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Jon Rueda
University of Granada
  1. Virtual Reality and Empathy Enhancement: Ethical Aspects.Jon Rueda & Francisco Lara - 2020 - Frontiers in Robotics and AI 7.
    The history of humankind is full of examples that indicate a constant desire to make human beings more moral. Nowadays, technological breakthroughs might have a significant impact on our moral character and abilities. This is the case of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies. The aim of this paper is to consider the ethical aspects of the use of VR in enhancing empathy. First, we will offer an introduction to VR, explaining its fundamental features, devices and concepts. Then, we will approach the (...)
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  2.  21
    Ageism in the COVID-19 pandemic: age-based discrimination in triage decisions and beyond.Jon Rueda - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (3):1-7.
    Ageism has unfortunately become a salient phenomenon during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, triage decisions based on age have been hotly discussed. In this article, I first defend that, although there are ethical reasons (founded on the principles of benefit and fairness) to consider the age of patients in triage dilemmas, using age as a categorical exclusion is an unjustifiable ageist practice. Then, I argue that ageism during the pandemic has been fueled by media narratives and unfair assumptions which have (...)
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  3. From Self‐Determination to Offspring‐Determination? Reproductive Autonomy, Procrustean Parenting, and Genetic Enhancement.Jon Rueda - 2021 - Theoria 88 (6):1086-1110.
    Emerging reprogenetic technologies may radically change how humans reproduce in the not-so-distant future. One foreseeable consequence of disruptive innovations in the procreative domain is an increase in the reproductive autonomy of intended parents. Regarding the prospective parental liberty of enhancing non-health–related traits of the offspring, one controversy has particularly dominated the literature. Does parents' choice of genetically enhancing the traits of their descendants compromise children's future personal autonomy? In this article, I will analyse the main arguments which posit that reprogenetic (...)
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  4. Climate Change, Moral Bioenhancement and the Ultimate Mostropic.Jon Rueda - 2020 - Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics 11:277-303.
    Tackling climate change is one of the most demanding challenges of humanity in the 21st century. Still, the efforts to mitigate the current environmental crisis do not seem enough to deal with the increased existential risks for the human and other species. Persson and Savulescu have proposed that our evolutionarily forged moral psychology is one of the impediments to facing as enormous a problem as global warming. They suggested that if we want to address properly some of the most pressing (...)
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  5. In defence of posthuman vulnerability.Belen Liedo Fernandez & Jon Rueda - 2021 - Scientia et Fides 9 (1):215-239.
    Transhumanism is a challenging movement that invites us to rethink what defines humanity, including what we value and regret the most about our existence. Vulnerability is a key concept that require thorough philosophical scrutiny concerning transhumanist proposals. Vulnerability can refer to a universal condition of human life or, rather, to the specific exposure to certain harms due to particular situations. Even if we are all vulnerable in the first sense, there are also different sources and levels of vulnerability depending on (...)
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  6.  22
    Doctor, please make me freer: Capabilities enhancement as a goal of medicine.Jon Rueda, Pablo García-Barranquero & Francisco Lara - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (3):409-419.
    Biomedical innovations are making possible the enhancement of human capabilities. There are two philosophical stances on the role that medicine should play in this respect. On the one hand, naturalism rejects every medical intervention that goes beyond preventing and treating disease. On the other hand, welfarism advocates enhancements that foster subjective well-being. We will show that both positions have considerable shortcomings. Consequently, we will introduce a third characterization in which therapies and enhancements can be reconciled with the legitimate objectives of (...)
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  7.  17
    A Slippery Argument: Ableism in the Debate on Medical Assistance in Dying.Rosana Triviño, Jon Rueda & David Rodríguez-Arias - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (11):99-102.
    In this commentary, we criticize the argument that allowing euthanasia for people with disabilities is ableist. We analyze the distinction between facts and values in medical assistance in dying, the expressivist objection, and the problem of crypwashing.
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  8. Socrates in the fMRI Scanner: The Neurofoundations of Morality and the Challenge to Ethics.Jon Rueda - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (4):606-612.
    The neuroscience of ethics is allegedly having a double impact. First, it is transforming the view of human morality through the discovery of the neurobiological underpinnings that influence moral behavior. Secondly, some neuroscientific findings are radically challenging traditional views on normative ethics. Both claims have some truth but are also overstated. In this article, the author shows that they can be understood together, although with different caveats, under the label of ‘neurofoundationalism’. Whereas the neuroscientific picture of human morality is undoubtedly (...)
