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Jon Rueda
University of Granada
  1. Virtual Reality and Empathy Enhancement: Ethical Aspects.Jon Rueda & Francisco Lara - 2020 - Frontiers in Robotics and AI 7.
    The history of humankind is full of examples that indicate a constant desire to make human beings more moral. Nowadays, technological breakthroughs might have a significant impact on our moral character and abilities. This is the case of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies. The aim of this paper is to consider the ethical aspects of the use of VR in enhancing empathy. First, we will offer an introduction to VR, explaining its fundamental features, devices and concepts. Then, we will approach the (...)
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  2.  76
    From Self-Determination to Offspring-Determination? Reproductive Autonomy, Procrustean Parenting, and Genetic Enhancement.Jon Rueda - forthcoming - Theoria.
    Emerging reprogenetic technologies may radically change how humans reproduce in the not-so-distant future. One foreseeable consequence of disruptive innovations in the procreative domain is an increase in the reproductive autonomy of intended parents. Regarding the prospective parental liberty of enhancing non-health–related traits of the offspring, one controversy has particularly dominated the literature. Does parents’ choice of genetically enhancing the traits of their descendants compromise children’s future personal autonomy? In this article, I will analyse the main arguments which posit that reprogenetic (...)
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  3. Virtual Reality Not for “Being Someone” but for “Being in Someone Else’s Shoes”: Avoiding Misconceptions in Empathy Enhancement.Francisco Lara & Jon Rueda - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12:3674.
    Erick J. Ramirez, Miles Elliott and Per‑Erik Milam (2021) have recently claimed that using Virtual Reality (VR) as an educational nudge to promote empathy is unethical. These authors argue that the influence exerted on the participant through virtual simulation is based on the deception of making them believe that they are someone else when this is impossible. This makes the use of VR for empathy enhancement a manipulative strategy in itself. In this article, we show that Ramirez et al.’s ethical (...)
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  4. In Defence of Posthuman Vulnerability.Belen Liedo Fernandez & Jon Rueda - 2021 - Scientia et Fides 9 (1):215-239.
    Transhumanism is a challenging movement that invites us to rethink what defines humanity, including what we value and regret the most about our existence. Vulnerability is a key concept that require thorough philosophical scrutiny concerning transhumanist proposals. Vulnerability can refer to a universal condition of human life or, rather, to the specific exposure to certain harms due to particular situations. Even if we are all vulnerable in the first sense, there are also different sources and levels of vulnerability depending on (...)
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  5.  58
    Climate Change, Moral Bioenhancement and the Ultimate Mostropic.Jon Rueda - 2020 - Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics 11:277-303.
    Tackling climate change is one of the most demanding challenges of humanity in the 21st century. Still, the efforts to mitigate the current environmental crisis do not seem enough to deal with the increased existential risks for the human and other species. Persson and Savulescu have proposed that our evolutionarily forged moral psychology is one of the impediments to facing as enormous a problem as global warming. They suggested that if we want to address properly some of the most pressing (...)
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  6.  10
    Ageism in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Age-Based Discrimination in Triage Decisions and Beyond.Jon Rueda - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (3):1-7.
    Ageism has unfortunately become a salient phenomenon during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, triage decisions based on age have been hotly discussed. In this article, I first defend that, although there are ethical reasons to consider the age of patients in triage dilemmas, using age as a categorical exclusion is an unjustifiable ageist practice. Then, I argue that ageism during the pandemic has been fueled by media narratives and unfair assumptions which have led to an ethically problematic group homogenization of (...)
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  7.  23
    Immunity Passports, Fundamental Rights and Public Health Hazards: A Reply to Brown Et Al.Iñigo de Miguel Beriain & Jon Rueda - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (10):660-661.
    In their recent article, Brown et al analyse several ethical aspects around immunity passports and put forward some recommendations for implementing them. Although they offer a comprehensive perspective, they overlook two essential aspects. First, while the authors consider the possibility that immunological passports may appear to discriminate against those who do not possess them, the opposite viewpoint of immune people is underdeveloped. We argue that if a person has been tested positive for and recovered from COVID-19, becoming immune to it, (...)
