Results for 'Jonathan D. Loe'

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  1.  12
    An Assessment of the Human Subjects Protection Review Process for Exempt Research.Jonathan D. Loe, D. Alex Winkelman & Christopher T. Robertson - 2016 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 44 (3):481-491.
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  2.  6
    Cascading Consent for Research on Biobank Specimens.Jonathan Loe, Christopher T. Robertson & D. Alex Winkelman - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (9):68-70.
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  3. Powerful Qualities, Not Pure Powers.Jonathan D. Jacobs - 2011 - The Monist 94 (1):81-102.
    I explore two accounts of properties within a dispositional essentialist (or causal powers) framework, the pure powers view and the powerful qualities view. I first attempt to clarify precisely what the pure powers view is, and then raise objections to it. I then present the powerful qualities view and, in order to avoid a common misconception, offer a restatement of it that I shall call the truthmaker view. I end by briefly defending the truthmaker view against objections.
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  4. A Powers Theory of Modality: Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Reject Possible Worlds.Jonathan D. Jacobs - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 151 (2):227-248.
    Possible worlds, concrete or abstract as you like, are irrelevant to the truthmakers for modality—or so I shall argue in this paper. First, I present the neo-Humean picture of modality, and explain why those who accept it deny a common sense view of modality. Second, I present what I take to be the most pressing objection to the neo-Humean account, one that, I argue, applies equally well to any theory that grounds modality in possible worlds. Third, I present an alternative, (...)
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  5.  15
    On the Control of Automatic Processes: A Parallel Distributed Processing Account of the Stroop Effect.Jonathan D. Cohen, Kevin Dunbar & James L. McClelland - 1990 - Psychological Review 97 (3):332-361.
  6.  27
    Context, Cortex, and Dopamine: A Connectionist Approach to Behavior and Biology in Schizophrenia.Jonathan D. Cohen & David Servan-Schreiber - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (1):45-77.
  7. Deciding Together: Bioethics and Moral Consensus.Jonathan D. Moreno - 1995 - Oxford University Press.
    Western society today is less unified by a set of core values than ever before. Undoubtedly, the concept of moral consensus is a difficult one in a liberal, democratic and pluralistic society. But it is imperative to avoid a rigid majoritarianism where sensitive personal values are at stake, as in bioethics. Bioethics has become an influential part of public and professional discussions of health care. It has helped frame issues of moral values and medicine as part of a more general (...)
     
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  8.  56
    How to Identify Negative Actions with Positive Events.Jonathan D. Payton - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (1):87-101.
    It is often assumed that, while ordinary actions are events, ‘negative actions’ are absences of events. I claim that a negative action is an ordinary, ‘positive’ event that plays a certain role. I argue that my approach can answer standard objections to the identity of negative actions and positive events.
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  9. Should I Stay or Should I Go? How the Human Brain Manages the Trade-Off Between Exploitation and Exploration.Jonathan D. Cohen, Samuel M. McClure & Yu & J. Angela - 2008 - In Jon Driver, Patrick Haggard & Tim Shallice (eds.), Mental Processes in the Human Brain. Oxford University Press.
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  10.  30
    Non-Literalness and Non-Bona-Fîde in Language: An Approach to Formal and Computational Treatments of Humor.Jonathan D. Raskin & Salvatore Attardo - 1994 - Pragmatics and Cognition 2 (1):31-69.
    The paper is devoted to the study of humor as an important pragmatic phenomenon bearing on cognition, and, more specifically, as a cooperative mode of non-bona-fide communication. Several computational models of humor are presented in increasing order of complexity and shown to reveal important cognitive structures in jokes. On the basis of these limited implementations, the concept of a full-fledged computational model for the understanding and generation of humor is introduced and discussed in various aspects. The model draws upon the (...)
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  11. The Ineffable, Inconceivable, and Incomprehensible God: Fundamentality and Apophatic Theology.Jonathan D. Jacobs - 2015 - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion 6:158-176.
     
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  12.  46
    Deciding for Others: The Ethics of Surrogate Decision Making.Jonathan D. Moreno - 1992 - Ethics 103 (1):172-175.
  13. Agent Causation in a Neo-Aristotelian Metaphysics.Jonathan D. Jacobs & Timothy O'Connor - 2013 - In Sophie C. Gibb & Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson (eds.), Mental Causation and Ontology. Oxford University Press.
    Freedom and moral responsibility have one foot in the practical realm of human affairs and the other in the esoteric realm of fundamental metaphysics—or so we believe. This has been denied, especially in the metaphysics-bashing era occupying the first two-thirds or so of the twentieth century, traces of which linger in the present day. But the reasons for this denial seem to us quite implausible. Certainly, the argument for the general bankruptcy of metaphysics has been soundly discredited. Arguments from Strawson (...)
