Este artículo, se enfoca exclusivamenteen la idea del sentimiento de respeto a laley moral que Kant expone en el tercercapítulo de la Analítica de la razón purapráctica . Enél se sostienen las siguientes tesis: i) elsentimiento de respeto a la ley moral,en t ant o sent i mi ent o a pr i or i , es unaexigencia lógica de la argumentación, afin de mantener la coherencia del sistemakantiano y hacer posible la libertad, ii)el sentimiento de respeto cumple tantouna función (...) causal como una funcióndiferenciadora, y iii) la moral kantianaafirma la existencia de dos sentimientos apriori: sentimiento de respeto a la ley moraly el sentimiento de dolor.This paper focuses exclusivily on the claimabout the feeling of respect for the morallaw, which Kant sets out in chapter threeof The Analytic of Pure Practical Reason. There hehelds the following theses: i) the feelingof respect, as a priori feeling, is a logicalrequirement of the argumentation, in orderto mantain the coherence of the kantiansystem and to make freedom possible, ii)the feeling of respect fulfills both a causalfunction and a distinctive function, and, iii)Kant‘s moral theory asserts the existence oftwo a priori feelings: the feeling of respectfor the moral law and the feeling of pain. (shrink)
Kant hace uso de la idea de un contrato originario para legitimar el Estado y el Derecho, el cual, sin embargo, no muestra las razones o motivos para el establecimiento de ambos. Se afirma que, para saber cuáles son estas razones, se debe analizar el concepto de estado natural. Este concepto no se l..
Kant resorts to the idea of an original contract in order to legitimate Right and the State; however, no reasons are given for the establishment of either of them. The article suggests that the concept of natural state needs to be analyzed in order to find out what those reasons are. This concept not only indicates what those reasons are, but also determines the content of positive legal norms. On the other hand, the article suggests that the wide spectrum of (...) the concept of natural state also motivates the Kantian idea of a universal legal structure. (shrink)
No presente trabalho é examinado o conceito de "representação" em duas obras de Nicolau de Oresme. No De maneta, o pensador medieval faz pequenas referências ao poder de decisão do povo em questões monetárias. Anos mais tarde, ao traduzir e comentar a Política de Aristóteles, retoma a noção de Marsílio de Pádua a respeito da multidão como legislador, mas define a multidão não como o povo, mas como a congregação de todos os príncipes ou oficiais, entre os principais cidadãos.
What role does “discursive consciousness” play in decision-making? How does it interact with “practical consciousness?” These two questions constitute two important gaps in strong practice theory that extend from Pierre Bourdieu's habitus to Stephen Vaisey's sociological dual-process model and beyond. The goal of this paper is to provide an empirical framework that expands the sociological dual-process model in order to fill these gaps using models from cognitive neuroscience. In particular, I use models of memory and moral judgment that highlight the (...) importance of executive functions and semantic memory. I outline each model as it pertains to the aforementioned gaps in strong practice theory. I then use the models from cognitive neuroscience to create an expanded dual-process model that addresses how and when conscious mental systems override and interact with subconscious mental systems in the use of cultural ends for decision-making. Finally, using this expanded model I address the sociological debate over the use of interview and survey data. My analysis reveals that surveys and interviews both elicit information encoded in declarative memory and differ primarily in the process of information retrieval that is required of respondents. (shrink)
The ageing society poses significant challenges to Europe’s economy and society. In coming to grips with these issues, we must be aware of their ethical dimensions. Values are the heart of the European Union, as Article 1a of the Lisbon Treaty makes clear: “The Union is founded on the values of respect for human dignity…”. The notion of Europe as a community of values has various important implications, including the development of inclusion policies. A special case of exclusion concerns the (...) gap between those people with effective access to digital and information technology and those without access to it, the “digital divide”, which in Europe is chiefly age-related. Policies to overcome the digital divide and, more generally speaking, e-inclusion policies addressing the ageing population raise some ethical problems. Among younger senior citizens, say those between 65 and 80 years old, the main issues are likely to be universal access to ICT and e-participation. Among the older senior citizens, say those more than 80 years old, the main issues are mental and physical deterioration and assistive technology. An approach geared towards the protection of human rights could match the different needs of senior citizens and provide concrete guidance to evaluate information technologies for them. (shrink)
We define a class of formal systems inspired by Prawitz’s theory of grounds. The latter is a semantics that aims at accounting for epistemic grounding, namely, at explaining why and how deductively valid inferences have the power to epistemically compel to accept the conclusion. Validity is defined in terms of typed objects, called grounds, that reify evidence for given judgments. An inference is valid when a function exists from grounds for the premises to grounds for the conclusion. Grounds are described (...) by formal terms, either directly when the terms are in canonical form, or indirectly when they are in non-canonical form. Non-canonical terms must reduce to canonical form, and two terms may be said to be equal when they converge towards equivalent grounds. In our systems these properties can be proved through rules distinguished according to whether they concern types or logic. Type rules involve type introduction and elimination, equality for application of operational symbols, and re-writing equations for non-canonical terms. The logic amounts to a sort of intuitionistic system in a Gentzen format. To conclude, we show that each system of our class enjoys a normalization property. (shrink)