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  8. ¿No es país para viejos? La edad como criterio de triaje durante la pandemia COVID-19.Jon Rueda - 2020 - Enrahonar 65:85-98.
    La pandemia de la COVID-19 ha levantado sospechas de edadismo y gerontofobia en diversas prácticas de racionamiento sanitario. La edad es un criterio de triaje controvertido. En este artículo se esclarece la relevancia ética de la edad dentro de los sistemas de triaje, analizando particularmente su rol dentro de los principios de equidad y de eficiencia. La equidad requiere dar más oportunidades a aquellos que han cumplido menos ciclos vitales. La eficiencia tiene en cuenta la edad de manera subrepticia al (...)
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  9.  5
    Examining Public Trust in Categorical Versus Comprehensive Triage Criteria.Jon Rueda, Ivar R. Hannikainen, Joaquín Hortal-Carmona & David Rodriguez-Arias - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):106-109.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 106-109.
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  10.  3
    Bias in algorithms of AI systems developed for COVID-19: A scoping review.Janet Delgado, Alicia de Manuel, Iris Parra, Cristian Moyano, Jon Rueda, Ariel Guersenzvaig, Txetxu Ausin, Maite Cruz, David Casacuberta & Angel Puyol - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (3):407-419.
    To analyze which ethically relevant biases have been identified by academic literature in artificial intelligence algorithms developed either for patient risk prediction and triage, or for contact tracing to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, to specifically investigate whether the role of social determinants of health have been considered in these AI developments or not. We conducted a scoping review of the literature, which covered publications from March 2020 to April 2021. ​Studies mentioning biases on AI algorithms developed for contact (...)
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  11. From Self‐Determination to Offspring‐Determination? Reproductive Autonomy, Procrustean Parenting, and Genetic Enhancement.Jon Rueda - forthcoming - Wiley: Theoria.
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  12.  29
    Genetic Enhancement, Human Extinction, and the Best Interests of Posthumanity.Jon Rueda - 2022 - Bioethics.
    The cumulative impact of enhancement technologies may alter the human species in the very long-term future. In this article, I will start showing how radical genetic enhancements may accelerate the conversion into a novel species. I will also clarify the concepts of ‘biological species’, ‘transhuman’ and ‘posthuman’. Then, I will summarize some ethical arguments for creating a transhuman or posthuman species with a substantially higher level of well-being than the human one. In particular, I will present what I shall call (...)
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  13.  35
    Hit by the Virtual Trolley: When is Experimental Ethics Unethical?Jon Rueda - 2022 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 41 (1):7-27.
    The trolley problem is one of the liveliest research frameworks in experimental ethics. In the last decade, social neuroscience and experimental moral psychology have gone beyond the studies with mere text-based hypothetical moral dilemmas. In this article, I present the rationale behind testing the actual behaviour in more realistic scenarios through Virtual Reality and summarize the body of evidence raised by the experiments with virtual trolley scenarios. Then, I approach the argument of Ramirez and LaBarge (2020), who claim that the (...)
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  14.  81
    Socrates in the fMRI Scanner: The Neurofoundations of Morality and the Challenge to Ethics.Jon Rueda - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (4):606-612.
    The neuroscience of ethics is allegedly having a double impact. First, it is transforming the view of human morality through the discovery of the neurobiological underpinnings that influence moral behavior. Secondly, some neuroscientific findings are radically challenging traditional views on normative ethics. Both claims have some truth but are also overstated. In this article, the author shows that they can be understood together, although with different caveats, under the label of ‘neurofoundationalism’. Whereas the neuroscientific picture of human morality is undoubtedly (...)
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  15.  2
    The Frailty of Disability: A Controversial Triage Criterion.Rosana Triviño-Caballero, Jon Rueda, Belén Liedo & Joaquín Hortal-Carmona - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):82-84.
