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John W. Mccarthy [2]John Russell Mccarthy [1]John Campbell Mccarthy [1]John D. McCarthy [1]

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John C. McCarthy
Catholic University of America
  1. Some Philosophical Problems From the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence.John McCarthy & Patrick Hayes - 1969 - In B. Meltzer & Donald Michie (eds.), Machine Intelligence 4. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 463--502.
  2.  2
    Circumscription — A Form of Non-Monotonic Reasoning.John McCarthy - 1980 - Artificial Intelligence 13 (1-2):27–39.
  3. Ascribing Mental Qualities to Machines.John McCarthy - 1979 - In Martin Ringle (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence. Humanities Press.
    Ascribing mental qualities like beliefs, intentions and wants to a machine is sometimes correct if done conservatively and is sometimes necessary to express what is known about its state. We propose some new definitional tools for this: definitions relative to an approximate theory and second order structural definitions.
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  4.  2
    Applications of Circumscription to Formalizing Common Sense Knowledge.John McCarthy - 1986 - Artificial Intelligence 28 (1):89–116.
  5.  26
    Epistemological Challenges for Connectionism.John McCarthy - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1):44-44.
  6.  39
    The Well-Designed Child.John McCarthy - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence 172 (18):2003-2014.
    This article is inspired by recent psychological studies confirming that a child is not born a blank slate but has important innate capabilities. An important part of the ``learning'' required to deal with the three dimensional world of objects, processes, and other beings was done by evolution. Each child need not do this learning itself.
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  7.  38
    Automata Studies.John Mccarthy & Claude Shannon - 1958 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 23 (1):59-60.
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  8.  97
    Making Robots Conscious of Their Mental States.John McCarthy - 1996 - In S. Muggleton (ed.), Machine Intelligence 15. Oxford University Press.
    In AI, consciousness of self consists in a program having certain kinds of facts about its own mental processes and state of mind. We discuss what consciousness of its own mental structures a robot will need in order to operate in the common sense world and accomplish the tasks humans will give it. It's quite a lot. Many features of human consciousness will be wanted, some will not, and some abilities not possessed by humans have already been found feasible and (...)
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  9.  32
    Formalizing Context (Expanded Notes).John McCarthy & Sasa Buvac - 1998 - CSLI Lecture Notes 81:13-50.
    These notes discuss formalizing contexts as first class objects. The basic relationships are: ist(c,p) meaning that the proposition p is true in the context c, and value(c,p) designating the value of the term e in the context c Besides these, there are lifting formulas that relate the propositions and terms in subcontexts to possibly more general propositions and terms in the outer context. Subcontextx are often specialised with regard to time, place and terminology. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit (...)
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  10.  31
    First Order Theories of Individual Concepts and Propositions.John McCarthy - 1979
    We discuss first order theories in which individual concepts are admitted as mathematical objects along with the things that reify them. This allows very straightforward formalizations of knowledge, belief, wanting, and necessity in ordinary first order logic without modal operators. Applications are given in philosophy and in artificial intelligence. We do not treat general concepts, and we do not present any full axiomatizations but rather show how various facts can be expressed.
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  11. What is Artificial Intelligence?John McCarthy - 2004
  12.  9
    Towards a Mathematical Science of Computation.J. Mccarthy, Cicely M. Popplewell, John Mccarthy & Wayne A. Kalenich - 1962 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (2):346-347.
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  13. Acts of Dissent: New Developments in the Study of Protest.Dieter Rucht, Ruud Koopmans, Friedhelm Niedhardt, Mark R. Beissinger, Louis J. Crishock, Grzegorz Ekiert, Olivier Fillieule, Pierre Gentile, Peter Hocke, Jan Kubik, John D. McCarthy, Clark McPhail, Johan L. Olivier, Susan Olzak, David Schweingruber, Jackie Smith & Sidney Tarrow - 1999 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Although living conditions have improved throughout history, protest, at least in the last few decades, seems to have increased to the point of becoming a normal phenomenon in modern societies. Contributors to this volume examine how and why this is the case and argue that although problems such as poverty, hunger, and violations of democratic rights may have been reduced in advanced Western societies, a variety of other problems and opportunities have emerged and multiplied the reasons and possibilities for protest.
     
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  14.  13
    Beliefs, Machines, and Theories.John McCarthy - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):435-435.
  15. The Mutilated Checkerboard in Set Theory.John McCarthy - unknown
    An 8 by 8 checkerboard with two diagonally opposite squares removed cannot be covered by dominoes each of which covers two rectilinearly adjacent squares. present a set theory description of the proposition and an informal proof that the covering is impossible. While no present system that I know of will accept either formal description or the proof, I claim that both should be admitted in any heavy duty set theory.
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  16. Concepts of Logical Ai.John McCarthy - unknown
    Logical AI involves representing knowledge of an agent’s world, its goals and the current situation by sentences in logic. The agent decides what to do by inferring that a certain action or course of action is appropriate to achieve the goals. We characterize briefly a large number of concepts that have arisen in research in logical AI. Reaching human-level AI requires programs that deal with the common sense informatic situation. This in turn requires extensions from the way logic has been (...)
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  17. John Searle's Chinese Room Argument.John McCarthy - unknown
    John Searle begins his ``Consciousness, Explanatory Inversion and Cognitive Science'' with " ``Ten years ago in this journal I published an article criticising what I call Strong AI, the view that for a system to have mental states it is sufficient for the system to implement the right sort of program with right inputs and outputs. Strong AI is rather easy to refute and the basic argument can be summarized in one sentence: {it a system, me for example, could implement (...)
     