In this paper, Britten’s opera Peter Grimes (1945) is used as an illustrative case study through which to examine the depiction of psychiatric disorders in opera. It is argued that Peter Grimes is a powerful example of how opera, in the hands of a great composer, can become an invaluable tool for examining subjective human experience. After a brief discussion of opera as a vehicle to express emotions, various operas are drawn upon to provide a historical perspective and to demonstrate (...) the long interconnection existing between opera and madness. An in-depth analysis of Peter Grimes, its background and central character, is then provided, in order to demonstrate how opera can elicit empathy for individuals affected by mental health problems. (shrink)
Dag Prawitz’s theory of grounds proposes a fresh approach to valid inferences. Its main aim is to clarify nature and reasons of their epistemic power. The notion of ground is taken to denote what one is in possession of when in a state of evidence, and valid inferences are described in terms of operations that make us pass from grounds we already have to new grounds. Thanks to a rigorously developed proof-as-chains conception, the ground-theoretic framework permits Prawitz to overcome some (...) conceptual difficulties of his earlier proof-theoretic explanation. Though from different points of view, anyway, the two accounts share an issue of recognizability of relevant operational properties. (shrink)
We outline a class of term-languages for epistemic grounding inspired by Prawitz’s theory of grounds. We show how denotation functions can be defined over these languages, relating terms to proof-objects built up of constructive functions. We discuss certain properties that the languages may enjoy both individually and with respect to their expansions. Finally, we provide a ground-theoretic version of Prawitz’s completeness conjecture, and adapt to our framework a refutation of this conjecture due to Piecha and Schroeder-Heister.
Las micotoxinas son metabolitos fúngicos secundarios que pueden ejercer un efecto tóxico tanto en el hombre como en los animales debido, principalmente, a su exposición a través de los alimentos. La presencia de estos compuestos ha sido demostrada en una amplia variedad de materias primas, alimentos y piensos, en los que lo habitual es encontrar de forma frecuente una contaminación múltiple por diferentes micotoxinas, en pequeñas cantidades, lo que puede generar efectos tóxicos subcrónicos, así como bioacumulación. Este artículo revisa los (...) principales elementos que configuran la problemática de las micotoxinas para el hombre y los animales, y aborda los retos de futuro que se plantean en el estudio de las micotoxinas, entre los que destacan el efecto que el cambio climático puede tener sobre el patrón de contaminación por micotoxinas en los alimentos, el descubrimiento creciente de nuevas micotoxinas en formas modificadas, la evaluación de la coexistencia de estas toxinas y otros contaminantes, y las formas para detectar e intentar eliminar estos compuestos tóxicos de los alimentos. (shrink)
Prawitz has recently developed a theory of epistemic grounding that differs in many respects from his earlier semantics of arguments and proofs. An innovative approach to inferences yields a new conception of the intertwinement of the notions of valid inference and proof. We aim at singling out three reasons that may have led Prawitz to the ground-theoretic turn, i.e.: a better order in the explanation of the relation between valid inferences and proofs; a notion of valid inference based on which (...) valid inferences and proofs are recognisable as such; a reconstruction of the deductive activity that makes inferences capable of yielding justification per se. These topics are discussed by Prawitz with reference to a very general and ancient question: why and how correct deduction has the epistemic power to compel us to accept its conclusions, provided its premises are justified? We conclude by remarking that, in spite of some improvements, the ground-theoretic approach shares with the previous one a problem of vacuous validity which, as Prawitz himself points out, blocks in both cases a satisfactory explanation of epistemic compulsion. (shrink)
O presente artigo aborda a ontologia de A. Sérgio, numa dupla vertente expositiva e crítica. Num primeiro momento enunciam-se os temas, o método e os critérios da abordagem, enquadrando a interpretação no próprio horizonte aberto pelo pensamento sergiano. Num segundo momento descobre-se a arquitectura do mundo tacitamente proposto pela sua gnosiologia e pela sua epistemologia idealistas, perspectivando-a como implícita "ontologia ideal". Num terceiro momento opera-se a análise crítica desta ontologia, segundo o duplo critério da consistência e da universalidade, retirando algumas (...) conclusões de âmbito genérico /// Le présente article aborde l'ontologie de A. Sérgio sous le double aspect d'exposition et de critique. En un premier moment on enoncerá le thème, la méthode et les critères de cette analyse, en insérant l'interprétation dans l'horizon même ouvert par la pensée de Sérgio. En un second moment, on découvre l'architectonique du monde tacitement proposé par sa gnoséologie et par son épistémologie idéalistes, en la montrant sous l'angle d'une ontologie "idéale" implicite. En un troisième moment, on passe a l'analyse critique de cette ontologie selon le double critère de la consistance et de l'universalité, pour tirer enfin quelques conclusions de caractère général /// This article begins with an indication of how the ontology of A. Sérgio may be approached. A description of its "ideal ontology" is then proposed on the basis of his idealist epistemology. Finally, a critical analysis of this ontology is attempted in order to evaluate its consistency and universality. (shrink)