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John McMillan [86]John R. McMillan [4]
  1. Ethics of generative AI.Hazem Zohny, John McMillan & Mike King - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (2):79-80.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) and its introduction into clinical pathways presents an array of ethical issues that are being discussed in the JME. 1–7 The development of AI technologies that can produce text that will pass plagiarism detectors 8 and are capable of appearing to be written by a human author 9 present new issues for medical ethics. One set of worries concerns authorship and whether it will now be possible to know that an author or student in fact produced submitted (...)
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  2. Generative AI entails a credit–blame asymmetry.Sebastian Porsdam Mann, Brian D. Earp, Sven Nyholm, John Danaher, Nikolaj Møller, Hilary Bowman-Smart, Joshua Hatherley, Julian Koplin, Monika Plozza, Daniel Rodger, Peter V. Treit, Gregory Renard, John McMillan & Julian Savulescu - 2023 - Nature Machine Intelligence 5 (5):472-475.
    Generative AI programs can produce high-quality written and visual content that may be used for good or ill. We argue that a credit–blame asymmetry arises for assigning responsibility for these outputs and discuss urgent ethical and policy implications focused on large-scale language models.
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  3.  11
    The Methods of Bioethics: An Essay in Meta-Bioethics.John McMillan - 2018 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This is the first book that explains how you actually go about doing good bioethics. John McMillan develops an account of the nature of bioethics; he reveals how a number of methodological spectres have obstructed bioethics; and then he shows how moral reason can be brought to bear upon practical issues via an 'empirical, Socratic' approach.
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  4.  72
    The kindest cut? Surgical castration, sex offenders and coercive offers.John McMillan - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (9):583-590.
    The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment have conducted visits and written reports criticising the surgical castration of sex offenders in the Czech Republic and Germany. They claim that surgical castration is degrading treatment and have called for an immediate end to this practice. The Czech and German governments have published rebuttals of these criticisms. The rebuttals cite evidence about clinical effectiveness and point out this is an intervention that must be requested (...)
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  5.  38
    Generative AI and medical ethics: the state of play.Hazem Zohny, Sebastian Porsdam Mann, Brian D. Earp & John McMillan - 2024 - Journal of Medical Ethics 50 (2):75-76.
    Since their public launch, a little over a year ago, large language models (LLMs) have inspired a flurry of analysis about what their implications might be for medical ethics, and for society more broadly. 1 Much of the recent debate has moved beyond categorical evaluations of the permissibility or impermissibility of LLM use in different general contexts (eg, at work or school), to more fine-grained discussions of the criteria that should govern their appropriate use in specific domains or towards certain (...)
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  6.  53
    Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry and Philosophy.Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    The discussion of whether psychopaths are morally responsible for their behaviour has long taken place in philosophy. In recent years this has moved into scientific and psychiatric investigation. Responsibility and Psychopathy discusses this subject from both the philosophical and scientific disciplines, as well as a legal perspective.
  7.  32
    Medical ethics and the climate change emergency.Cressida Auckland, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Kenneth Boyd, Brian D. Earp, Lucy Frith, Zoë Fritz, John McMillan, Arianne Shahvisi & Mehrunisha Suleman - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (12):939-940.
    The editors of the _Journal of Medical Ethics_ support the call of the UK Health Alliance on Climate for urgent action to ensure that the current Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ‘finally delivers climate justice for Africa and vulnerable countries’. 1 As they note ‘Africa has suffered disproportionately although it has done little to cause the crisis’. The burden of climate change has thus far fallen disproportionately on Global South countries. The monsoon (...)
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  8.  66
    Pandemic medical ethics.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Kenneth Boyd, Brian D. Earp, Lucy Frith, Rosalind J. McDougall, John McMillan & Jesse Wall - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (6):353-354.
