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John Wilkins [68]John S. Wilkins [41]John D. Wilkins [1]
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John Wilkins
University of Melbourne
John S. Wilkins
University of Melbourne (PhD)
John Simpson Wilkins
University of Melbourne
  1. Species: A History of the Idea.John Wilkins - 2009 - Univ of California Pr.
    "--Joel Cracraft, American Museum of Natural History "This is not the potted history that one usually finds in texts and review articles.
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  2.  23
    Species: The Evolution of the Idea.John Wilkins - 2018 - Boca Raton: CRC Press.
    Features Covers the philosophical and historical development of the concept of "species" Documents that variation was recognized by pre-Darwinian scholars Includes a section on the debates since the time of the New Synthesis Better suited to non-philosophers Summary Over time the complex idea of "species" has evolved, yet its meaning is far from resolved. This comprehensive work is a fresh look at an idea central to the field of biology by tracing its history from antiquity to today. Species is a (...)
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  3. Crossing the Milvian Bridge: When Do Evolutionary Explanations of Belief Debunk Belief?Paul E. Griffiths & John S. Wilkins - 2015 - In Phillip R. Sloan, Gerald McKenny & Kathleen Eggleson (eds.), Darwin in the Twenty-First Century: Nature, Humanity, and God. University of Notre Dame Press. pp. 201-231.
    Ever since Darwin people have worried about the sceptical implications of evolution. If our minds are products of evolution like those of other animals, why suppose that the beliefs they produce are true, rather than merely useful? In this chapter we apply this argument to beliefs in three different domains: morality, religion, and science. We identify replies to evolutionary scepticism that work in some domains but not in others. The simplest reply to evolutionary scepticism is that the truth of beliefs (...)
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  4. Philosophically Speaking, How Many Species Concepts Are There?John S. Wilkins - 2011 - Zootaxa 2765:58–60.
  5. Essentialism in Biology.John S. Wilkins - manuscript
    Essentialism in philosophy is the position that things, especially kinds of things, have essences, or sets of properties, that all members of the kind must have, and the combination of which only members of the kind do, in fact, have. It is usually thought to derive from classical Greek philosophy and in particular from Aristotle’s notion of “what it is to be” something. In biology, it has been claimed that pre-evolutionary views of living kinds, or as they are sometimes called, (...)
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  6. Evolutionary Debunking Arguments in Three Domains: Fact, Value, and Religion.S. Wilkins John & E. Griffiths Paul - 2012 - In James Maclaurin Greg Dawes (ed.), A New Science of Religion. Routledge.
    Ever since Darwin people have worried about the sceptical implications of evolution. If our minds are products of evolution like those of other animals, why suppose that the beliefs they produce are true, rather than merely useful? We consider this problem for beliefs in three different domains: religion, morality, and commonsense and scientific claims about matters of empirical fact. We identify replies to evolutionary scepticism that work in some domains but not in others. One reply is that evolution can be (...)
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  7. How to Be a Chaste Species Pluralist-Realist: The Origins of Species Modes and the Synapomorphic Species Concept.John S. Wilkins - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):621-638.
    The biological species (biospecies) concept applies only to sexually reproducing species, which means that until sexual reproduction evolved, there were no biospecies. On the universal tree of life, biospecies concepts therefore apply only to a relatively small number of clades, notably plants andanimals. I argue that it is useful to treat the various ways of being a species (species modes) as traits of clades. By extension from biospecies to the other concepts intended to capture the natural realities of what keeps (...)
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  8. Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds.John S. Wilkins - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (2):221-240.
    The vision of natural kinds that is most common in the modern philosophy of biology, particularly with respect to the question whether species and other taxa are natural kinds, is based on a revision of the notion by Mill in A System of Logic. However, there was another conception that Whewell had previously captured well, which taxonomists have always employed, of kinds as being types that need not have necessary and sufficient characters and properties, or essences. These competing views employ (...)
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  9. Could God Create Darwinian Accidents?John S. Wilkins - 2012 - Zygon 47 (1):30-42.
    Abstract Charles Darwin, in his discussions with Asa Gray and in his published works, doubted whether God could so arrange it that exactly the desired contingent events would occur to cause particular outcomes by natural selection. In this paper, I argue that even a limited or neo-Leibnizian deity could have chosen a world that satisfied some arbitrary set of goals or functions in its outcomes and thus answer Darwin's conundrum. In more general terms, this supports the consistency of natural selection (...)
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  10. What is a Species? Essences and Generation.John S. Wilkins - 2010 - Theory in Biosciences 129:141-148.