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  9.  23
    The morally disruptive future of reprogenetic enhancement technologies.Jon Rueda, Jonathan Pugh & Julian Savulescu - 2022 - Trends in Biotechnology.
    Emerging reprogenetic technologies may enable the enhancement of our offspring's genes. Beyond raising ethical questions, these biotechnologies may change some aspects of future morality. In the reproductive field, biotechnological innovations may transform moral views about reproductive choices regarding what we consider to be just or even of equal standing.
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  10. “Just” accuracy? Procedural fairness demands explainability in AI‑based medical resource allocation.Jon Rueda, Janet Delgado Rodríguez, Iris Parra Jounou, Joaquín Hortal-Carmona, Txetxu Ausín & David Rodríguez-Arias - 2022 - AI and Society:1-12.
    The increasing application of artificial intelligence (AI) to healthcare raises both hope and ethical concerns. Some advanced machine learning methods provide accurate clinical predictions at the expense of a significant lack of explainability. Alex John London has defended that accuracy is a more important value than explainability in AI medicine. In this article, we locate the trade-off between accurate performance and explainable algorithms in the context of distributive justice. We acknowledge that accuracy is cardinal from outcome-oriented justice because it helps (...)
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  11. Genetic enhancement, human extinction, and the best interests of posthumanity.Jon Rueda - 2022 - Bioethics.
    The cumulative impact of enhancement technologies may alter the human species in the very long-term future. In this article, I will start showing how radical genetic enhancements may accelerate the conversion into a novel species. I will also clarify the concepts of ‘biological species’, ‘transhuman’ and ‘posthuman’. Then, I will summarize some ethical arguments for creating a transhuman or posthuman species with a substantially higher level of well-being than the human one. In particular, I will present what I shall call (...)
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  12. Beyond the Altruistic Donor: Embedding Solidarity in Organ Procurement Policies.María Victoria Martínez-López, Gonzalo Díaz-Cobacho, Belén Liedo, Jon Rueda & Alberto Molina-Pérez - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):107.
    Altruism and solidarity are concepts that are closely related to organ donation for transplantation. On the one hand, they are typically used for encouraging people to donate. On the other hand, they also underpin the regulations in force in each country to different extents. They are often used indistinctly and equivocally, despite the different ethical implications of each concept. This paper aims to clarify to what extent we can speak of altruism and solidarity in the predominant models of organ donation. (...)
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  13. Digital Covid Certificates as Immunity Passports: An Analysis of Their Main Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues.Íñigo de Miguel Beriain & Jon Rueda - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry (4):1-8.
    Digital COVID certificates are a novel public health policy to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. These immunity certificates aim to incentivize vaccination and to deny international travel or access to essential spaces to those who are unable to prove that they are not infectious. In this article, we start by describing immunity certificates and highlighting their differences from vaccination certificates. Then, we focus on the ethical, legal, and social issues involved in their use, namely autonomy and consent, data protection, equity, and (...)
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  14. Hit by the Virtual Trolley: When is Experimental Ethics Unethical?Jon Rueda - 2022 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 41 (1):7-27.
    The trolley problem is one of the liveliest research frameworks in experimental ethics. In the last decade, social neuroscience and experimental moral psychology have gone beyond the studies with mere text-based hypothetical moral dilemmas. In this article, I present the rationale behind testing the actual behaviour in more realistic scenarios through Virtual Reality and summarize the body of evidence raised by the experiments with virtual trolley scenarios. Then, I approach the argument of Ramirez and LaBarge (2020), who claim that the (...)
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  15.  29
    Immunity passports, fundamental rights and public health hazards: a reply to Brown et al.Iñigo de Miguel Beriain & Jon Rueda - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (10):660-661.
    In their recent article, Brown et al analyse several ethical aspects around immunity passports and put forward some recommendations for implementing them. Although they offer a comprehensive perspective, they overlook two essential aspects. First, while the authors consider the possibility that immunological passports may appear to discriminate against those who do not possess them, the opposite viewpoint of immune people is underdeveloped. We argue that if a person has been tested positive for and recovered from COVID-19, becoming immune to it, (...)
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  16.  14
    Examining Public Trust in Categorical versus Comprehensive Triage Criteria.Jon Rueda, Ivar R. Hannikainen, Joaquín Hortal-Carmona & David Rodriguez-Arias - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):106-109.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 106-109.
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  17.  17
    Rethinking techno-moral disruption in bioethics, society, and justice.Jon Rueda, Jonathan Pugh & Julian Savulescu - 2023 - Trends in Biotechnology 41 (6):743-744.