    The COVID-19 pandemic will generate vexing ethical issues for the foreseeable future and many journals will be open to content that is relevant to our collective effort to meet this challenge. While the pandemic is clearly the critical issue of the moment, it’s important that other issues in medical ethics continue to be addressed as well. As can be seen in this issue, the Journal of Medical Ethics will uphold its commitment to publishing high quality papers on the full array (...)
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  9. Defending psychopathy: an argument from values and moral responsibility.Luca Malatesti & John McMillan - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (1):7-16.
    How psychopaths and their capacity for moral action are viewed is not only philosophically interesting but is also important and relevant for policy. The philosophical discussion of psychopathy has focussed upon the psychological faculties that are prerequisites for moral responsibility and empirical findings regarding psychopathy that are relevant to philosophical accounts of moral understanding and motivation. However, there are legitimate worries about whether psychopathy is a robust scientific construct, and there are risks attached to reifying psychopathy or other psychiatric constructs. (...)
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  10.  27
    The possibility of empirical psychiatric ethics.John McMillan & Tony Hope - 2008 - In Guy Widdershoven (ed.), Empirical ethics in psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 9--22.
  11. Introduction.Guy Widdershoven, John McMillan, Tony Hope & van der Scheer & Lieke - 2008 - In Empirical ethics in psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press.
     
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  12.  33
    Generative AI and Ethical Analysis.John McMillan - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (10):42-44.
    Cohen (2023), Rahimzadeh and colleagues (2023), and Porsdam Mann and colleagues (2023) have written thorough and well-canvassed pieces about the ethical and conceptual challenges of large language...
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  13. Responsibility and psychopathy.Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    Psychopaths have emotional and rational impairments that can be expressed in persistent criminal behaviour. UK and US law has not traditionally excused disordered individuals for their crimes citing these impairments as a cause for their criminal behaviour. Until now, the discussion of whether psychopaths are morally responsible for their behaviour has usually taken place in the realm of philosophy. However, in recent years, this debate has been informed by scientific and psychiatric advancements, fundamentally so with the development of Robert Hare's (...)
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  14. COVID-19 and justice.John McMillan - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (10):639-640.
    John Rawls begins a Theory of Justice with the observation that 'Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought… Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override'1. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in lock-downs, the restriction of liberties, debate about the right to refuse medical treatment and many other changes to the everyday behaviour of persons. The justice issues it raises are diverse, (...)
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  15.  71
    Physicians' Duties and the Non-Identity Problem.Tony Hope & John McMillan - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (8):21 - 29.
    The non-identity problem arises when an intervention or behavior changes the identity of those affected. Delaying pregnancy is an example of such a behavior. The problem is whether and in what ways such changes in identity affect moral considerations. While a great deal has been written about the non-identity problem, relatively little has been written about the implications for physicians and how they should understand their duties. We argue that the non-identity problem can make a crucial moral difference in some (...)
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  16.  52
    Psychopathy: Its Uses, Validity and Status.Luca Malatesti, John McMillan & Predrag Šustar (eds.) - 2022 - Cham: Springer.
    This book explains the ethical and conceptual tensions in the use of psychopathy in different countries, including America, Canada, the UK, Croatia, Australia, and New Zealand. It offers an extensive critical analysis of how psychopathy functions within institutional and social contexts. Inside, readers will find innovative interdisciplinary analysis, written by leading international experts. The chapters explore how different countries have used this diagnosis. A central concern is whether psychopathy is a mental disorder, and this has a bearing upon whether it (...)
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  17.  22
    Grounded ethical analysis.John McMillan - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (1):1-2.
    There’s no doubt that medical ethics should be ‘grounded’, in the sense that it aims to make a practical, normative contribution to significant ethical issues in medicine. There are a number of ways in which ethics can do that, two of which feature in this issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics. One way is by responding to significant new policy or legal developments that will have an impact on clinical practice. This issue discusses two legal developments that matter to (...)
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  18. Why be Moral in a Virtual World.John McMillan & Mike King - 2017 - Journal of Practical Ethics 5 (2):30-48.