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  14.  22
    Developing Concepts of the Mind, Body, and Afterlife: Exploring the Roles of Narrative Context and Culture.Jonathan D. Lane, Liqi Zhu, E. Margaret Evans & Henry M. Wellman - 2016 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 16 (1-2):50-82.
    Children and adults from theus and China heard about people who died in two types of narrative contexts – medical and religious – and judged whether their psychological and biological capacities cease or persist after death. Most 5- to 6-year-olds reported that all capacities would cease. In theus, but not China, there was an increase in persistence judgments at 7–8 years, which decreased thereafter.uschildren’s persistence judgments were influenced by narrative context – occurring more often for religious narratives – and such (...)
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  15.  6
    Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain.Jonathan D. Nelson - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (4):979-999.
  16.  19
    Mind Wars: Brain Science and the Military.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2013 - Monash Bioethics Review 31 (2):83-99.
    This article is based on a public lecture hosted by the Monash University Centre for Human Bioethics in Melbourne, Australia on 11 April 2013. The lecture recording was transcribed by Vicky Ryan; and, the original transcript has been edited — for clarity and brevity — by Vicky Ryan, Michael Selgelid and Jonathan Moreno.
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  17.  29
    An Integrative Theory of Prefrontal Cortex Function.Earl K. Miller & Jonathan D. Cohen - 2001 - Annual Review of Neuroscience 24 (1):167-202.
    The prefrontal cortex has long been suspected to play an important role in cognitive control, in the ability to orchestrate thought and action in accordance with internal goals. Its neural basis, however, has remained a mystery. Here, we propose that cognitive control stems from the active maintenance of patterns of activity in the prefrontal cortex that represent goals and the means to achieve them. They provide bias signals to other brain structures whose net effect is to guide the flow of (...)
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  18.  99
    Is There a Well-Founded Solution to the Generality Problem?Jonathan D. Matheson - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (2):459-468.
    The generality problem is perhaps the most notorious problem for process reliabilism. Several recent responses to the generality problem have claimed that the problem has been unfairly leveled against reliabilists. In particular, these responses have claimed that the generality problem is either (i) just as much of a problem for evidentialists, or (ii) if it is not, then a parallel solution is available to reliabilists. Along these lines, Juan Comesaña has recently proposed solution to the generality problem—well-founded reliabilism. According to (...)
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  19. Causal Powers.Jonathan D. Jacobs (ed.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    We use concepts of causal powers and their relatives-dispositions, capacities, and abilities-to describe the world around us, both in everyday life and in scientific practice. This volume presents new work on the nature of causal powers, and their connections with other phenomena within metaphysics, philosophy of science, and philosophy of mind.
     
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  20.  5
    Children’s Imagination and Belief: Prone to Flights of Fancy or Grounded in Reality?Jonathan D. Lane, Samuel Ronfard, Stéphane P. Francioli & Paul L. Harris - 2016 - Cognition 152:127-140.
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  21.  12
    What Is a Clinical Ethicist?Jonathan D. Moreno - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (4):4-5.
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  22.  44
    Ethics Consultation as Moral Engagement.Jonathan D. Moreno - 1991 - Bioethics 5 (1):44–56.
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  23.  26
    On Essences in Constructivist Psychology.Jonathan D. Raskin - 2011 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 31 (4):223-239.
    The notion of essence in psychology is examined from a constructivist viewpoint. The constructivist position is summarized and differentiated from social constructionism, after which constructs are distinguished from concepts in order to position ontology and epistemology as modes of construing. After situating constructivism in relation to philosophical approaches to essences, the distinction between essences and kinds is examined and the presumed constructivist critique of essences in psychology outlined. It is argued that criticizing constructivism as an “anything goes” form of antirealism (...)
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  24. Conflict Monitoring and Anterior Cingulate Cortex: An Update.Matthew M. Botvinick, Jonathan D. Cohen & Cameron S. Carter - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (12):539-546.
    One hypothesis concerning the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is that it functions, in part, to signal the occurrence of conflicts in information processing, thereby triggering compensatory adjustments in cognitive control. Since this idea was first proposed, a great deal of relevant empirical evidence has accrued. This evidence has largely corroborated the conflict-monitoring hypothesis, and some very recent work has provided striking new support for the theory. At the same time, other findings have posed specific challenges, especially concerning the (...)
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  25.  55
    Ethics by Committee: The Moral Authority of Consensus.Jonathan D. Moreno - 1988 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 13 (4):411-432.
    Consensus is commonly identified as the goal of ethics committee deliberation, but it is not clear what is morally authoritative about consensus. Various problems with the concept of an ethics committee in a health care institution are identified. The problem of consensus is placed in the context of the debate about realism in moral epistemology, and this is shown to be of interest for ethics committees. But further difficulties, such as the fact that consensus at one level of discourse need (...)
