Results for 'John Marks Ashley'

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  1. Views Into the Chinese Room: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence.John Mark Bishop & John Preston (eds.) - 2002 - London: Oxford University Press.
  2.  1
    Learning and Applying Contextual Constraints in Sentence Comprehension.Mark F. St John & James L. McClelland - 1990 - Artificial Intelligence 46 (1-2):217-257.
  3. A Cognitive Computation Fallacy? Cognition, Computations and Panpsychism.John Mark Bishop - 2009 - Cognitive Computation 1 (3):221-233.
    The journal of Cognitive Computation is defined in part by the notion that biologically inspired computational accounts are at the heart of cognitive processes in both natural and artificial systems. Many studies of various important aspects of cognition (memory, observational learning, decision making, reward prediction learning, attention control, etc.) have been made by modelling the various experimental results using ever-more sophisticated computer programs. In this manner progressive inroads have been made into gaining a better understanding of the many components of (...)
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  4. Why Computers Can't Feel Pain.John Mark Bishop - 2009 - Minds and Machines 19 (4):507-516.
    The most cursory examination of the history of artificial intelligence highlights numerous egregious claims of its researchers, especially in relation to a populist form of ‘strong’ computationalism which holds that any suitably programmed computer instantiates genuine conscious mental states purely in virtue of carrying out a specific series of computations. The argument presented herein is a simple development of that originally presented in Putnam’s (Representation & Reality, Bradford Books, Cambridge in 1988 ) monograph, “Representation & Reality”, which if correct, has (...)
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  5. Characteristics of Dissociable Human Learning Systems.David R. Shanks & Mark F. St John - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):367-447.
    A number of ways of taxonomizing human learning have been proposed. We examine the evidence for one such proposal, namely, that there exist independent explicit and implicit learning systems. This combines two further distinctions, (1) between learning that takes place with versus without concurrent awareness, and (2) between learning that involves the encoding of instances (or fragments) versus the induction of abstract rules or hypotheses. Implicit learning is assumed to involve unconscious rule learning. We examine the evidence for implicit learning (...)
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  6. Counterfactuals Cannot Count: A Rejoinder to David Chalmers.John Mark Bishop - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (4):642-652.
    The initial argument presented herein is not significantly original—it is a simple reflection upon a notion of computation originally developed by Putnam and criticised by Chalmers et al. . In what follows, instead of seeking to justify Putnam’s conclusion that every open system implements every Finite State Automaton and hence that psychological states of the brain cannot be functional states of a computer, I will establish the weaker result that, over a finite time window every open system implements the trace (...)
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  7.  29
    Contemporary Sensorimotor Theory.John Mark Bishop & Andrew Owen Martin (eds.) - 2013 - Springer.
    This book analyzes the philosophical foundations of sensorimotor theory and discusses the most recent applications of sensorimotor theory to human computer interaction, child's play, virtual reality, robotics, and linguistics. -/- Why does a circle look curved and not angular? Why doesn't red sound like a bell? Why, as I interact with the world, is there something it is like to be me? These are simple questions to pose but more difficult to answer. An analytic philosopher might respond to the first (...)
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  8.  66
    Characteristics of Dissociable Human Learning Systems.David R. Shanks & Mark F. St John - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):367-395.
    A number of ways of taxonomizing human learning have been proposed. We examine the evidence for one such proposal, namely, that there exist independent explicit and implicit learning systems. This combines two further distinctions, between learning that takes place with versus without concurrent awareness, and between learning that involves the encoding of instances versus the induction of abstract rules or hypotheses. Implicit learning is assumed to involve unconscious rule learning. We examine the evidence for implicit learning derived from subliminal learning, (...)
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  9.  27
    Why Computers Can't Feel Pain.John Mark Bishop - 2009 - Minds and Machines 19 (4):507-516.
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  10.  18
    The Story Gestalt: A Model Of Knowledge‐Intensive Processes in Text Comprehension.Mark F. John - 1992 - Cognitive Science 16 (2):271-306.
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  11. Dancing with Pixies: Strong Artificial Intelligence and Panpsychism.John Mark Bishop - 2002 - In John M. Preston & John Mark Bishop (eds.), Views into the Chinese Room: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence. Oxford University Press. pp. 360-379.
    The argument presented in this paper is not a direct attack or defence of the Chinese Room Argument (CRA), but relates to the premise at its heart, that syntax is not sufficient for semantics, via the closely associated propositions that semantics is not intrinsic to syntax and that syntax is not intrinsic to physics. However, in contrast to the CRA’s critique of the link between syntax and semantics, this paper will explore the associated link between syntax and physics. The main (...)