    This article considers two related and fundamental issues about morality in a virtual world. The first is whether the anonymity that is a feature of virtual worlds can shed light upon whether people are moral when they can act with impunity. The second issue is whether there are any moral obligations in a virtual world and if so what they might be. -/- Our reasons for being good are fundamental to understanding what it is that makes us moral or indeed (...)
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  19.  11
    Being ethical in difficult times.John McMillan - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 50 (1):1-1.
    Many countries are looking back at the pandemic and reflecting on what could have been done better. The UK COVID-19 Inquiry rumbles on 1 and other influential groups such as the British Medical Association have already reviewed the British response to the pandemic and made recommendations about what should happen in the future. 2 The UK is not alone in looking for lessons from the pandemic with a view to preparing for the next one. Countries with a very different COVID-19 (...)
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  20.  50
    Good medical ethics.John McMillan - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (8):511-512.
    The first editorial in the Journal of Medical Ethics described an ambition to be a ‘forum for the reasoned discussion of moral issues arising from the provision of medical care’.1 While that statement of intent might seem broad, it is one that has been reaffirmed by successive editors of the journal.2–4 It is an aim that aligns with the mission statement of JME and The Institute of Medical Ethics, to promote ‘ethical reflection and conduct in scientific research and medical conduct.’ (...)
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  21.  29
    Trust and medical ethics.John McMillan - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (3):153-153.
    There will always be debates in medical ethics about whether any particular value can be considered foundational, but there are reasons for thinking that ‘trust’ is the ground upon which many other important values is built. Sisela Bok remarks: > If there is no confidence in the truthfulness of others, is there any way to assess their fairness, their intentions to help or to harm? How, then, can they be trusted? Whatever matters to human beings, trust is the atmosphere in (...)
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  22.  60
    Valuing hope.John McMillan, Simon Walker & Tony Hope - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32 (1-2):33-42.
    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it from three different kinds of hope, or ‘hopes for’, and then relate these distinctions back to differing (...)
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  23.  16
    Capital, Profits and Prices: An Essay in the Philosophy of Economics.John McMillan - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (4):651-653.
  24.  20
    Responsibility for health.John McMillan - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (10):627-628.
    The question of whether any of us can truly be held responsible for what we do is an issue that occupied the ancient Greeks and continues to entertain our leading thinkers. Whether we can be held responsible for our health, or lack thereof, has additional layers of complexity because of the way in which what we do over time impacts our health. Those of us who have ever self-deceptively wondered about the apparent shrinking of our belt or at the fact (...)
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  25.  75
    Psychopathy: Philosophical and Empirical Challenges.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & John McMillan - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):5-14.
  26.  23
    The wrong word for the job? The ethics of collecting data on ‘race’ in academic publishing.John McMillan, Brian D. Earp, Wing May Kong, Mehrunisha Suleman & Arianne Shahvisi - 2024 - Journal of Medical Ethics 50 (3):149-151.
    Socially responsible publishers, such as the BMJ Publishing Group, have demonstrated a commitment to health equity and working towards rectifying the structural racism that exists both in healthcare and in medical publishing.1 The commitment of academic publishers to collecting information relevant to promoting equity and diversity is important and commendable where it leads to that result.2 However, collecting sensitive demographic data is not a morally neutral activity. Rather, it carries with it both known and potential risks. Among these are issues (...)
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  27.  41
    Making Sense of Child Welfare When Regulating Human Reproductive Technologies.John McMillan - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (1):47-55.
    Policy-makers have attempted to frame the ethical requirements that are relevant to the creation of human beings via reproductive technologies. Various reports and laws enacted in New Zealand, Canada, Australia, and Britain have introduced tests for how we should weigh child welfare when using these technologies. A number of bioethicists have argued that child welfare should be interpreted as a “best interests” test. Others have argued that there are ethical reasons why we should abandon this kind of test. I will (...)
