Results for 'John R. Showalter'

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  1.  17
    Effects of partial reinforcement in one or both goal boxes of a double alleyway.Joseph A. Sgro, William B. Pavlik, John R. Showalter & Neil H. Cohn - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1):229.
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  2. Acquisition of cognitive skill.John R. Anderson - 1982 - Psychological Review 89 (4):369-406.
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  3.  42
    An Integrated Theory of the Mind.John R. Anderson, Daniel Bothell, Michael D. Byrne, Scott Douglass, Christian Lebiere & Yulin Qin - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (4):1036-1060.
  4.  59
    The adaptive nature of human categorization.John R. Anderson - 1991 - Psychological Review 98 (3):409-429.
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  5.  23
    Human memory: An adaptive perspective.John R. Anderson & Robert Milson - 1989 - Psychological Review 96 (4):703-719.
  6. Is human cognition adaptive?John R. Anderson - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):471-485.
    Can the output of human cognition be predicted from the assumption that it is an optimal response to the information-processing demands of the environment? A methodology called rational analysis is described for deriving predictions about cognitive phenomena using optimization assumptions. The predictions flow from the statistical structure of the environment and not the assumed structure of the mind. Bayesian inference is used, assuming that people start with a weak prior model of the world which they integrate with experience to develop (...)
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  7.  22
    Skill acquisition: Compilation of weak-method problem situations.John R. Anderson - 1987 - Psychological Review 94 (2):192-210.
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  8.  35
    Recognition and retrieval processes in free recall.John R. Anderson & Gordon H. Bower - 1972 - Psychological Review 79 (2):97-123.
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  9.  21
    Learning to Program in LISP1.John R. Anderson, Robert Farrell & Ron Sauers - 1984 - Cognitive Science 8 (2):87-129.
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  10.  24
    Further arguments concerning representations for mental imagery: A response to Hayes-Roth and Pylyshyn.John R. Anderson - 1979 - Psychological Review 86 (4):395-406.
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  11.  33
    Methodologies for studying human knowledge.John R. Anderson - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):467-477.
    The appropriate methodology for psychological research depends on whether one is studying mental algorithms or their implementation. Mental algorithms are abstract specifications of the steps taken by procedures that run in the mind. Implementational issues concern the speed and reliability of these procedures. The algorithmic level can be explored only by studying across-task variation. This contrasts with psychology's dominant methodology of looking for within-task generalities, which is appropriate only for studying implementational issues.The implementation-algorithm distinction is related to a number of (...)
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  12.  54
    The fan effect: New results and new theories.John R. Anderson & Lynne M. Reder - 1999 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 128 (2):186.
  13.  45
    Human symbol manipulation within an integrated cognitive architecture.John R. Anderson - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (3):313-341.
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  14.  17
    A production system theory of serial memory.John R. Anderson & Michael Matessa - 1997 - Psychological Review 104 (4):728-748.
  15.  49
    Spanning seven orders of magnitude: a challenge for cognitive modeling.John R. Anderson - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (1):85-112.
    Much of cognitive psychology focuses on effects measured in tens of milliseconds while significant educational outcomes take tens of hours to achieve. The task of bridging this gap is analyzed in terms of Newell's (1990) bands of cognition—the Biological, Cognitive, Rational, and Social Bands. The 10 millisecond effects reside in his Biological Band while the significant learning outcomes reside in his Social Band. The paper assesses three theses: The Decomposition Thesis claims that learning occurring at the Social Band can be (...)
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  16.  18
    Cognitive modeling and intelligent tutoring.John R. Anderson, C. Franklin Boyle, Albert T. Corbett & Matthew W. Lewis - 1990 - Artificial Intelligence 42 (1):7-49.
  17.  34
    Induction of Augmented Transition Networks.John R. Anderson - 1977 - Cognitive Science 1 (2):125-157.
    LAS is a program that acquires augmented transition network (ATN) grammars. It requires as data sentences of the language and semantic network representatives of their meaning. In acquiring the ATN grammars, it induces the word classes of the language, the rules of formation for sentences, and the rules mapping sentences onto meaning. The induced ATN grammar can be used both for sentence generation and sentence comprehension. Critical to the performance of the program are assumptions that it makes about the relation (...)
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  18.  25
    Learning rapid and precise skills.John R. Anderson, Shawn Betts, Daniel Bothell, Ryan Hope & Christian Lebiere - 2019 - Psychological Review 126 (5):727-760.
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  19.  12
    Cognitive psychology.John R. Anderson - 1984 - Artificial Intelligence 23 (1):1-11.
