The purpose of the article is to examine the development of skepticism in indian philosophical thought. A number of important vedic passages are analyzed in order to show that although the authors were concerned with questions about the origins and guarantees of knowledge claims, There was no developed philosophical skepticism in the vedic age. The skepticism of purandara is examined to illustrate the carvaka position. Jayarasi bhatta's thorough-Going skepticism is examined to show that complete skepticism is self-Contradictory--It involves claiming to (...) know that the criteria for valid knowledge "cannot" be met. It is suggested that recognition of the skeptic's inconsistency in holding that it is "known" that no knowledge is possible may have been one of the reasons why skepticism failed to take hold in india, Despite great emphasis on epistemological issues. (shrink)
An analysis of the Jain metaphysics of non-absolutism (anekāntavāda) shows how the epistemological theory of points of view (nayavāda) and the sevenfold schema of predication (saptabhaṅgī) provide a foundation for the central Jain principle of nonviolence (ahiṃsā).
Mao has responded to the challenge of adapting Marxism to traditional Chinese thought through his two creative developments of Marxism: the ideological definition of class and the concept of permanent revolution, based on intra-personal class-struggle.
Mao has responded to the challenge of adapting Marxism to traditional Chinese thought through his two 'creative developments' of Marxism: the ideological definition of class and the concept of permanent revolution, based on intra-personal class-struggle.