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  18. Actions and Other Events in Situation Calculus.John McCarthy - manuscript
    internal events that happen spontaneously from external events (actions). It also treats processes, e.g. a buzzer, that do not settle down. The non-monotonic reasoning is circumscription done situation by situation.
     
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  19.  2
    Crossings: Nietzsche and the Space of Tragedy.John P. Mccarthy - 1992 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 50 (4):354-356.
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  20.  83
    A Logical Approach to Context.John McCarthy - 1996
    Logical AI develops computer programs that represent what they know about the world primarily by logical formulas and decide what to do primarily by logical reasoning--including nonmonotonic logical reasoning. It is convenient to use logical sentences and terms whose meaning depends on context. The reasons for this are similar to what causes human language to use context dependent meanings. This note gives elements of some of the formalisms to which we have been led. Fuller treatments are in [McC93], [Guh91] and (...)
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  21.  37
    Toward a Dialogical Perspective on Agency.Paul Sullivan & John Mccarthy - 2004 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 (3):291–309.
    The aim of this article is to motivate and outline a dialogical perspective on agency that accommodates centrifugal and centripetal tendencies in current cultural theories of agency. To complement approaches that assume a high degree of integration and clarity, we emphasise the diversity of agency as it is experienced in the open-ended dialogical relationship with a particular other. While these former approaches to agency provide us with the means to examine the influence of social processes such as division of labour (...)
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  22. Challenges to Machine Learning: Relations Between Reality and Appearance.John McCarthy - unknown
    Apology: My knowledge of of machine learning is no more recent than Tom Mitchell's book. Its chapters describe, except for inductive logic programming, programs aimed at classifying appearances.
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  23. The Robot and the Baby.John McCarthy - manuscript
    This is the first science fiction story I have put up for the public to look at. While it was written just as a story, it partly illustrates my opinions about what household robots should be like. In my article Making Robots Conscious of their Mental States , I argued that robots should not be programmed to have..
     
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  24. An Everywhere Continuous Nowhere Differentiable Function.John McCarthy - manuscript
    My 1953 proof that the function is everywhere continuous and nowhere differentiable is just 13 lines. I've added some remarks to the note in the American Mathematical Monthly.
     
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  25.  8
    The Inversion of Functions Defined by Turing Machines.John Mccarthy - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (3):481-481.
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  26. Modality, Si! Modal Logic, No!John Mccarthy - 1997 - Studia Logica 59 (1):29-32.
    This article is oriented toward the use of modality in artificial intelligence (AI). An agent must reason about what it or other agents know, believe, want, intend or owe. Referentially opaque modalities are needed and must be formalized correctly. Unfortunately, modal logics seem too limited for many important purposes. This article contains examples of uses of modality for which modal logic seems inadequate.I have no proof that modal logic is inadequate, so I hope modal logicians will take the examples as (...)
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  27. Todd Moody's Zombies.John McCarthy - 1995 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (4):345-347.
    From the AI point of view, consciousness must be regarded as a collection of interacting processes rather than the unitary object of much philosophical speculation. We ask what kinds of propositions and other entities need to be designed for consciousness to be useful to an animal or a machine. We thereby assert that human consciousness is useful to human functioning and not just and epiphenomenon. Zombies in the sense of Todd Moody's article are merely the victims of Moody's prejudices. To (...)
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  28. From Here to Human-Level Intelligence.John McCarthy - manuscript
    This article is the basis of an invited talk at KR-96 in 1996 November. It has been modified from the version that appeared in the preprints of that meeting. There is an html version, a.dvi version,.pdf version and a.ps version. Up to: Main McCarthy page Up to: Send comments to mccarthy @stanford.edu. I sometimes make changes suggested in them. - John McCarthy.
     
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  29.  34
    Computer Programs for Checking Mathematical Proofs.John Mccarthy - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (4):523-523.
  30.  4
    The Naturalism of Samuel Alexander.John Willadams McCarthy - 1948 - New York: King's Crown Press.
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  31. Overcoming Unexpected Obstacles.John McCarthy - manuscript
    A plan is made to fly from Glasgow to Moscow and is shown by circumscription to lead to the traveller arriving in Moscow. Then a fact about an unexpected obstacle---the traveller losing his ticket---is added without changing any of the previous facts, and the original plan can no longer be shown to work if it must take into account the new fact. However, an altered plan that includes buying a replacement ticket can now be shown to work. The formalism used (...)
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  32.  17
    The Being of the Maybe: Husserl on Doubting.John C. McCarthy - 1995 - Man and World 28 (3):261-281.
  33.  20
    Kolakowski, Leszek. God Owes Us Nothing: A Brief Remark on Pascal's Religion and on the Spirit of Jansenism. [REVIEW]John C. McCarthy - 1997 - Review of Metaphysics 50 (3):669-671.
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  34.  4
    A Basis for a Mathematical Theory of Computation, Preliminary Report.John Mccarthy, P. Braffort & D. Hirschberg - 1968 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (1):117-117.
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  35.  12
    Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics, I: Papers From the First Annual Symposium on Arabic LinguisticsPerspectives on Arabic Linguistics, II: Papers From the Second Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics.M. G. Carter, Mushira Eid & John McCarthy - 1992 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 112 (1):143.
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  36. Friendship: No Dogs or Philosophers Allowed.Ken Knisely, John McCarthy & Matthew West - forthcoming - DVD.
    Aristotle and the shape of modern friendships. With John McCarthy and Matthew West.
     