  20.  32
    The discovery of processing stages: Extension of Sternberg’s method.John R. Anderson, Qiong Zhang, Jelmer P. Borst & Matthew M. Walsh - 2016 - Psychological Review 123 (5):481-509.
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  21.  39
    Reconstructing Bergson’s Critique of Intensive Magnitude.John R. Bagby - 2020 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 52 (1):80-94.
    In Bergson and Intensive Magnitude: Dismantling his Critique, Florian Vermeiren argues that Bergson’s critique of intensive magnitude in Time and Free Will is inconsistent with his later philosophy, and even inconsistent with the role of a “difference in degrees of freedom” in Time and Free Will. I argue that it is rather Vermeiren’s analysis which mischaracterizes Bergson’s critique and therefore the interpretation of an inconsistency cannot stand. In the first two sections I reevaluate Bergson’s critique, showing what, according to Bergson, (...)
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  22.  36
    Skill Acquisition and the LISP Tutor.John R. Anderson, Frederick G. Conrad & Albert T. Corbett - 1989 - Cognitive Science 13 (4):467-505.
    An analysis of student learning with the LISP tutor indicates that while LISP is complex, learning it is simple. The key to factoring out the complexity of LISP is to monitor the learning of the 500 productions in the LISP tutor which describe the programming skill. The learning of these productions follows the power‐law learning curve typical of skill acquisition. There is transfer from other programming experience to the extent that this programming experience involves the same productions. Subjects appear to (...)
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  23. C.L.R. James’s Analysis of Race and Class.John R. Martin - 2006 - Radical Philosophy Review 9 (2):167-189.
    Social conditions of race and class continue to combine in ways that raise systemic questions about the adequacy and legitimacy of liberal, capitalist democracy in America. More radical alternatives, however, are still generally held to be irrelevant in the American context. The following is an effort to correct this widespread misrepresentation of socialism’s relevance to America generally, and to matters of race in particular. I consider the work of C.L.R. James who, fifty years ago, developed a class-oriented, explicitly Marxist theory (...)
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  24.  8
    A theory of the origins of human knowledge.John R. Anderson - 1989 - Artificial Intelligence 40 (1-3):313-351.
  25.  75
    C.L.R. James.John R. Martin - 1996 - Radical Philosophy Review of Books 14 (14):68-74.
    Apart from the predictable end-of-the-century tendency to look backwards in time, it is not surprising that much commentary on contemporary American politics has taken on a reflective tone as we approach the end of the 20th century. Unresolved issues of race, class, and culture continue to raise fundamental questions about the legitimacy and functioning of modern liberalism. This is as true today as it was at the beginning of the century when the capitalist social order took on its characteristically modern (...)
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  26.  13
    The story of Knemon in Heliodoros' "AITEIORIKA".John R. Morgan - 1989 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 109:99-113.
  27.  29
    The environmental basis of memory.John R. Anderson, Shawn Betts, Michael D. Byrne, Lael J. Schooler & Clayton Stanley - 2023 - Psychological Review 130 (5):1137-1166.
    Memory should make more available things that are more likely to be needed. Across multiple environmental domains, it has been shown that such a system would match qualitatively the memory effects involving repetition, delay, and spacing (Schooler & Anderson, 2017). To obtain data of sufficient size to study how detailed patterns of past appearance predict probability of being needed again, we examined the patterns with which words appear in large two data sets: tweets from popular sources and comments on popular (...)
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  28.  22
    William Stukeley and the early history of the Orrery.John R. Millburn - 1974 - Annals of Science 31 (6):511-528.
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  29.  1
    Noctes aethiopicae: Notes on the text of heliodoros’ aithiopika 9-10.John R. Morgan - 1983 - Philologus: Zeitschrift für Antike Literatur Und Ihre Rezeption 127 (1-2):87-111.
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  30.  20
    The public world of childhood.John R. Morss - 1988 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 18 (3):323–343.
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  31. Helmut Reich's Proposal.John R. Albright - 2003 - Zygon 38 (2):435-439.
    A form of logic called relational and contextual reasoning is put forward as an improvement over other, more familiar types of logic. Developmental ideas are used to show how maturity ordinarily leads people away from binary (true/false) logic to systems of reasoning that are more subtle and better suited to making decisions in the face of ambiguity.
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  32. Time and eternity: Hymnic, biblical, scientific, and theological views.John R. Albright - 2009 - Zygon 44 (4):989-996.
    The book Time and Eternity , the English version of Zeit und Ewigkeit , by Antje Jackelén, contains scientific and theological treatments of these two topics, starting with the usage of such ideas in German, Swedish, and English hymns. This essay describes her work and explains how the scientific ideas provide a coherent framework for understanding the place of time.