    In response to De Proost and Segers, we provide further reflections on how technologies induce moral change. We discuss moral changes at the societal level as distinguished from changes in bioethical principles or ethical concepts, impacts on theories of justice, and whether the transformations are negative or positive.
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  18. Doing Good with Virtual Reality: The Ethics of Using Virtual Simulations for Improving Human Morality.Jon Rueda (ed.) - 2023 - New York: Routledge.
    Much of the excitement and concern with virtual reality (VR) has to do with the impact of virtual experiences on our moral conduct in the “real world”. VR technologies offer vivid simulations that may impact prosocial dispositions and abilities or emotions related to morality. Whereas some experiences could facilitate particular moral behaviors, VR could also inculcate bad moral habits or lead to the surreptitious development of nefarious moral traits. In this chapter, I offer an overview of the ethical debate about (...)
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  19. Virtual Reality not for “being someone” but for “being in someone else’s shoes”: Avoiding misconceptions in empathy enhancement.Francisco Lara & Jon Rueda - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12:3674.
    Erick J. Ramirez, Miles Elliott and Per‑Erik Milam (2021) have recently claimed that using Virtual Reality (VR) as an educational nudge to promote empathy is unethical. These authors argue that the influence exerted on the participant through virtual simulation is based on the deception of making them believe that they are someone else when this is impossible. This makes the use of VR for empathy enhancement a manipulative strategy in itself. In this article, we show that Ramirez et al.’s ethical (...)
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  20.  44
    Re-defining the human embryo: A legal perspective on the creation of embryos in research.Íñigo De Miguel Beriain, Jon Rueda & Adrian Villalba - 2024 - EMBO Reports.
    The notion of the human embryo is not immutable. Various scientific and technological breakthroughs in reproductive biology have compelled us to revisit the definition of the human embryo during the past 2 decades. Somatic cell nuclear transfer, oocyte haploidisation and, more recently, human stem cell-derived embryo models have challenged this scientific term, which has both ethical and legal repercussions. Here, we offer a legal perspective to identify a universally accepted definition of ‘embryo’ which could help to ease and unify the (...)
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  21.  9
    Problems with dystopian representations in genetic futurism.Jon Rueda - 2023 - Nature Genetics.
    This correspondence offers a counterpoint to the recent article of Dov Greenbaum and Mark Gerstein defending the pertinence of GATTACA 25 years after its release. I develop three arguments for not being enthusiastic about dystopian representations in the ethical, legal, and social discussion of genetic technologies and genomic sciences.
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  22. Ethical assessments and mitigation strategies for biases in AI-systems used during the COVID-19 pandemic.Alicia De Manuel, Janet Delgado, Parra Jonou Iris, Txetxu Ausín, David Casacuberta, Maite Cruz Piqueras, Ariel Guersenzvaig, Cristian Moyano, David Rodríguez-Arias, Jon Rueda & Angel Puyol - 2023 - Big Data and Society 10 (1).
    The main aim of this article is to reflect on the impact of biases related to artificial intelligence (AI) systems developed to tackle issues arising from the COVID-19 pandemic, with special focus on those developed for triage and risk prediction. A secondary aim is to review assessment tools that have been developed to prevent biases in AI systems. In addition, we provide a conceptual clarification for some terms related to biases in this particular context. We focus mainly on nonracial biases (...)
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  23.  14
    Bias in algorithms of AI systems developed for COVID-19: A scoping review.Janet Delgado, Alicia de Manuel, Iris Parra, Cristian Moyano, Jon Rueda, Ariel Guersenzvaig, Txetxu Ausin, Maite Cruz, David Casacuberta & Angel Puyol - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (3):407-419.
    To analyze which ethically relevant biases have been identified by academic literature in artificial intelligence algorithms developed either for patient risk prediction and triage, or for contact tracing to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, to specifically investigate whether the role of social determinants of health have been considered in these AI developments or not. We conducted a scoping review of the literature, which covered publications from March 2020 to April 2021. ​Studies mentioning biases on AI algorithms developed for contact (...)
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  24.  8
    A Virtual Prosthesis for Morality? Experiential Learning through XR Technologies for Autonomy Enhancement of Psychiatric Offenders.Jon Rueda & Emma Dore-Horgan - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (3):163-165.
  25. ¿Automatizando la mejora moral? La inteligencia artificial para la ética.Jon Rueda - 2023 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 89:199-209.