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  26.  6
    Emergence of Skilled Behaviors in Professional, Amateur and Junior Cricket Batsmen During a Representative Training Scenario.Jonathan D. Connor, Damian Farrow & Ian Renshaw - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  27. The End of the Great Bioethics Compromise.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (1):14-15.
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  28.  91
    Informed Consent: Patient Autonomy and Physician Beneficence Within Clinical Medicine. [REVIEW]Stephen Wear & Jonathan D. Moreno - 1994 - HEC Forum 6 (5):323-325.
    Substantial efforts have recently been made to reform the physician-patient relationship, particularly toward replacing the `silent world of doctor and patient' with informed patient participation in medical decision-making. This 'new ethos of patient autonomy' has especially insisted on the routine provision of informed consent for all medical interventions. Stronly supported by most bioethicists and the law, as well as more popular writings and expectations, it still seems clear that informed consent has, at best, been received in a lukewarm fashion by (...)
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  29.  10
    In the Wake of Terror: Medicine and Morality in a Time of Crisis.Jonathan D. Moreno (ed.) - 2003 - MIT Press.
    Timely and provocative essays on bioethical questions brought to the forefront by the bioterrorist threat.
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  30.  13
    Children’s Sequential Information Search is Sensitive to Environmental Probabilities.Jonathan D. Nelson, Bojana Divjak, Gudny Gudmundsdottir, Laura F. Martignon & Björn Meder - 2014 - Cognition 130 (1):74-80.
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  31.  75
    Epistemological Considerations Concerning Skeptical Theism: A Response To Dougherty.Jonathan D. Matheson - 2011 - Faith and Philosophy 28 (3):323-331.
    Recently Trent Dougherty has claimed that there is a tension between skeptical theism and common sense epistemology—that the more plausible one of these views is, the less plausible the other is. In this paper I explain Dougherty’s argument and develop an account of defeaters which removes the alleged tension between skeptical theism and common sense epistemology.
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  32.  31
    Ethics of Research Involving Mandatory Drug Testing of High School Athletes in Oregon.Adil E. Shamoo & Jonathan D. Moreno - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):25 – 31.
    There is consensus that children have questionable decisional capacity and, therefore, in general a parent or a guardian must give permission to enroll a child in a research study. Moreover, freedom from duress and coercion, the cardinal rule in research involving adults, is even more important for children. This principle is embodied prominently in the Nuremberg Code (1947) and is embodied in various federal human research protection regulations. In a program named "SATURN" (Student Athletic Testing Using Random Notification), each school (...)
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  33.  23
    Biotechnology and the New Right: Neoconservatism's Red Menace.Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (10):7 – 13.
    Although the neoconservative movement has come to dominate American conservatism, this movement has its origins in the old Marxist Left. Communists in their younger days, as the founders of neoconservatism, inverted Marxist doctrine by arguing that moral values and not economic forces were the primary movers of history. Yet the neoconservative critique of biotechnology still borrows heavily from Karl Marx and owes more to the German philosopher Martin Heidegger than to the Scottish philosopher and political economist Adam Smith. Loath to (...)
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  34.  16
    Can Mind-Wandering Be Timeless? Atemporal Focus and Aging in Mind-Wandering Paradigms.Jonathan D. Jackson, Yana Weinstein & David A. Balota - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
  35.  11
    From Frankenstein to Hawking: Which is the Real Face of Science?Jonathan D. Moreno - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (5):5-5.
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  36.  8
    Goodbye to All That The End of Moderate Protectionism in Human Subjects Research.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2001 - Hastings Center Report 31 (3):9-17.
  37. Emergent Individuals and the Resurrection.Jonathan D. Jacobs & Timothy O'Connor - 2010 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2 (2):69 - 88.
    We present an original emergent individuals view of human persons, on which persons are substantial biological unities that exemplify metaphysically emergent mental states. We argue that this view allows for a coherent model of identity-preserving resurrection from the dead consistent with orthodox Christian doctrine, one that improves upon alternatives accounts recently proposed by a number of authors. Our model is a variant of the “falling elevator” model advanced by Dean Zimmerman that, unlike Zimmerman’s, does not require a closest continuer account (...)
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  38.  30
    Bioethics is a Naturalism.Jonathan D. Moreno - 1999 - Pragmatic Bioethics 2:3-16.
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  39. Causal Powers: A Neo-Aristotelian Metaphysic.Jonathan D. Jacobs - 2007 - Dissertation, Indiana University
    Causal powers, say, an electron’s power to repel other electrons, are had in virtue of having properties. Electrons repel other electrons because they are negatively charged. One’s views about causal powers are shaped by—and shape—one’s views concerning properties, causation, laws of nature and modality. It is no surprise, then, that views about the nature of causal powers are generally embedded into larger, more systematic, metaphysical pictures of the world. This dissertation is an exploration of three systematic metaphysics, Neo-Humeanism, Nomicism and (...)