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  12.  30
    Additive Manufacturing and its Implications for Military Ethics.John Mark Mattox - 2013 - Journal of Military Ethics 12 (3):225-234.
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  13.  33
    The Moral Limits of Military Deception.John Mark Mattox - 2002 - Journal of Military Ethics 1 (1):4-15.
    Deception always has played, and continues to play, a significant role in military operations at all levels. Nevertheless, its significance does not override the reality that deception, like so many other phenomena of war, is subject to limitations imposed by the demands of morality. Those demands include the imperative that military professionals act in good faith even with those who are their adversaries. Military leaders sensitive to this reality are far better equipped to use deceptive measures in a way that (...)
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  14.  18
    Nuclear Terrorism: The 'Other' Extreme of Irregular Warfare.John Mark Mattox - 2010 - Journal of Military Ethics 9 (2):160-176.
  15.  46
    Zombie Mouse in a Chinese Room.Slawomir J. Nasuto, John Mark Bishop, Etienne B. Roesch & Matthew C. Spencer - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (2):209-223.
    John Searle’s Chinese Room Argument purports to demonstrate that syntax is not sufficient for semantics, and, hence, because computation cannot yield understanding, the computational theory of mind, which equates the mind to an information processing system based on formal computations, fails. In this paper, we use the CRA, and the debate that emerged from it, to develop a philosophical critique of recent advances in robotics and neuroscience. We describe results from a body of work that contributes to blurring the (...)
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  16. Herbert Marcuse: A Critical Reader.John Abromeit & W. Mark Cobb (eds.) - 2003 - Routledge.
    _The Legacy of Herbert Marcuse: A Critical Reader_ is a collection of brand new papers by seventeen Marcuse scholars, which provides a comprehensive reassessment of the relevance of Marcuse's critical theory at the beginning of the 21st century. Although best known for his reputation in critical theory, Herbert Marcuse's work has had impact on areas as diverse as politics, technology, aesthetics, psychoanalysis and ecology. This collection addresses the contemporary relevance of Marcuse's work in this broad variety of fields and from (...)
     
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  17. Herbert Marcuse: A Critical Reader.John Abromeit & W. Mark Cobb (eds.) - 2003 - Routledge.
    _The Legacy of Herbert Marcuse: A Critical Reader_ is a collection of brand new papers by seventeen Marcuse scholars, which provides a comprehensive reassessment of the relevance of Marcuse's critical theory at the beginning of the 21st century. Although best known for his reputation in critical theory, Herbert Marcuse's work has had impact on areas as diverse as politics, technology, aesthetics, psychoanalysis and ecology. This collection addresses the contemporary relevance of Marcuse's work in this broad variety of fields and from (...)
     
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  18. William James Ashley a Life.Annie Ashley & John H. Muirhead - 1932 - P. S. King.
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  19. Knowledge Central: A Central Role for Knowledge Attributions in Social Evaluations.John Turri, Ori Friedman & Ashley Keefner - 2017 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (3):504-515.
    Five experiments demonstrate the central role of knowledge attributions in social evaluations. In Experiments 1–3, we manipulated whether an agent believes, is certain of, or knows a true proposition and asked people to rate whether the agent should perform a variety of actions. We found that knowledge, more so than belief or certainty, leads people to judge that the agent should act. In Experiments 4–5, we investigated whether attributions of knowledge or certainty can explain an important finding on how people (...)
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  20.  29
    Why Hegel at All?Thomas Bole Iii & John Mark Stevens - 1985 - Philosophical Topics 13 (2):113-122.
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  21.  30
    The Moral Limits of a Nuclear Response to Nuclear Terrorism: A Response to Thomas E. Doyle II.John Mark Mattox - 2011 - Journal of Military Ethics 10 (4):309-315.
    This article responds to issues raised in Ethics, Nuclear Terrorism, and Counter-Terrorist Nuclear Reprisals? A Response to John Mark Mattox's?Nuclear Terrorism: The Other Extreme of Irregular Warfare? by Thomas E. Doyle II, also appearing in the pages of this issue.
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  22.  21
    John-Mark L. Miravalle: God, existence, and fictional objects: the case for meinongian theism: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018, 186 pp, $102.60.Tyron Goldschmidt - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (1):131-134.
  23.  4
    John-Mark L. Miravalle God, Existence, and Fictional Objects: The Case for Meinongian Theism. . Pp. 186. £85.00 . ISBN 9781350061613. [REVIEW]Paul M. Gould - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-5.