    Arguments against essentialism in biology rely strongly on a claim that modern biology abandoned Aristotle's notion of a species as a class of necessary and sufficient properties. However, neither his theory of essentialism, nor his logical definition of species and genus (eidos and genos) play much of a role in biological research and taxonomy, including his own. The objections to natural kinds thinking by early twentieth century biologists wrestling with the new genetics overlooked the fact that species have typical developmental (...)
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  11. Selection Without Replicators: The Origin of Genes, and the Replicator/Interactor Distinction in Etiobiology.John S. Wilkins, Ian Musgrave & Clem Stanyon - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (2):215-239.
    Genes are thought to have evolved from long-lived and multiply-interactive molecules in the early stages of the origins of life. However, at that stage there were no replicators, and the distinction between interactors and replicators did not yet apply. Nevertheless, the process of evolution that proceeded from initial autocatalytic hypercycles to full organisms was a Darwinian process of selection of favourable variants. We distinguish therefore between Neo-Darwinian evolution and the related Weismannian and Central Dogma divisions, on the one hand, and (...)
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  12.  20
    Courtesans and Fishcakes. The Consuming Passions of Classical Athens. [REVIEW]John Wilkins & J. Davidson - 2002 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 122:188-189.
  13. The Hunting of the SNaRC: A Snarky Solution to the Species Problem.Brent D. Mishler & John S. Wilkins - 2018 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10 (1).
    We argue that the logical outcome of the cladistics revolution in biological systematics, and the move towards rankless phylogenetic classification of nested monophyletic groups as formalized in the PhyloCode, is to eliminate the species rank along with all the others and simply name clades. We propose that the lowest level of formally named clade be the SNaRC, the Smallest Named and Registered Clade. The SNaRC is an epistemic level in the classification, not an ontic one. Naming stops at that level (...)
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  14. The Dimensions, Modes and Definitions of Species and Speciation.John S. Wilkins - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):247-266.
    Speciation is an aspect of evolutionary biology that has received little philosophical attention apart from articles mainly by biologists such as Mayr (1988). The role of speciation as a terminus a quo for the individuality of species or in the context of punctuated equilibrium theory has been discussed, but not the nature of speciation events themselves. It is the task of this paper to attempt to bring speciation events into some kind of general scheme, based primarily upon the work of (...)
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  15.  13
    Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds.John S. Wilkins - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (2):221-240.
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  16. The Concept and Causes of Microbial Species.John S. Wilkins - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (3):389-408.
    Species concepts for bacteria and other microbes are contentious, because they are often asexual. There is a Problem of Homogeneity: every mutation in an asexual lineage forms a new strain, of which all descendents are clones until a new mutation occurs. We should expect that asexual organisms would form a smear or continuum. What causes the internal homogeneity of asexual lineages, if they are in fact homogeneous? Is there a natural “species concept” for “microbes”? Two main concepts devised for metazoans (...)
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  17. The Advantages of Theft Over Toil: The Design Inference and Arguing From Ignorance.John S. Wilkins & Wesley R. Elsberry - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (5):709-722.
    Intelligent design theorist William Dembski has proposed an ``explanatory filter'' for distinguishing between events due to chance,lawful regularity or design. We show that if Dembski's filter were adopted as a scientific heuristic, some classical developments in science would not be rational, and that Dembski's assertion that the filter reliably identifies rarefied design requires ignoring the state of background knowledge. If background information changes even slightly, the filter's conclusion will vary wildly. Dembski fails to overcome Hume's objections to arguments from design.
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  18.  13
    Replication and Reproduction.John Wilkins & Pierrick Bourrat - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  19. The Evolutionary Structure of Scientific Theories.John S. Wilkins - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (4):479–504.
    David Hull's (1988c) model of science as a selection process suffers from a two-fold inability: (a) to ascertain when a lineage of theories has been established; i.e., when theories are descendants of older theories or are novelties, and what counts as a distinct lineage; and (b) to specify what the scientific analogue is of genotype and phenotype. This paper seeks to clarify these issues and to propose an abstract model of theories analogous to particulate genetic structure, in order to reconstruct (...)
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  20. The Adaptive Landscape of Science.John S. Wilkins - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (5):659-671.
    In 1988, David Hull presented an evolutionary account of science. This was a direct analogy to evolutionary accounts of biological adaptation, and part of a generalized view of Darwinian selection accounts that he based upon the Universal Darwinism of Richard Dawkins. Criticisms of this view were made by, among others, Kim Sterelny, which led to it gaining only limited acceptance. Some of these criticisms are, I will argue, no longer valid in the light of developments in the formal modeling of (...)
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  21.  22
    Replication.David L. Hull & John S. Wilkins - 2005 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  22. Are Creationists Rational?John S. Wilkins - 2011 - Synthese 178 (2):207-218.
