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John Michael [56]John A. Michael [2]John Andrew Michael [2]John F. Michael [1]
John S. Michael [1]
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John Michael
Aarhus University
  1. Joint Action Goals Reduce Visuomotor Interference Effects From a Partner’s Incongruent Actions.Sam Clarke, Luke McEllin, Anna Francová, Marcell Székely, Stephen Andrew Butterfill & John Michael - 2019 - Scientific Reports 9 (1).
    Joint actions often require agents to track others’ actions while planning and executing physically incongruent actions of their own. Previous research has indicated that this can lead to visuomotor interference effects when it occurs outside of joint action. How is this avoided or overcome in joint actions? We hypothesized that when joint action partners represent their actions as interrelated components of a plan to bring about a joint action goal, each partner’s movements need not be represented in relation to distinct, (...)
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  2. Why Desire Reasoning is Developmentally Prior to Belief Reasoning.Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen & John Michael - 2015 - Mind and Language 30 (5):526-549.
    The predominant view in developmental psychology is that young children are able to reason with the concept of desire prior to being able to reason with the concept of belief. We propose an explanation of this phenomenon that focuses on the cognitive tasks that competence with the belief and desire concepts enable young children to perform. We show that cognitive tasks that are typically considered fundamental to our competence with the belief and desire concepts can be performed with the concept (...)
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  3.  33
    The Sense of Commitment: A Minimal Approach.John Michael, Natalie Sebanz & Günther Knoblich - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  4.  60
    The Interactive Turn in Social Cognition Research: A Critique.Søren Overgaard & John Michael - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (2):160-183.
    Proponents of the so-called “interactive turn in social cognition research” maintain that mainstream research on social cognition has been fundamentally flawed by its neglect of social interaction, and that a new paradigm is needed in order to redress this shortcoming. We argue that proponents of the interactive turn (“interactionists”) have failed to properly substantiate their criticisms of existing research on social cognition. Although it is sometimes unclear precisely what these criticisms of existing theories are supposed to target, we sketch two (...)
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  5.  31
    How Direct is Social Perception?John Michael & Leon De Bruin - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:373-375.
  6.  96
    Shared Emotions and Joint Action.John Michael - 2011 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (2):355-373.
    In recent years, several minimalist accounts of joint action have been offered (e.g. Tollefsen Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35:75–97, 2005; Sebanz et al. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31(6): 234–1246, 2006; Vesper et al. Neural Networks 23 (8/9): 998–1003, 2010), which seek to address some of the shortcomings of classical accounts. Minimalist accounts seek to reduce the cognitive complexity demanded by classical accounts either by leaving out shared intentions or by characterizing them in a way that (...)
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  7. Towards a Consensus About the Role of Empathy in Interpersonal Understanding.John Michael - 2014 - Topoi 33 (1):157-172.
    In recent years, there has been a great deal of controversy in the philosophy of mind, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience both about how to conceptualize empathy and about the connections between empathy and interpersonal understanding. Ideally, we would first establish a consensus about how to conceptualize empathy, and then analyze the potential contribution of empathy to interpersonal understanding. However, it is not at all clear that such a consensus will soon be forthcoming, given that different people have fundamentally conflicting (...)
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  8.  60
    Interactionism and Mindreading.John Michael - 2011 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (3):559-578.
    In recent years, a number of theorists have developed approaches to social cognition that highlight the centrality of social interaction as opposed to mindreading (e.g. Gallagher and Zahavi 2008 ; Gallagher 2001 , 2007 , 2008 ; Hobson 2002 ; Reddy 2008 ; Hutto 2004 ; De Jaegher 2009 ; De Jaegher and Di Paolo 2007 ; Fuchs and De Jaegher 2009 ; De Jaegher et al. 2010 ). There are important differences among these approaches, as I will discuss, but (...)
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  9.  11
    Thinking (About) Groups: A Special Issue of Synthese.Alessandro Salice, John Michael & András Szigeti - 2019 - Synthese 196 (12):4809-4812.
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  10.  25
    Investing in Commitment: Persistence in a Joint Action is Enhanced by the Perception of a Partner’s Effort.Marcell Székely & John Michael - 2018 - Cognition 174:37-42.