    ¿Puede la inteligencia artificial (IA) hacernos más morales o ayudarnos a tomar decisiones más éticas? El libro Más (que) humanos. Biotecnología, inteligencia artificial y ética de la mejora, editado por Francisco Lara y Julian Savulescu (2021), puede inspirarnos filosóficamente sobre este debate contemporáneo. En esta nota crítica, contextualizo la aportación general del volumen y analizo los dos últimos capítulos de Monasterio-Astobiza y de Lara y Deckers, quienes argumentan a favor del uso de la IA para hacernos mejores agentes morales. El (...)
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  26. The ethics of doing human enhancement ethics.Jon Rueda - 2023 - Futures 153:103236.
    Human enhancement is one of the leading research topics in contemporary applied ethics. Interestingly, the widespread attention to the ethical aspects of future enhancement applications has generated misgivings. Are researchers who spend their time investigating the ethics of futuristic human enhancement scenarios acting in an ethically suboptimal manner? Are the methods they use to analyze future technological developments appropriate? Are institutions wasting resources by funding such research? In this article, I address the ethics of doing human enhancement ethics focusing on (...)
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  27. ¿No es país para viejos? La edad como criterio de triaje durante la pandemia COVID-19.Jon Rueda - 2020 - Enrahonar: Quaderns de Filosofía 65:85-98.
    La pandemia de la COVID-19 ha levantado sospechas de edadismo y gerontofobia en diversas prácticas de racionamiento sanitario. La edad es un criterio de triaje controvertido. En este artículo se esclarece la relevancia ética de la edad dentro de los sistemas de triaje, analizando particularmente su rol dentro de los principios de equidad y de eficiencia. La equidad requiere dar más oportunidades a aquellos que han cumplido menos ciclos vitales. La eficiencia tiene en cuenta la edad de manera subrepticia al (...)
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  28. Divide and Rule? Why Ethical Proliferation is not so Wrong for Technology Ethics.Joan Llorca Albareda & Jon Rueda - 2023 - Philosophy and Technology 36 (1):1-7.
    Although the map of technology ethics is expanding, the growing subdomains within it may raise misgivings. In a recent and very interesting article, Sætra and Danaher have argued that the current dynamic of sub-specialization is harmful to the ethics of technology. In this commentary, we offer three reasons to diminish their concern about ethical proliferation. We argue first that the problem of demarcation is weakened if we attend to other sub-disciplines of technology ethics not mentioned by these authors. We claim (...)
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  29. Artificial moral experts: asking for ethical advice to artificial intelligent assistants.Blanca Rodríguez-López & Jon Rueda - 2023 - AI and Ethics.
    In most domains of human life, we are willing to accept that there are experts with greater knowledge and competencies that distinguish them from non-experts or laypeople. Despite this fact, the very recognition of expertise curiously becomes more controversial in the case of “moral experts”. Do moral experts exist? And, if they indeed do, are there ethical reasons for us to follow their advice? Likewise, can emerging technological developments broaden our very concept of moral expertise? In this article, we begin (...)
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  30.  11
    The Frailty of Disability: A Controversial Triage Criterion.Rosana Triviño-Caballero, Jon Rueda, Belén Liedo & Joaquín Hortal-Carmona - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):82-84.
    Disability has been traditionally understood as a medical condition. However, people with disabilities have claimed in recent decades for a dephatologized social model of disability—i.e. the functi...
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  31.  25
    Normality and the Treatment-Enhancement Distinction.Daniel Martín, Jon Rueda, Brian D. Earp & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (2):1-14.
    There is little debate regarding the acceptability of providing medical care to restore physical or mental health that has deteriorated below what is considered typical due to disease or disorder (i.e., providing “treatment”—for example, administering psychostimulant medication to sustain attention in the case of attention deficit disorder). When asked whether a healthy individual may undergo the same intervention for the purpose of enhancing their capacities (i.e., “enhancement”—for example, use of a psychostimulant as a “study drug”), people often express greater hesitation. (...)
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  32.  10
    Understanding genetic justice in the post-enhanced world: a reply to Sinead Prince.Jon Rueda - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    In her recent article, Prince has identified a critical challenge for those who advocate genetic enhancement to reduce social injustices. The gene–environment interaction prevents genetic enhancement from having equitable effects at the phenotypic level, even if enhancement were available to the entire population. The poor would benefit less than the rich from their improved genes because their genotypes would interact with more unfavourable socioeconomic environments. Therefore, Prince believes that genetic enhancement should not be used to combat social inequalities, since it (...)
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  33.  8
    AI, Sustainability, and Environmental Ethics.Cristian Moyano-Fernández & Jon Rueda - 2023 - In Francisco Lara & Jan Deckers (eds.), Ethics of Artificial Intelligence. Cham: Springer. pp. 219-236.