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  28.  57
    Balancing principles, QALYs and the straw men of resource allocation.John McMillan & Tony Hope - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):48 – 50.
    Kerstein and Bognar (2010) and Persad, Wertheimer, and Emanuel (2009) defend specific principles for the allocation of health care resources, but their choice of principles is influenced by the exa...
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  29. Identity: self and dementia.John McMillan - 2005 - In Julian C. Hughes, Stephen J. Louw & Steven R. Sabat (eds.), Dementia: Mind, Meaning, and the Person. Oxford University Press.
     
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  30.  27
    Pregnancy and the Culture of Extreme Risk Aversion.Angela Ballantyne, Colin Gavaghan, John McMillan & Sue Pullon - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (2):21-23.
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  31.  16
    Parental reasoning about growth attenuation therapy: report of a single-case study.Nicola Kerruish & John R. McMillan - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (9):745-749.
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  32.  31
    The concise argument: the importance of consent and choice.John McMillan - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (5):285-286.
    When Beauchamp and Childress articulated the necessary and sufficient conditions for informed consent, they might have thought that would be the final word on what informed consent is.1 It’s emphasis in the Belmont Report,2 the Nuremberg Code,3 the Helsinki Declaration4 and numerous codes of professional ethics seems more than sufficient for emphasising its importance. Nonetheless, its place as the central issue for medical ethics appears undiminished and Pubmed lists 6192 publications with ‘Informed Consent’ in the title since 1979. One view (...)
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  33. Psychosurgery.John McMillan - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell.
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  34.  77
    Precision and the Rules of Prioritization.John Mcmillan, Tony Hope & Dominic Wilkinson - 2013 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 22 (4):336-345.
  35.  35
    The return of the Inseminator: Eutelegenesis in past and contemporary reproductive ethics.John McMillan - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (2):393-410.
    Eugenicists in the 1930s and 1940s emphasised our moral responsibilities to future generations and the importance of positively selecting traits that would benefit humanity. In 1935 Herbert Brewer recommended ‘Eutelegenesis’ so that that future generations are not only protected from hereditary disease but also become more intelligent and fraternal than us. The development of these techniques for human use and animal husbandry was the catalyst for the cross fertilization of moral ideas and the development of a critical procreative morality. While (...)
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  36.  19
    Conclusions: psychopathy and responsibility, a rejoinder.Luca Malatesti & John McMillan - 2010 - In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry and Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 319.
    The philosophical contributes in the volume offer several considerations for the conclusion that psychopaths offenders should not be considered morally responsible for their crimes. We situate this conclusion within wider philosophical debates and indicate relevant directions of further research.
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  37.  46
    Defending PCL-R.Luca Malatesti & John McMillan - 2010 - In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry and Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter we argue that Robert Hare's psychopathy checklist revised (PCL-R) offers a construct of psychopathy that is valid enough for philosophical investigations of the moral and legal responsibility of psychopathic offenders.
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  38.  23
    Human Rights: The Normative Engine of Fairness and Research in Developing Countries.John McMillan - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):47-49.
    (2010). Human Rights: The Normative Engine of Fairness and Research in Developing Countries. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 47-49.
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  39.  21
    Broadening the debate: the future of JME feature articles.Lucy Frith & John McMillan - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (3):155-155.
    The JME editorial team selects its feature articles from the best papers accepted for publication based on their quality, novelty and capacity to move debate forward on a specific issue. Feature articles are made freely available and are published alongside reviewed and submitted commentaries. We do this partly to promote and acknowledge excellent work in medical ethics, but also to encourage authors to submit their best papers to the JME. JME feature articles have deepened the analysis of some central issues (...)