    Can the perception that one’s partner is investing effort generate a sense of commitment to a joint action? To test this, we developed a 2-player version of the classic snake game which became increasingly boring over the course of each round. This enabled us to operationalize commitment in terms of how long participants persisted before pressing a ‘finish’ button to conclude each round. Our results from three experiments reveal that participants persisted longer when they perceived what they believed to be (...)
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  11.  21
    Observing Joint Action: Coordination Creates Commitment.John Michael, Natalie Sebanz & Günther Knoblich - 2016 - Cognition 157:106-113.
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  12.  29
    On Commitments and Other Uncertainty Reduction Tools in Joint Action.John Michael & Elisabeth Pacherie - 2015 - Journal of Social Ontology 1 (1):89–120.
    In this paper, we evaluate the proposal that a central function of commitments within joint action is to reduce various kinds of uncertainty, and that this accounts for the prevalence of commitments in joint action. While this idea is prima facie attractive, we argue that it faces two serious problems. First, commitments can only reduce uncertainty if they are credible, and accounting for the credibility of commitments proves not to be straightforward. Second, there are many other ways in which uncertainty (...)
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  13. Applying the Causal Theory of Reference to Intentional Concepts.John Michael & Miles MacLeod - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (2):212-230.
    We argue that many recent philosophical discussions about the reference of everyday concepts of intentional states have implicitly been predicated on descriptive theories of reference. To rectify this, we attempt to demonstrate how a causal theory can be applied to intentional concepts. Specifically, we argue that some phenomena in early social de- velopment ðe.g., mimicry, gaze following, and emotional contagionÞ can serve as refer- ence fixers that enable children to track others’ intentional states and, thus, to refer to those states. (...)
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  14.  29
    Investing in Commitment : Persistence in a Joint Action is Enhanced by the Perception of a Partner's Effort.Marcell Székely & John Michael - 2018 - Cognition 174:37-42.
    Can the perception that one’s partner is investing effort generate a sense of commitment to a joint action? To test this, we developed a 2-player version of the classic snake game which became increasingly boring over the course of each round. This enabled us to operationalize commitment in terms of how long participants persisted before pressing a ‘finish’ button to conclude each round. Our results from three experiments reveal that participants persisted longer when they perceived what they believed to be (...)
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  15.  81
    Mindreading as Social Expertise.John Michael, Wayne Christensen & Søren Overgaard - 2014 - Synthese 191 (5):1-24.
    In recent years, a number of approaches to social cognition research have emerged that highlight the importance of embodied interaction for social cognition (Reddy, How infants know minds, 2008; Gallagher, J Conscious Stud 8:83–108, 2001; Fuchs and Jaegher, Phenom Cogn Sci 8:465–486, 2009; Hutto, in Seemans (ed.) Joint attention: new developments in psychology, philosophy of mind and social neuroscience, 2012). Proponents of such ‘interactionist’ approaches emphasize the importance of embodied responses that are engaged in online social interaction, and which, according (...)
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  16.  12
    Flexible Goal Attribution in Early Mindreading.John Michael & Wayne Christensen - 2016 - Psychological Review 123 (2):219-227.
  17.  1
    The Perception of a Robot Partner’s Effort Elicits a Sense of Commitment to Human-Robot Interaction.Marcell Székely, Henry Powell, Fabio Vannucci, Francesco Rea, Alessandra Sciutti & John Michael - 2019 - Interaction Studies 20 (2):234-255.
    Previous research has shown that the perception that one’s partner is investing effort in a joint action can generate a sense of commitment, leading participants to persist longer despite increasing boredom. The current research extends this finding to human-robot interaction. We implemented a 2-player version of the classic snake game which became increasingly boring over the course of each round, and operationalized commitment in terms of how long participants persisted before pressing a ‘finish’ button to conclude each round. Participants were (...)
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  18.  84
    Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möebius Syndrome.John Michael, Kathleen Bogart, Kristian Tylen, Joel Krueger, Morten Bech, John R. Ostergaard & Riccardo Fusaroli - 2015 - Frontiers in Neurology 6 (213):1-11.