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) developments are proliferating at an astonishing rate. Unsurprisingly, the number of meaningful studies addressing the social impacts of AI applications in several fields has been remarkable. More recently, several contributions have started exploring the ecological impacts of AI. Machine learning systems do not have a neutral environmental cost, so it is important to unravel the ecological footprint of these techno-scientific developments. In this chapter, we discuss the sustainability of AI from environmental ethics approaches. We examine the moral (...)
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  34. COVID-19, cisnes negros y anticipación de desastres sanitarios: problemas futuros y el futuro como problema en la ética de la Salud Pública.Jon Rueda - 2022 - Revista Española de Salud Pública 96 (e202210058):e1-e10.
    La pandemia de la COVID-19 ha recordado la importancia de prevenir y planificarse ante eventos altamente desastrosos para la salud comunitaria. Varios fenómenos emergentes suponen amenazas prospectivas para la Salud Pública. Sin embargo, el carácter mayormente futuro de problemas como la resistencia antibiótica, el impacto del cambio climático en la salud o la bioingeniería de patógenos genera dificultades de análisis. ¿Cuáles son los desafíos éticos y epistemológicos que suscitan los problemas futuros para la Salud Pública? ¿Cómo deben abordarse los problemas (...)
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  35. De la libertad morfológica transhumanista a la corporalidad posthumana: convergencias y divergencias.Jon Rueda - 2020 - Isegoría 63:311-328.
    Tanto el transhumanismo como el posthumanismo filosófico han prestado una atención especial a la corporalidad humana en relación al avance tecnológico. En el presente artículo, se comienza señalando cómo ambos movimientos difieren significativamente respecto a la herencia del humanismo. Posteriormente, se aborda la noción transhumanista de la ‘libertad morfológica’ de la mano de More, Sandberg y Bostrom. A continuación, se presentan casos paradigmáticos de modificaciones corporales mediante implantes cibernéticos. En último lugar, se problematizan las cuestiones de la identidad, la corporalidad (...)
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  36. Interview with Philip Brey.Jon Rueda & Txetxu Ausín - 2021 - Dilemata 34:133-137.
    Interview with Philip Brey in which he clarifies and exemplifies the concept of ‘socially disruptive technology’, offering a series of key aspects for its present and future analysis from the disciplinary perspective of technology ethics. Philip Brey is Professor of Philosophy of Technology at the Department of Philosophy at the University of Twente. He has been a keynote speaker of the International Workshop on Controversies and Polarization on Disruptive Technologies, that took place virtually and in Granada, on October 5th and (...)
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  37. Tecnologías socialmente disruptivas (Introducción).Jon Rueda - 2021 - Dilemata 31 (13):5-9.
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  38.  15
    Genomic Uncertainty as a Burden for Reproductive Choice? The Problem of Probabilistic Causation in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing.Jon Rueda & Mar Vallés-Poch - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (3):26-28.
    Hilary Bowman-Smart et al. (2023) have rightly pointed out that one of the recurring criticisms of the use of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for non-medical trait prediction is the probabilist...
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  39.  4
    Ethics of Virtual Assistants.Juan Ignacio del Valle, Joan Llorca Albareda & Jon Rueda - 2023 - In Francisco Lara & Jan Deckers (eds.), Ethics of Artificial Intelligence. Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland. pp. 87-107.
    Among the many applications of artificial intelligence (AI), virtual assistants are one of the tools most likely to grow in the future. The development of these systems may play an increasingly important role in many facets of our lives. Therefore, given their potential importance and present and future weight, it is worthwhile to analyze what kind of challenges they entail. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of the ethical aspects of artificial virtual assistants. First, we provide a conceptual (...)
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  40.  12
    Synthetic embryos: a new venue in ethical research.Villalba Adrián, Jon Rueda & Íñigo De Miguel - 2023 - Reproduction 164 (4):V1-V3.
    The recent publications reported in 2022 reveal the possibility of obtaining mouse embryos without the need for egg or sperm. These ‘artificial embryos’ can recapitulate some stages of development ex utero – from neurulation to organogenesis – without implantation. Synthetic mouse embryos might serve as a valuable model to gain further insights into early developmental stages. Indeed, it is expected for these models to be replicated by employing human cells. This promising research raises ethical issues and expands the horizon of (...)
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  41.  7
    Vaccination certificates, immunity passports, and test-based travel licences: ethical, legal, and public health issues.Íñigo De Miguel & Jon Rueda - 2021 - Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases 42.
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  42.  10
    Enhancing Virtue without Becoming Ned Flanders?Jon Rueda - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):121-124.
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