    Creationism is usually regarded as an irrational set of beliefs. In this paper I propose that the best way to understand why individual learners settle on any mature set of beliefs is to see that as the developmental outcome of a series of “fast and frugal” boundedly rational inferences rather than as a rejection of reason. This applies to those whose views are opposed to science in general. A bounded rationality model of belief choices both serves to explain the fact (...)
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  23. Trémaux on Species: A Theory of Allopatric Speciation (and Punctuated Equilibrium) Before Wagner.John S. Wilkins & Gareth J. Nelson - 2008 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (1):179-206.
    Pierre Trémaux’s 1865 ideas on speciation have been unjustly derided following his acceptance by Marx and rejection by Engels, and almost nobody has read his ideas in a charitable light. Here we offer an interpretation based on translating the term sol as “habitat”, in order to show that Trémaux proposed a theory of allopatric speciation before Wagner and a punctuated equilibrium theory before Gould and Eldredge, and translate the relevant discussion from the French. We believe he may have influenced Darwin’s (...)
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  24. The Nature of Classification: Relationships and Kinds in the Natural Sciences.John S. Wilkins & Malte C. Ebach - 2013 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The Nature of Classification discusses an old and generally ignored issue in the philosophy of science: natural classification. It argues for classification to be a sometimes theory-free activity in science, and discusses the existence of scientific domains, theory-dependence of observation, the inferential relations of classification and theory, and the nature of the classificatory activity in general. It focuses on biological classification, but extends the discussion to physics, psychiatry, meteorology and other special sciences.
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  25. Considering Veritatis Splendor.John Wilkins (ed.) - 1994 - Pilgrim Press.
     
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  26. The Discovery of a World in the Moone. Or, a Discourse Tending to Prove, That 'Tis Probable There May Be Another Habitable World in That Planet.John Wilkins - 1638 - E.G. For M. Sparke and E. Forrest.
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  27.  67
    Species Are Not Theoretical Objects, or, on What There is in Biology.John S. Wilkins - unknown
    It is often claimed that species are the units of evolution, but this is not defined or clearly explained. In this paper I will argue that species are phenomenal objects that stand in need of explanation, but that they are not objects required by any theory of biology. I further define, or rather describe, species as the genealogical cluster of various lineages at the genetic, haplotype, genomic, organismic, and population level, in keeping with my previous discussions.
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  28.  4
    The Appearance of Lamarckism in the Evolution of Culture.John Wilkins - 2001 - In J. Laurent & J. Nightingale (eds.), Darwinism and Evolutionary Economics. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar. pp. 160-183.
  29.  36
    Mercury, or, the Secret and Swift Messenger: Shewing How a Man May with Privacy and Speed Communicate His Thoughts to a Friend at Any Distance ; Together with an Abstract of Dr. Wilkins's Essays Towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language.John Wilkins - 1708 - John Benjamins.
    Language planning comprises a number of different though related aspects of linguistic activity, its proper realm ranging from the 'improvement' of existing ...
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  30.  8
    The Young of Athens: Religion and Society in Herakleidai of Euripides.John Wilkins - 1990 - Classical Quarterly 40 (02):329-.
    Philostratos records that the ephebes of Athens wore a black χλαμς to commemorate their murder of Kopreus in defence of the Herakleidai. Both the Herakleidai and a herald of Eurystheus appear in Herakleidai of Euripides, but the murder of the herald is not at issue, nor indeed is there any reference to ephebes or ephebic practice. This state of affairs will cause no surprise, for tragedy regularly selects its story-line from the wider range of the myth, and later uses to (...)
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  31.  28
    Galen and the World of Knowledge.Christopher Gill, Tim Whitmarsh & John Wilkins (eds.) - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Introduction Christopher Gill, Tim Whitmarsh and John Wilkins: 1. Galen's library Vivian Nutton; 2. Conventions of prefatory self-presentation in Galen's On the Order of My Own Books Jason König; 3. Demiurge and emperor in Galen's world of knowledge Rebecca Flemming; 4. Shock and awe: the performance dimension of Galen's anatomy demonstrations Maud Gleason; 5. Galen's un-Hippocratic case-histories G. E. R. Lloyd; 6. Staging the past, staging oneself: Galen on Hellenistic exegetical traditions Heinrich von Staden; 7. Galen (...)
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  32. Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill.Richard Seaford, John Wilkins & Matthew Wright (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Selfhood and the Soul is a collection of new and original essays in honour of Christopher Gill, Emeritus Professor of Ancient Thought at the University of Exeter. Although they all share the same concern - the experience of being a person and the question of how best to live - as in the work of the honorand himself they are distinguished by a diversity of approach and subject matter, taking the reader on a journey from ancient philosophy to medical writing (...)