  24.  26
    What's in a Heuristic?Ulrike Hahn, John-Mark Frost & Greg Maio - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):551-552.
    The term “moral heuristic” as used by Sunstein seeks to bring together various traditions. However, there are significant differences between uses of the term “heuristic” in the cognitive and the social psychological research, and these differences are accompanied by very distinct evidential criteria. We suggest the term “moral heuristic” should refer to processes, which means that further evidence is required.
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  25.  3
    Paul and the Stoics.John Mark N. Reynolds - 2003 - Philosophia Christi 5 (1):275-281.
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  26.  36
    A Short Visit to the Chinese Room.John Mark Bishop - 2004 - The Philosophers' Magazine (28):47-51.
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  27.  32
    All Watched Over by Machines of Silent Grace?John Mark Bishop - 2011 - Philosophy and Technology 24 (3):359-362.
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  28. The Imitation Game.John Mark Bishop - 2010 - Kybernetes 39 (3):398-402.
    This issue of the Kybernetes journal is concerned with the philosophical question- Can a Machine Think? Famously, in his 1950 paper `Computing Machinery andIntelligence' [9], the British mathematician Alan Turing suggested replacing this question - which he found \too meaningless to deserve discussion" - with a simple -behavioural - test based on an imagined `Victorianesque' pastime he entitled the`imitation game'. In this special issue of Kybernetes a selection of authors with a special interest in Turing's work (including those who participated (...)
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  29.  1
    Tough Decisions: A Casebook in Medical Ethics.John Mark Freeman - 1987 - Oxford University Press.
    Tough Decisions presents many of the complex medical-ethical issues likely to confront practitioners in critical situations. Through fictional but true-to-life cases, vividly described in clinical terms, the authors force the reader to choose among different courses of action and to confront a range of possible consequences. A two-year-old has been diagnosed with a malignant brain tumor. Who should be allowed to make decisions about the child's surgery and subsequent therapy, and on what basis? A family history of Huntington's disease emerges (...)
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  30.  7
    Plain English and the Tower of Babel: Myth or Reality?John Mark Keyes - 2001 - Legal Ethics 4 (1):15-17.
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  31.  6
    Eco-Violence: A Threat to Global Health.John Mark Ogu - forthcoming - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal.
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  32. John Mark Fischer and Mark Ravizza, Eds., Perspectives on Moral Responsibility Reviewed By.James B. Sauer - 1995 - Philosophy in Review 15 (1):37-39.
     
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  33. Responsibility and Control: A Theory of Moral Responsibility.John Martin Fischer & Mark Ravizza - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides a comprehensive, systematic theory of moral responsibility. The authors explore the conditions under which individuals are morally responsible for actions, omissions, consequences, and emotions. The leading idea in the book is that moral responsibility is based on 'guidance control'. This control has two components: the mechanism that issues in the relevant behavior must be the agent's own mechanism, and it must be appropriately responsive to reasons. The book develops an account of both components. The authors go on (...)
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  34. A Thomistic Revision of Dummett's Proof for God.John-Mark L. Miravalle - 2012 - The Thomist 76 (2):211-231.
     
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  35.  22
    The Trinity's Choice.John-Mark L. Miravalle - 2015 - Philosophy and Theology 27 (1):153-169.
    If God’s choice to create the universe is an unnecessary choice, then, Oppy argues, something contingent is ultimately at the origin of the universe, and as long as “brute contingency” is the basis for the universe’s existence, why bother with the additional postulate of a necessary being? Bergson’s work on free will, however, coupled with traditional trinitarian theology, suggests that it is more rationally satisfying, and certainly more in keeping with a viable principle of sufficient reason, to stop searching for (...)
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  36.  10
    Sequential Congruency Effects Reveal Differences in Disengagement of Attention for Monolingual and Bilingual Young Adults.John G. Grundy, Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim, Deanna C. Friesen, Lorinda Mak & Ellen Bialystok - 2017 - Cognition 163:42-55.
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  37.  12
    To Kill Nations: American Strategy in the Air-Atomic Age and the Rise of Mutually Assured Destruction, by Edward Kaplan.John Mark Mattox - 2016 - Journal of Military Ethics 15 (2):166-168.
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  38. Original Letters of John Locke, Alg. Sidney, and Lord Shaftesbury with an Analytical Sketch of the Writings and Opinions of Locke and Other Metaphysicians.John Locke, T. Forster, Anthony Ashley Cooper Shaftesbury & Algernon Sidney - 1847 - Privately Printed.
