99 PB.John Forge - 2019 - Metascience 28 (1):159-161.
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  28.  92
    Laws and States in Quantum Mechanics.John Forge - 1996 - In P. Riggs (ed.), Natural Kinds, Laws of Nature and Scientific Methodology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 163--185.
  29.  28
    Tales of Schrödinger’s Cat.John Forge - 1998 - Metascience 7 (1):151-166.
  30.  33
    Towards a Theory of Models In Physical Science.John Forge - 1982 - Philosophy Research Archives 8:321-338.
    The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the concept of model as it is applied in the physical sciences, and to show that this analysis is fruitful insofar as it can be used as an acceptable account of the role of models in physical explanation.A realist interpretation of theories is adopted as a point of departure. A distinction between theories and models is drawn on the basis of this interpretation. The relation between model and prototype is (...)
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  31.  14
    Enter the Terminator: Alex Leveringhaus: Ethics and Autonomous Weapons. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, Vii+131pp, US$67.50.John Forge - 2017 - Metascience 26 (3):425-428.
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  32.  19
    Mechanics and Moral Mediation.John Forge - 2009 - Metascience 18 (3):399-403.
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  33.  21
    With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility: John Forge: The Responsible Scientist: A Philosophical Inquiry. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2008, Pp. 272 US$39.95 HB.Bernard Gert, Nicholas Evans, Heather Douglas & John Forge - 2010 - Metascience 19 (1):29-43.
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  34.  11
    Science and Ethics on a Shaky Foundation: Sandra Greer: Elements of Ethics for Physical Scientists. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2017, Xi + 239 Pp, US$50.John Forge - 2018 - Metascience 27 (2):237-240.
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  35.  9
    Science is Value-Laden: You Can Count on That! [REVIEW]John Forge - 2009 - Metascience 18 (2):257-260.
  36.  17
    Hidden Variables Revealed.John Forge - 1997 - Metascience 6 (2):46-58.
    ConclusionI think it is clear that Bqm and Oqm are quite different theories, even if they have the same empirical consequences. This is, of course, to adopt something like the realist perspective. Oqm is not normally interpreted realistically by physicists but it can be, and what it says things are like is by no means the same as what Bqm says. One of the most puzzling features of Oqm is the status of the particle when it is in an eigenstate (...)
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  37.  15
    Biomedical Research, Methodology, and the Moral Sense.Jane Azevedo, John Forge, Alan MacKay-Sim, Merry Maisel & Don Howard - 1998 - Metascience 7 (2):237-272.
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  38.  12
    The Semantic Conception of Theories and Scientific Realism. Frederick Suppe.John Forge - 1991 - Isis 82 (3):607-608.
  39.  12
    The Semantic Conception of Theories and Scientific Realism by Frederick Suppe. [REVIEW]John Forge - 1991 - Isis 82:607-608.
  40.  13
    No Consolation for Kalashnikov.John Forge - 2007 - Philosophy Now 59:6-8.
  41.  44
    Explanation and the Quantum State.John Forge - 1996 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 10 (3):203 – 215.
    Abstract This paper argues that there are good reasons to adopt a non-reductive account of states when it comes to quantum mechanics. That is to say, it is argued that there are advantages to thinking about states as sui generis, as reducible to classes of values of quantities, when it comes to the quantum domain. One reason for holding this view is that it seems to improve the prospects for explanation. In more detail, it is argued that there is an (...)
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  42.  16
    Science in a Democratic Society.John Forge - 2003 - Metascience 12 (2):217-219.
  43.  50
    Quantities in Quantum Mechanics.John Forge - 2000 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 14 (1):43 – 56.
    The problem of the failure of value definiteness (VD) for the idea of quantity in quantum mechanics is stated, and what VD is and how it fails is explained. An account of quantity, called BP, is outlined and used as a basis for discussing the problem. Several proposals are canvassed in view of, respectively, Forrest's indeterminate particle speculation, the "standard" interpretation of quantum mechanics and Bub's modal interpretation.
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  44.  10
    Aiding and Abetting the Continuation of Political Intercourse.John Forge - 2007 - Metascience 16 (2):327-330.
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  45.  16
    Review of Janet A. Kourany, Philosophy of Science After Feminism[REVIEW]John Forge - 2011 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2011 (2).
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  46.  8
    What Are the Moral Limits of Weapons Research?John Forge - 2007 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 14 (1):76-87.
    The paper tries to locate the moral limits of weapons research, an issue that comes about because weapons harm and unjustified harms are wrong.Doing research does not itself harm, so first it is shown that a means principle holds. Weapons research then needs to be justified, and two ways to do this arecanvassed, historical and a historical. The former takes account of the context in which the work is done and the circumstances the products used. It is arguedthat there can (...)
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  47.  7
    What is Noise, and What Isn’T?: Roland Wittje: The Age of Electroacoustics. Transforming Science and Sound. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2016, Xii + 297 Pp, US$40.00 HB.John Forge - 2017 - Metascience 26 (2):311-313.
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  48.  35
    Review Symposia.Martin Rudwick, Naomi Oreskes, David Oldroyd, David Philip Miller, Alan Chalmers, John Forge, David Turnbull, Peter Slezak, David Bloor, Craig Callender, Keith Hutchison, Steven Savitt & Huw Price - 1996 - Metascience 5 (1):7-85.
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  49.  9
    Essay Review.Greg Dening, John Forge & James Robert Brown - 1996 - Metascience 5 (2):21-39.
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  50. Sharp and Blunt Values.John Forge - 2003 - Science & Education 12 (5):479-493.
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