    In the exploratory study reported here, we tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to train teenagers with Möbius syndrome (MS) to increase the use of alternative communication strategies (e.g., gestures) to compensate for their lack of facial expressivity. Specifically, we expected the intervention to increase the level of rapport experienced in social interactions by our participants. In addition, we aimed to identify the mechanisms responsible for any such increase in rapport. In the study, five teenagers with MS interacted with (...)
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  19.  20
    What Are Shared Emotions ?John Michael - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  20.  12
    Using Episodic Memory to Gauge Implicit and/or Indeterminate Social Commitments.John Michael, Marcell Székely & Wayne Christensen - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
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  21.  52
    Putting Unicepts to Work: A Teleosemantic Perspective on the Infant Mindreading Puzzle.John Michael - 2017 - Synthese 194 (11):4365-4388.
    In this paper, I show how theoretical discussion of recent research on the abilities of infants and young children to represent other agents’ beliefs has been shaped by a descriptivist conception of mental content, i.e., to the notion that the distal content of a mental representation is fixed by the core body of knowledge that is associated with that mental representation. I also show how alternative conceptions of mental content—and in particular Ruth Millikan’s teleosemantic approach—make it possible to endorse the (...)
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  22.  3
    How Does Social Cognition Shape Enculturation?John Michael & Leon de Bruin - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43.
    Other people in our culture actively transform our behavioral dispositions and mental states by shaping them in various ways. In the following, we highlight three points which Veissière et al. may consider in leveraging their account to illuminate the dynamics by which this occurs, and in particular, to shed light on how social cognition supports, and is supported by, enculturation.
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  23. On Commitments and Other Uncertainty Reduction Tools.John Michael & Elisabeth Pacherie - unknown
    In this paper, we evaluate the proposal that a central function of commitments within joint action is to reduce various kinds of uncertainty, and that this accounts for the prevalence of commitments in joint action. While this idea is prima facie attractive, we argue that it faces two serious problems. First, commitments can only reduce uncertainty if they are credible, and accounting for the credibility of commitments proves not to be straightforward. Second, there are many other ways in which uncertainty (...)
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  24.  6
    Goal Slippage: A Mechanism for Spontaneous Instrumental Helping in Infancy?John Michael & Marcell Székely - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):173-183.
    In recent years, developmental psychologists have increasingly been interested in various forms of prosocial behavior observed in infants and young children—in particular comforting, sharing, pointing to provide information, and spontaneous instrumental helping. We briefly review several models that have been proposed to explain the psychological mechanisms underpinning these behaviors. Focusing on spontaneous instrumental helping, we home in on models based upon what Paulus :77–81, 2014) has dubbed ‘goal-alignment’, i.e. the idea that the identification of an agent’s goal leads infants to (...)
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  25. Control and Flexibility of Interactive Alignment: Mobius Syndrome as a Case Study.John Michael, Kathleen Bogart, Kristian Tylen, Joel Krueger, Morten Bech, John R. Ostergaard & Riccardo Fusaroli - 2014 - Cognitive Processing 15 (1):S125-126.
  26.  24
    Prediction Error Minimization as a Framework for Social Cognition Research.Leon de Bruin & John Michael - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-20.
    The main aim of this article is to give an assessment of prediction error minimization as a unifying theoretical framework for the study of social cognition. We show how this framework can be used to synthesize and systematically relate existing data from social cognition research, and explain how it introduces new constraints for further research. We discuss PEM in relation to other theoretical frameworks of social cognition, and identify the main challenges that this approach to social cognition will need to (...)
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  27.  63
    John T. Blackmore, Ryoichi Itagaki and Setsuko Tanaka : Ernst Mach’s Philosophy Pro and Con. [REVIEW]John Michael & Friedrich Stadler - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (1):137-140.
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  28.  26
    What Is Shared in Pain Empathy? A Critical Discussion of De Vignemont and Jacob’s Theory of the Neural Substrate of Pain Empathy.John Michael & Francesca Fardo - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (1):154-160.
    In a recent article in Philosophy of Science, De Vignemont and Jacob defend the view that empathy involves interpersonal similarity between an empathizer and a target person with respect to internal affective states. Focusing on empathy for pain, they propose a theory of the neural substrate of pain empathy. We point out several flaws in their interpretation of the data and argue that currently available data do not differentiate between De Vignemont and Jacob’s model and alternative models. Finally, we offer (...)