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  40. Jaspers and Defining Phenomenology.John McMillan - 2002 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (1):91-92.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 9.1 (2002) 91-92 [Access article in PDF] Jaspers and Defining Phenomenology John McMillan IT IS POSSIBLE TO DISTINGUISH a number of positions that you might take on the importance of phenomenology for the study of the mind. The strongest position is to think that phenomenology is sufficient for understanding the mind. This is a position that would be very hard to defend and it is (...)
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  41.  61
    Some Methodological Issues in Neuroethics: The Case of Responsibility and Psychopathy.Luca Malatesti & John McMillan - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (4):681-693.
    There are some distinct methodological challenges, and possible pitfalls, for neuroethics when it evaluates neuroscientific results and links them to issues such as moral or legal responsibility. Some problems emerge in determining the requirements for responsibility. We will show how philosophical proposals in this area need to interact with legal doctrine and practice. Problems can occur when inferring normative implications from neuroscientific results. Other problems arise when it is not recognized that data about brain anatomy or physiology are relevant to (...)
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  42. Moral responsibility, consciousness and psychiatry.John McMillan & Grant R. Gillett - 2005 - Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39 (11):1018-1021.
  43.  11
    The return of the Inseminator: Eutelegenesis in past and contemporary reproductive ethics.John Mcmillan - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (2):393-410.
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  44. Consciousness and Intentionality.Grant Gillett & John McMillan - 2001 - John Benjamins.
    This book considers questions such as these and argues for a conception of consciousness, mental content and intentionality that is anti-Cartesian in its major...
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  45.  22
    Is corporate money bad for bioethics?John McMillan - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 35 (1):167-175.
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  46.  9
    Is corporate money bad for bioethics?John Mcmillan - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 35 (1):167-175.
    Some bioethicists are concerned about other bioethicists being paid by corporations. These concerns make sense if you have a particular view about what the most important role of a bioethicist should be. If you believe that a bioethicist should be a moral critic, attempting to expose wrongdoing, then being paid by corporations might compromise this role. It’s plausible to suppose that this can be a role for bioethicists but it’s unreasonable to insist that all bioethicists should be moral critics.
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  47.  38
    Surgical castration, coercive offers and coercive effects: it is still not about consent.John McMillan - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (9):596-596.
    In my reply to Wertheimer and Miller's paper on coercive offers and payment for research participation1 I claim that ‘… it's not unreasonable to suppose that there is another normative aspect to these cases, over and above the voluntariness of consent. While the parents of children at Willowbrook and the millionaire's mistress might have given consent that was voluntary and informed, they are still wronged by taking up this offer…’2 Furthermore, nowhere in my paper on surgical castration do I claim (...)
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  48.  15
    Sex Selection in the United Kingdom.John McMillan - 2002 - Hastings Center Report 32 (1):28-31.
    The British have taken a comprehensive approach to regulating reproductive medicine. A loophole in the current law leaves some cases of sex selection uncovered; if that loophole were closed, however, the law is robust enough to address the concerns about sex selection while permitting it in many cases.
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  49.  24
    Is corporate money bad for bioethics?John McMillan - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 35 (1):167-175.
    Some bioethicists are concerned about other bioethicists being paid by corporations. These concerns make sense if you have a particular view about what the most important role of a bioethicist should be. If you believe that a bioethicist should be a moral critic, attempting to expose wrongdoing, then being paid by corporations might compromise this role. It’s plausible to suppose that this can be a role for bioethicists but it’s unreasonable to insist that all bioethicists should be moral critics.
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  50.  12
    The methods of Neuroethics.Luca Malatesti & John McMillan - 2024 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element offers a framework for exploring the methodological challenges of neuroethics. The aim is to provide a roadmap for the methodological assumptions, and related pitfalls, involved in the interdisciplinary investigation of the ethical and legal implications of neuroscientific research and technology. It illustrates these points via the debate about the ethical and legal responsibility of psychopaths. Argument and the conceptual analysis of normative concepts such as 'personhood' or 'human agency' is central to neuroethics. This Element discusses different approaches to (...)
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