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  33.  43
    Karl Schmitz-Moormann: Our Intellectual Legacy From a Great Mind.John R. Albright - 1999 - Zygon 34 (2):333-338.
    Karl Schmitz‐Moormann's thought as expressed in his last book exemplifies Catholic theology based on realism, flow, evolution, and free will. Categories of creation are reviewed: from nothing, continuous, called forth, informed, and free.
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  34.  62
    Physics: What does one need to know?John R. Albright - 1996 - Zygon 31 (3):487-496.
    For the basic areas of physics‐classical mechanics, classical field theories, and quantum mechanics‐there are local dynamical theories that offer complete descriptions of systems when the proper subsidiary conditions also are provided. For all these cases there are global theories from which the local theories can be derived. Symmetries and their relation to conservation laws are reviewed. The standard model of elementary particles is mentioned, along with frontier questions about them. A case against reductionism in physics is presented.
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  35.  2
    Cosmology: What One Needs to Know.John R. Albright - 2000 - Zygon 35 (1):173-180.
    Cosmology, the study of the universe, has a past, which is reviewed here. The standard model—the Big Bang, or the hot, dense early universe that is still expanding—is based on observations that are basically consistent but which require additional input to improve the agreement. Out of the early universe came the galaxies and stars that shine today. The future of the universe depends on the density of matter: too much mass leads to the Big Crunch; too little leads to eternal (...)
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  36.  27
    Category learning: Things aren't so black and white.John R. Anderson - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (4):651-651.
  37.  15
    Implementations, algorithms, and more.John R. Anderson - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):498-505.
  38.  13
    More on rational analysis.John R. Anderson - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):508-517.
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  39.  35
    Optimality and human memory.John R. Anderson - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):215-216.
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  40.  6
    On the merits of ACT and information-processing psychology: A response to Wexler's review.John R. Anderson - 1980 - Cognition 8 (1):73-88.
  41.  22
    Representation without process?John R. Anderson - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (1):137-138.
  42.  15
    Interpreting Bergson: rubbing up against the grain of our intellectual habits: Alexandre Lefebvre and Nils F. Schott (eds.): Interpreting Bergson: Critical essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, ix + 238 pp, $99.99 HB doi:10.1017/9781108367455.John R. Bagby - 2021 - Metascience 31 (1):85-88.
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  43.  78
    A hallucinogenic tea, laced with controversy: Ayahuasca in the amazon and the united states. By Marlene dobkin de rios and Roger rumrrill.John R. Baker - 2010 - Anthropology of Consciousness 21 (1):109-111.
  44.  29
    LSD, Spirituality, and the Creative Process:LSD, Spirituality, and the Creative Process.John R. Baker - 2005 - Anthropology of Consciousness 16 (1):70-72.
  45.  47
    On a Classical Argument That Existence Is Not a Predicate.John R. Baker - 1978 - Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 9 (1):55-60.
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  46.  7
    Remarks on the Discovery of Cell-Division.John R. Baker - 1951 - Isis 42 (4):285-287.
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  47.  7
    Science and the Planned State.John R. Baker - 1947 - Philosophy of Science 14 (2):171-172.
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  48.  28
    Shamans, Sorcerers, and Saints: A Prehistory of Religion:Shamans, Sorcerers, and Saints: A Prehistory of Religion.John R. Baker & Michael J. Winkelman - 2005 - Anthropology of Consciousness 16 (2):93-95.
  49.  9
    Teaching "Consciousness" at the Lower Division Level.John R. Baker - 1996 - Anthropology of Consciousness 7 (1):10-19.
    The often esoteric nature of dialogues about "consciousness" which take place in academic circles stands far removed from treatments of the same topic in lower division college classrooms. There, any detailed discussion of the various definitions which have been advanced for this term is likely to lead to frustration on the part of students who have not yet attained the requisite knowledge for appreciating this divergence of opinions. When teaching classes to introductory students, instructors can provide opportunities for students to (...)
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  50.  16
    The Gateway to Inner Space: Sacred Plants, Mysticism and Psychotherapy.John R. Baker - 1992 - Anthropology of Consciousness 3 (3-4):36-37.
    The Gateway to Inner Space: Sacred Plants, Mysticism and Psychotherapy. Festschrift in Honor of Albert Hofmann. edited by Christian Rätsch, Bridport and Dorset, England: Prism Press. 1989. 258 pp. ISBN 1‐85327‐037‐7. $10.95 (paper).
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