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  29.  10
    Judgments About Side Effects of Actions Are Distinct From Judgments About the Actions Themselves.John Michael - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 2 (2):21-22.
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  30. Objects in Mind.Mattia Gallotti & John Michael - 2014 - In Mattia Gallotti & John Michael (eds.), Perspectives on Social Ontology and Social Cognition. Springer.
  31. 1. Really Statistical Explanations and Genetic Drift Really Statistical Explanations and Genetic Drift (Pp. 169-188).Marc Lange, Peter Vickers, John Michael, Miles MacLeod, Alexander R. Pruss, David John Baker, Clark Glymour & Simon Fitzpatrick - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (2).
  32.  33
    Four Models of the Functional Contribution of Mirror Systems.John Michael - 2011 - Philosophical Explorations 14 (2):185 - 194.
    Four distinct models of the functional contribution of mirror neurons to social cognition can be distinguished: direct matching, inverse modeling, response modeling, and predictive coding. Each entails a different way in which an agent's own capacities for action and affective experience contribute to understanding and/or predicting others' actions and affective experience. In this paper, the four models and their theoretical frameworks are elucidated, empirical data and theoretical arguments bearing upon each are reviewed, and falsifiable predictions that could help to distinguish (...)
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  33.  15
    Cueing Implicit Commitment.Francesca Bonalumi, Margherita Isella & John Michael - 2019 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 10 (4):669-688.
    Despite the importance of commitment for distinctively human forms of sociality, it remains unclear how people prioritize and evaluate their own and others’ commitments - especially implicit commitments. Across two sets of online studies, we found evidence in support of the hypothesis that people’s judgments and attitudes about implicit commitments are governed by an implicit sense of commitment, which is modulated by cues to others’ expectations, and by cues to the costs others have invested on the basis of those expectations.
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  34.  22
    “The Group Knobe Effect”: Evidence That People Intuitively Attribute Agency and Responsibility to Groups.John Andrew Michael & András Szigeti - 2018 - Philosophical Explorations 22 (1):44-61.
    In the current paper, we present and discuss a series of experiments in which we investigated people’s willingness to ascribe intentions, as well as blame and praise, to groups. The experiments draw upon the so-called “Knobe Effect”. Knobe [2003. “Intentional action and side effects in ordinary language.” Analysis 63: 190–194] found that the positiveness or negativeness of side-effects of actions influences people’s assessment of whether those side-effects were brought about intentionally, and also that people are more willing to assign blame (...)
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  35.  26
    Thinking Groups: A Special Issue of Synthese.Alessandro Salice, John Michael & Andras Szigeti - 2018 - Synthese:1-4.
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  36.  43
    Mental Actions and Mental Agency.Anika Fiebich & John Michael - 2015 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6 (4):683-693.
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  37.  5
    Using Episodic Memory to Gauge Implicit and/or Indeterminate Social Commitments—ADDENDUM.John Michael, Marcell Székely & Wayne Christensen - 2019 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42.
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  38.  2
    Cueing Implicit Commitment.Francesca Bonalumi, Margherita Isella & John Michael - 2019 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 10 (4):669-688.
    Despite the importance of commitment for distinctively human forms of sociality, it remains unclear how people prioritize and evaluate their own and others’ commitments - especially implicit commitments. Across two sets of online studies, we found evidence in support of the hypothesis that people’s judgments and attitudes about implicit commitments are governed by an implicit sense of commitment, which is modulated by cues to others’ expectations, and by cues to the costs others have invested on the basis of those expectations.
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  39.  14
    Nuance Lost in Translation: Interpretations of J. F. Blumenbach’s Anthropology in the English Speaking World.John S. Michael - 2017 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 25 (3):281-309.
    Johann Friedrich Blumenbach has been called ‘The Father of Physical Anthropology’ because of his pioneering publications describing human racial variation. He proposed a racial typology consisting of five ‘major varieties/races’ of humanity. Since the 1990s, Londa Schiebinger and other Anglophone scholars have argued that Blumenbach’s writings on race show evidence that he was significantly influenced by nineteenth-century race supremacist beliefs which held Europeans/caucasians to be the highest ranked and most beautiful race. However, these modern authors relied largely on Thomas Bendyshe’s (...)