     
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  40.  15
    Bioethics After the Terror.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (1):60-64.
    Bioethics as a field has been fortunate that its values and concerns have mirrored the values and concerns of society. In light of the September 11th attacks, it is possible that we are witnessing the beginning of a transition in American culture, one fraught with implications for bioethics. The emphasis on autonomy and individual rights may come to be tempered by greater concern over the collective good. Increased emphasis on solidarity over autonomy could greatly alter public response to research abuses (...)
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  41.  47
    The Logical Form of Negative Action Sentences.Jonathan D. Payton - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (6):855-876.
    It is typically assumed that actions are events, but there is a growing consensus that negative actions, like omissions and refrainments, are not events, but absences thereof. If so, then we must either deny the obvious, that we can exercise our agency by omitting and refrainment, or give up on event-based theories of agency. I trace the consensus to the assumption that negative action sentences are negative-existentials, and argue that this is false. The best analysis of negative action sentences treats (...)
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  42. Progress in Bioethics: Science, Policy, and Politics.Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger (eds.) - 2010 - MIT Press.
     
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  43.  29
    Acid Brothers: Henry Beecher, Timothy Leary, and the Psychedelic of the Century.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (1):107-121.
    Henry Knowles Beecher, an icon of human research ethics, and Timothy Francis Leary, a guru of the counterculture, are bound together in history by the synthetic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide. Beecher was a U.S. Army Lieutenant Colonel who received five battle stars, was inducted into the Legion of Merit, held the first endowed chair in his discipline, wrote at least three path-breaking papers, and is honored by two prestigious ethics awards in his name. Leary was a West Point dropout who (...)
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  44.  18
    In the Wake of Katrina: Has “Bioethics” Failed?Jonathan D. Moreno - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (5):W18-W19.
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  45.  10
    Approaches to Information-Theoretic Analysis of Neural Activity.Jonathan D. Victor - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (3):302-316.
    Understanding how neurons represent, process, and manipulate information is one of the main goals of neuroscience. These issues are fundamentally abstract, and information theory plays a key role in formalizing and addressing them. However, application of information theory to experimental data is fraught with many challenges. Meeting these challenges has led to a variety of innovative analytical techniques, with complementary domains of applicability, assumptions, and goals.
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  46.  68
    The Triumph of Autonomy in Bioethics and Commercialism in American Healthcare.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2007 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (4):415.
    Justifying his proposal for “health savings accounts,” which would allow individuals to set aside tax-free dollars against future healthcare needs, President Bush has said that “Health savings accounts all aim at empowering people to make decisions for themselves.” Who could disagree with such a sentiment? Although bioethicists may be among those who express skepticism that personal health savings accounts will be part of the needed “fix” of our healthcare financing system, self determination has long been part of their mantra. Indeed, (...)
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  47.  16
    It's Not About the Money.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (2):46 – 47.
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  48.  8
    Introduction to the Field of Nanotechnology Ethics and Policy.Jonathan D. Linton & Steven T. Walsh - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (4):547-549.
    Nanotechnologies and nanoscience have generated an unprecedented global research and development race involving dozens of countries. The understanding of associated environmental, ethical, and societal implications lags far behind the science and technology. Consequently, it is critical to consider both what is known and what is unknown to offer a kernel that future work can be added to. The challenges presented by nanotechnologies are discussed. Some initial solutions such as self-regulation and borrowing techniques and tools from other fields are accompanied by (...)
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  49.  24
    Naïve Optimality: Subjects' Heuristics Can Be Better Motivated Than Experimenters' Optimal Models.Jonathan D. Nelson - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):94-95.
    Is human cognition best described by optimal models, or by adaptive but suboptimal heuristic strategies? It is frequently hard to identify which theoretical model is normatively best justified. In the context of information search, naoptimal” models.
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  50.  56
    Generalized Information Theory Meets Human Cognition: Introducing a Unified Framework to Model Uncertainty and Information Search.Vincenzo Crupi, Jonathan D. Nelson, Björn Meder, Gustavo Cevolani & Katya Tentori - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1410-1456.
    Searching for information is critical in many situations. In medicine, for instance, careful choice of a diagnostic test can help narrow down the range of plausible diseases that the patient might have. In a probabilistic framework, test selection is often modeled by assuming that people’s goal is to reduce uncertainty about possible states of the world. In cognitive science, psychology, and medical decision making, Shannon entropy is the most prominent and most widely used model to formalize probabilistic uncertainty and the (...)
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