  39.  19
    Social Values as Arguments: Similar is Convincing.Gregory R. Maio, Ulrike Hahn, John-Mark Frost, Toon Kuppens, Nadia Rehman & Shanmukh Kamble - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  40. The Ashley Treatment: Best Interests, Convenience, and Parental Decision Making.S. Matthew Liao, Julian Savulescu & Mark Sheehan - 2007 - Hastings Center Report 37 (2):16-20.
    The story of Ashley, a nine-year-old from Seattle, has caused a good deal of controversy since it appeared in the Los Angeles Times on January 3, 2007.1 Ashley was born with a condition called static encephalopathy, a severe brain impairment that leaves her unable to walk, talk, eat, sit up, or roll over. According to her doctors, Ashley has reached, and will remain at, the developmental level of a three-month-old.
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  41. Virtue Epistemology.John Turri, Mark Alfano & John Greco - 2011 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:1-51.
    Contemporary virtue epistemology (hereafter ‘VE’) is a diverse collection of approaches to epistemology. At least two central tendencies are discernible among the approaches. First, they view epistemology as a normative discipline. Second, they view intellectual agents and communities as the primary focus of epistemic evaluation, with a focus on the intellectual virtues and vices embodied in and expressed by these agents and communities. -/- This entry introduces many of the most important results of the contemporary VE research program. These include (...)
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  42.  70
    Herbert Marcuse: A Critical Reader.John Abromeit & W. Mark Cobb (eds.) - 2003 - Routledge.
    _The Legacy of Herbert Marcuse: A Critical Reader_ is a collection of brand new papers by seventeen Marcuse scholars, which provides a comprehensive reassessment of the relevance of Marcuse's critical theory at the beginning of the 21st century. Although best known for his reputation in critical theory, Herbert Marcuse's work has had impact on areas as diverse as politics, technology, aesthetics, psychoanalysis and ecology. This collection addresses the contemporary relevance of Marcuse's work in this broad variety of fields and from (...)
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  43.  14
    Early, but Not Late Visual Distractors Affect Movement Synchronization to a Temporal-Spatial Visual Cue.Ashley J. Booth & Mark T. Elliott - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  44. The Prince and the Phone Booth: Reporting Puzzling Beliefs.Mark Crimmins & John Perry - 1989 - Journal of Philosophy 86 (12):685.
    Beliefs are concrete particulars containing ideas of properties and notions of things, which also are concrete. The claim made in a belief report is that the agent has a belief (i) whose content is a specific singular proposition, and (ii) which involves certain of the agent's notions and ideas in a certain way. No words in the report stand for the notions and ideas, so they are unarticulated constituents of the report's content (like the relevant place in "it's raining"). The (...)
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  45. CONSPEC and CONLERN: A Two-Process Theory of Infant Face Recognition.John Morton & Mark H. Johnson - 1991 - Psychological Review 98 (2):164-181.
  46. The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities.John Angus Campbell & John Mark Reynolds - unknown
    The design inference uncovers intelligent causes by isolating the key trademark of intelligent causes: specified events of small probability. Just about anything that happens is highly improbable, but when a highly improbable event is also specified (i.e., conforms to an independently given pattern) undirected natural causes lose their explanatory power. Design inferences can be found in a range of scientific pursuits from forensic science to research into the origins of life to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
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  47.  6
    Implicit Learning: What Does It All Mean?David R. Shanks & Mark F. St John - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):557-558.
    In the original target article (Shanks & St. John 1994), one of our principal conclusions was that there is almost no evidence that learning can occur outside awareness. The continuing commentaries raise some interesting questions, especially about the definition of learning, but do not lead us to abandon our conclusion.
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  48.  11
    The Exploratorium's Explainer Program: The Long‐Term Impacts on Teenagers of Teaching Science to the Public.Judy Diamond, Mark St John, Beth Cleary & Darlene Librero - 1987 - Science Education 71 (5):643-656.
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  49.  15
    Assisted Nutrition and Hydration as Supportive Care During Illness.Barbara Golder, E. Wesley Ely, John Raphael, Ashley K. Fernandes & Annmarie Hosie - 2016 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 16 (3):435-448.
    Confusion surrounds Catholic teaching on the use of assisted nutrition and hydration, specifically the question of when, if ever, its refusal or removal is ethical. This paper focuses on two often-neglected considerations: the relationship between means and mechanism, and an assessment of proportionality of the mechanism from the patient’s perspective. The authors draw on two critical principles of Catholic moral teaching: only ordinary means are required, and proportionality is subject to the perspective of the patient, not just that of experts (...)
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  50.  13
    How Should Implicit Learning Be Characterized?David R. Shanks & Mark F. St John - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):427-447.
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