    Disability has been traditionally understood as a medical condition. However, people with disabilities have claimed in recent decades for a dephatologized social model of disability—i.e. the functi...
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  16.  7
    Digital Covid Certificates as Immunity Passports: An Analysis of Their Main Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues.Íñigo de Miguel Beriain & Jon Rueda - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-8.
    Digital COVID certificates are a novel public health policy to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. These immunity certificates aim to incentivize vaccination and to deny international travel or access to essential spaces to those who are unable to prove that they are not infectious. In this article, we start by describing immunity certificates and highlighting their differences from vaccination certificates. Then, we focus on the ethical, legal, and social issues involved in their use, namely autonomy and consent, data protection, equity, and (...)
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  17.  80
    Interview with Philip Brey.Jon Rueda & Txetxu Ausín - 2021 - Dilemata 34:133-137.
    Interview with Philip Brey in which he clarifies and exemplifies the concept of ‘socially disruptive technology’, offering a series of key aspects for its present and future analysis from the disciplinary perspective of technology ethics. Philip Brey is Professor of Philosophy of Technology at the Department of Philosophy at the University of Twente. He has been a keynote speaker of the International Workshop on Controversies and Polarization on Disruptive Technologies, that took place virtually and in Granada, on October 5th and (...)
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  18.  64
    Tecnologías socialmente disruptivas (Introducción).Jon Rueda - 2021 - Dilemata 31 (13):5-9.
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  19.  7
    Beyond the Altruistic Donor: Embedding Solidarity in Organ Procurement Policies.María Victoria Martínez-López, Gonzalo Díaz-Cobacho, Belén Liedo, Jon Rueda & Alberto Molina-Pérez - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (5):107.
    Altruism and solidarity are concepts that are closely related to organ donation for transplantation. On the one hand, they are typically used for encouraging people to donate. On the other hand, they also underpin the regulations in force in each country to different extents. They are often used indistinctly and equivocally, despite the different ethical implications of each concept. This paper aims to clarify to what extent we can speak of altruism and solidarity in the predominant models of organ donation. (...)
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  20.  83
    De la libertad morfológica transhumanista a la corporalidad posthumana: convergencias y divergencias.Jon Rueda - 2020 - Isegoría 63:311-328.
    Tanto el transhumanismo como el posthumanismo filosófico han prestado una atención especial a la corporalidad humana en relación al avance tecnológico. En el presente artículo, se comienza señalando cómo ambos movimientos difieren significativamente respecto a la herencia del humanismo. Posteriormente, se aborda la noción transhumanista de la ‘libertad morfológica’ de la mano de More, Sandberg y Bostrom. A continuación, se presentan casos paradigmáticos de modificaciones corporales mediante implantes cibernéticos. En último lugar, se problematizan las cuestiones de la identidad, la corporalidad (...)
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  21.  12
    Doctor, Please Make Me Freer: Capabilities Enhancement as a Goal of Medicine.Jon Rueda, Pablo García-Barranquero & Francisco Lara - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (3):409-419.
    Biomedical innovations are making possible the enhancement of human capabilities. There are two philosophical stances on the role that medicine should play in this respect. On the one hand, naturalism rejects every medical intervention that goes beyond preventing and treating disease. On the other hand, welfarism advocates enhancements that foster subjective well-being. We will show that both positions have considerable shortcomings. Consequently, we will introduce a third characterization in which therapies and enhancements can be reconciled with the legitimate objectives of (...)
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  22. A Virtual Prosthesis for Morality? Experiential Learning Through XR Technologies for Autonomy Enhancement of Psychiatric Offenders.Jon Rueda & Emma Dore-Horgan - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (3):163-165.
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  23.  3
    Vaccination Certificates, Immunity Passports, and Test-Based Travel Licences: Ethical, Legal, and Public Health Issues.Íñigo De Miguel & Jon Rueda - 2021 - Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases 42.
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  24.  3
    Enhancing Virtue Without Becoming Ned Flanders?Jon Rueda - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):121-124.
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