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  40.  54
    Ian Apperly, Mindreaders: The Cognitive Basis of Theory of Mind: Psychology Press, 2011, 232 Pages, $80.00. [REVIEW]Wayne Christensen & John Michael - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):907-914.
  41.  14
    Fish Shticks: Rhetorical Questions in Stanley Fish's Doing What Comes NaturallyDoing What Comes Naturally: Change, Rhetoric, and the Practice of Theory in Literary and Legal Studies. [REVIEW]John Michael & Stanley Fish - 1990 - Diacritics 20 (2):54.
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  42.  9
    Feeling Committed to a Robot : Why, What, When, and How?Henry Powell & John Michael - forthcoming - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.
    The paper spells out the rationale for developing means of manipulating and of measuring people’s sense of commitment to robot interaction partners. A sense of commitment may lead people to be patient when a robot is not working smoothly, to remain vigilant when a robot is working so smoothly that a task becomes boring, and to increase their willingness to invest effort in teaching a robot. We identify a range of contexts in which a sense of commitment to robot interaction (...)
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  43.  53
    Man's Potential: Views of J. F. Lincoln and Wilhelm von Humboldt.John F. Michael - 1988 - Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 8 (2):23-26.
    Interest in philosophy of management continues to grow. Growth of the philosophy of management might result from the consideration of man's potential as viewed by two different men, an industrialist and a philosopher. James Finney Lincoln was president and board chairman of The Lincoln Electric Company for 37 years. During that time, and for 14 previous years when he was the firm's general manager, he developed a philosophy basic to a practice of business management that gained national and international attention. (...)
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  44. The Interaction Theory of Social Cognition–a Critique.John Michael - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology.
  45.  20
    Man’s Potential: Views of J. F. Lincoln and Wilhelm von Humboldt.John Michael - 1988 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 8 (2):23-26.
    Interest in philosophy of management continues to grow. Growth of the philosophy of management might result from the consideration of man's potential as viewed by two different men, an industrialist and a philosopher. James Finney Lincoln was president and board chairman of The Lincoln Electric Company for 37 years. During that time, and for 14 previous years when he was the firm's general manager, he developed a philosophy basic to a practice of business management that gained national and international attention. (...)
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  46.  13
    The Developmental Origins of Commitment.John Michael & Marcell Székely - 2018 - Journal of Social Philosophy 49 (1):106-123.
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  47. What (If Anything) is Shared in Pain Empathy?John Andrew Michael & Francesca Fardo - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
  48.  53
    Mirror Neurons and Social Cognition: An Expanded Simulationist Framework.John Michael - 2010 - In Henk W. de Regt (ed.), Epsa Philosophy of Science: Amsterdam 2009. Springer. pp. 217--226.
    In this paper, I critically assess the thesis that the discovery of mirror neuron systems provides empirical support for the simulation theory of social cognition. This thesis can be analyzed into two claims: that MNSs are involved in understanding others’ intentions or emotions; and that the way in which they do so supports a simulationist viewpoint. I will be giving qualified support to both claims. Starting with, I will present theoretical and empirical points in support of the view that MNSs (...)
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  49.  41
    Mirror Systems and Simulation: A Neo-Empiricist Interpretation. [REVIEW]John Michael - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):565-582.
    It is often claimed that the discovery of mirror neurons supports simulation theory (ST). There has been much controversy about this, however, as there are various competing models of the functional contribution of mirror systems, only some of which characterize mirroring as simulation in the sense required by ST. But a brief review of these models reveals that they all include simulation in some sense . In this paper, I propose that the broader conception of simulation articulated by neo-empiricist theories (...)
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  50.  47
    Simulation as an Epistemic Tool Between Theory and Practice: A Comparison of the Relationship Between Theory and Simulation in Science and Folk Psychology.John Michael - 2007 - EPSA07.
    Simulation as an epistemic tool between theory and practice: A Comparison of the Relationship between Theory and Simulation in Science and in Folk Psychology In this paper I explore the concept of simulation that is employed by proponents of the so-called simulation theory within the debate about the nature and scientific status of folk psychology. According to simulation theory, folk psychology is not a sort of theory that postulates theoretical entities (mental states and processes) and general laws, but a practice (...)
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