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  37.  26
    Anselm and a New Generation. [REVIEW]John McCarthy - 1982 - Review of Metaphysics 36 (2):446-448.
    The stated purpose of this book is twofold: "to look at what was happening to the theological certainties in which Anselm had such confidence, in his own day and in the generation or two after his death" and "to try to distinguish that quality which marks Anselm's thought so distinctively". To this end Evans constructs something of a conversation--she assembles contrasting opinions on various questions--among Anselm of Canterbury, his known contemporaries, and the "new generation" of scholars who followed. Both because (...)
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  38.  8
    Awareness and Understanding in Computer Programs A Review of Shadows of the Mind by Roger Penrose. [REVIEW]John Mccarthy - 1995 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 2.
  39.  18
    A Critical Priest Trips Over His Vows.John McCarthy - 2013 - The Chesterton Review 39 (3/4):317-320.
  40. An Example for Natural Language Understanding and the Ai Problems It Raises.John McCarthy - manuscript
    An Example for Natural Language Understanding and the AI Problems it Raises I think this 1976 memorandum is of 1996 interest. The problems it raises haven't been solved or even substantially reformulated.
     
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  41.  58
    Artificial Intelligence and Philosophy.John McCarthy - 1995
    AI needs many ideas that have hitherto been studied only by philosophers. This is because a robot, if it is to have human level intelligence and ability to learn from its experience, needs a general world view in which to organize facts. It turns out that many philosophical problems take new forms when thought about in terms of how to design a robot. Some approaches to philosophy are helpful and others are not.
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  42.  2
    Artificial Intelligence: A Paper Symposium.John McCarthy - 1974 - Artificial Intelligence 5 (3):317-322.
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  43.  27
    An Introduction to Husserlian Phenomenology. [REVIEW]John C. McCarthy - 1995 - Review of Metaphysics 49 (1):123-125.
    The bulk of the writings Husserl himself saw through to publication were, in one way or another, successive attempts at an "introduction" to phenomenology. That not a single one of these works is of easy access to those for whom phenomenology is something novel in no way contravenes the use of the term 'introduction" to name them. After all, to the end of his days Husserl spoke of himself as a philosophical beginner, and not from any false modesty, but because (...)
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  44.  15
    A Path Into Metaphysics: Phenomenological, Hermeneutical, and Dialogical Studies. [REVIEW]John C. McCarthy - 1992 - Review of Metaphysics 46 (2):429-430.
    Metaphysics, the most concrete of human inquiries, cannot rightly leave anything out, not even or especially its own history. At the very least, a consideration of the history of metaphysical investigation is necessary in order to recover the peculiar naivete proper to the discipline, for any language at our immediate disposal comes to us already stamped by the thinking of our predecessors. Nor may we rule out of hand the possibility that metaphysics is itself in some way subject to "physics" (...)
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  45.  38
    "Among the Believers," by V. S. Naipaul. [REVIEW]John P. McCarthy - 1983 - The Chesterton Review 9 (1):61-66.
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  46. At the Grand Canyon: Verse.John Russell Mccarthy - 1923 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 4 (1):28.
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  47. A Tough Nut for Proof Procedures.John McCarthy - unknown
    Here's the article which was a 1964 Stanford AI Memo. After the original memo, several people offered different proofs of the theorem including Shmuel Winograd, Marvin Minsky and Dimitri Stefanyuk - none published, to my knowledge. Winograd claimed that his proof was non-creative, because it didn't use an extraneous idea like the colors of the squares. This set off a contest to see who could produce the most non-creative proof. Minsky's idea was to start with the diagonal next to an (...)
     
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  48.  9
    Bickerton's Creole Cooking: Where's the Beef?John J. McCarthy - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (3):563-563.
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  49. Beyond Lisp.John McCarthy - unknown
    • Lisp programs are Lisp data—abstract syntax. Programming languages need functions for their abstract • English is important for its semantics—not its syntax • The largest piece of cake—Kleene µ operator • An elephant never forgets and is faithful. • Resolution considered harmful. • Special provers are just strategies—Davis-Putnam • Programs as logical formulas—Algol 48 and Algol..
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  50.  8
    Book Reviews. [REVIEW]John P. Mccarthy - 1989 - British Journal of Aesthetics 29 (3):273-274.
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