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  33. In Thomæhobbii Philosophiam Exercitatio Epistolica. Ad Amplissimum Eruditissimúmque Virum D. Iohannem Wilkinsium S.T.D. Collegii Wadhamensis Gardianum. [REVIEW]Seth Ward, John Wilkins, Henry Hall & Richard Davis - 1656 - Excudebat H. Hall Academiætypographus, Impensis Richardi Davis.
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  34. An Alphabetical Dictionary Wherein All English Words According to Their Various Significations, Are Either Referred to Their Places in the Philosophical Tables, or Explained by Such Words as Are in Those Tables.John Wilkins - 1668 - Printed by J. M. For S. Gellibrand [Etc.].
     
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  35. A Deflation of Genetic Information.John S. Wilkins - manuscript
    It is often claimed there is information in some biological entity or process, most especially in genes. Genetic “information” refers to distinct notions, either of concrete properties of molecular bonds and catalysis, in which case it is little more than a periphrasis for correlation and causal relations between physical biological objects (molecules), or of abstract properties, in which case it is mind-dependent. When information plays a causal role, nothing is added to the account by calling it “information”. In short, if (...)
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  36.  1
    (A.) Dalby and (S.) Grainger The Classical Cookbook. London: British Museum Press, 1996. Pp. 144; Ill. 0714122084.John Wilkins - 2001 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 121:203-204.
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  37.  41
    A Deflationary Account of Information in Biology.John S. Wilkins - unknown
    An oft-repeated claim is that there is information in some biological entity or process, most especially in genes. Some of these claims derive from the Central Dogma, population genetics, and the neo-Darwinian program. Others derive from attacks upon evolution, in an attempt to show that “information cannot be created” by natural selection. In this paper I will try to show that the term “information” is a homonym for a range of distinct notions, and that these notions are either of concrete (...)
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  38. An Essay Towards a Real Character.John Wilkins - 1668 - Menston, (Yorks.)Scolar P..
     
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  39. An Essay Towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language. By John Wilkins D.D. Dean of Ripon, and Fellow of the Royal Society. [REVIEW]John Wilkins - 1668 - Printed for Sa: Gellibrand, and for John Martyn Printer to the Royal Society.
     
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  40. An Essay Towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language.John Wilkins - 1668 - Printed for S. Gellibrand.
     
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  41. An Essay Towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language, 1668.John Wilkins - 1968 - Scolar P.
     
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  42.  23
    Archestratos' Good Food Guide S. D. Olson: Archestratos of Gela. Greek Culture and Cuisine in the Fourth Century B.C.E. Pp. Lxxiii + 261. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. £48. Isbn: 0-19-924008-. [REVIEW]John Wilkins - 2003 - The Classical Review 53 (01):26-.
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  43.  4
    Archestratos’ Good Food Guide. [REVIEW]John Wilkins - 2003 - The Classical Review 53 (1):26-27.
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  44.  20
    Actors' Interpolations After Aristophanes?John Wilkins - 1985 - The Classical Review 35 (01):10-.
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  45.  29
    Actors' Interpolations After Aristophanes? Albrecht Dihle: Der Prolog der 'Bacchen' und die antike Überlief-erungsphase des Euripides-Textes. (Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-hist. Klasse, 1981, 2.) Pp. 115. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1981. Paper, DM. 60. [REVIEW]John Wilkins - 1985 - The Classical Review 35 (01):10-11.
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  46.  13
    Ateneo I Deipnosofisti. I Dotti a Banchetto (Book).John Wilkins - 2003 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 123:215-216.
  47.  16
    Athenaeus the Navigator.John Wilkins - 2008 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 128:132-152.
    This study concerns navigation in a geographical sense and in the sense of the reader finding a way through a complex text with the help of points of reference. Recent studies in Athenaeus have suggested that he was a more sophisticated writer than the second-hand compiler of Hellenistic comment on classical Greek authors, which has been a dominant view. Building on these studies, this article argues thatAthenaeus� approach to his history of ancient dining draws on traditional poetic links between the (...)
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  48.  1
    Book Review: New Atlantis Revisited: Akademgorodok, The Siberian City of Science. [REVIEW]John D. Wilkins - 1999 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 24 (4):502-505.
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  49.  4
    Comic Angels. [REVIEW]John Wilkins - 1994 - The Classical Review 44 (2):262-263.
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  50.  33
    Comic Angels Oliver Taplin: Comic Angels and Other Approaches to Greek Drama Through Vase-Painting. Pp. Xii+129; 24 Plates, 1 Map, 3 Line Drawings. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. Cased, £35. [REVIEW]John Wilkins - 1994 - The Classical Review 44 (02):262-263.
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