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Jonathan Michael Kaplan [20]Jonathan Kaplan [20]Jonathan Michael Kaplan [1]
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Profile: Jonathan Kaplan (Oregon State University)
  1. Gould on Morton, Redux: What Can the Debate Reveal About the Limits of Data?Jonathan Kaplan, Massimo Pigliucci & Joshua Banta - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 52:22-31.
    Lewis et al. (2011) attempted to restore the reputation of Samuel George Morton, a 19th century physician who reported on the skull sizes of different folk-races. Whereas Gould (1978) claimed that Morton’s conclusions were invalid because they reflected unconscious bias, Lewis et al. alleged that Morton’s findings were, in fact, supported, and Gould’s analysis biased. We take strong exception to Lewis et al.’s thesis that Morton was “right.” We maintain that Gould was right to reject Morton’s analysis as inappropriate and (...)
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  2. Prisoners of Abstraction? The Theory and Measure of Genetic Variation, and the Very Concept of 'Race'.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (1):401-412.
    It is illegitimate to read any ontology about "race" off of biological theory or data. Indeed, the technical meaning of "genetic variation" is fluid, and there is no single theoretical agreed-upon criterion for defining and distinguishing populations (or groups or clusters) given a particular set of genetic variation data. Thus, by analyzing three formal senses of "genetic variation"—diversity, differentiation, and heterozygosity—we argue that the use of biological theory for making epistemic claims about "race" can only seem plausible when it relies (...)
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  3. Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism About Race.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):1039-1052.
    This paper distinguishes three concepts of "race": bio-genomic cluster/race, biological race, and social race. We map out realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about each of these, in three important historical episodes: Frank Livingstone and Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1962, A.W.F. Edwards' 2003 response to Lewontin (1972), and contemporary discourse. Semantics is especially crucial to the first episode, while normativity is central to the second. Upon inspection, each episode also reveals a variety of commitments to the metaphysics of race. We conclude by interrogating (...)
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  4. Ontologies and Politics of Biogenomic 'Race'.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther & Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2013 - Theoria. A Journal of Social and Political Theory (South Africa) 60 (3):54-80.
    All eyes are turned towards genomic data and models as the source of knowledge about whether human races exist or not. Will genomic science make the final decision about whether racial realism (e.g., racial population naturalism) or anti-realism (e.g., racial skepticism) is correct? We think not. We believe that the results of even our best and most impressive genomic technologies underdetermine whether bio-genomic races exist, or not. First, different sub-disciplines of biology interested in population structure employ distinct concepts, aims, measures, (...)
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  5.  41
    Making Sense of Evolution: The Conceptual Foundations of Evolutionary Theory.Massimo Pigliucci & Jonathan Kaplan - 2006 - University of Chicago Press.
    Making Sense of Evolution explores contemporary evolutionary biology, focusing on the elements of theories—selection, adaptation, and species—that are complex and open to multiple possible interpretations, many of which are incompatible with one another and with other accepted practices in the discipline. Particular experimental methods, for example, may demand one understanding of “selection,” while the application of the same concept to another area of evolutionary biology could necessitate a very different definition.
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  6. The Fall and Rise of Dr. Pangloss: Adaptationism and the Spandrels Paper 20 Years Later.Massimo Pigliucci & Jonathan Kaplan - 2000 - Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15 (2):66-77.
    Twenty years have passed since Gould and Lewontin published their critique of ‘the adaptationist program’ – the tendency of some evolutionary biologists to assume, rather than demonstrate, the operation of natural selection. After the ‘Spandrels paper’, evolutionists were more careful about producing just-so stories based on selection, and paid more attention to a panoply of other processes. Then came reactions against the excesses of the anti-adaptationist movement, which ranged from a complete dismissal of Gould and Lewontin’s contribution to a positive (...)
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  7. On the Concept of Biological Race and its Applicability to Humans.Massimo Pigliucci & Jonathan Kaplan - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1161-1172.
    Biological research on race has often been seen as motivated by or lending credence to underlying racist attitudes; in part for this reason, recently philosophers and biologists have gone through great pains to essentially deny the existence of biological human races. We argue that human races, in the biological sense of local populations adapted to particular environments, do in fact exist; such races are best understood through the common ecological concept of ecotypes. However, human ecotypic races do not in general (...)
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  8.  36
    The End of the Adaptive Landscape Metaphor?Jonathan Kaplan - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (5):625-638.
    The concepts of adaptive/fitness landscapes and adaptive peaks are a central part of much of contemporary evolutionary biology; the concepts are introduced in introductory texts, developed in more detail in graduate-level treatments, and are used extensively in papers published in the major journals in the field. The appeal of visualizing the process of evolution in terms of the movement of populations on such landscapes is very strong; as one becomes familiar with the metaphor, one often develops the feeling that it (...)
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  9. Genes `For' Phenotypes: A Modern History View.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Massimo Pigliucci - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (2):189--213.
    We attempt to improve the understanding of the notion of agene being `for a phenotypic trait or traits. Considering theimplicit functional ascription of one thing being `for another,we submit a more restrictive version of `gene for talk.Accordingly, genes are only to be thought of as being forphenotypic traits when good evidence is available that thepresence or prevalence of the gene in a population is the resultof natural selection on that particular trait, and that theassociation between that trait and the gene (...)
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  10.  52
    When Socially Determined Categories Make Biological Realities.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2010 - The Monist 93 (2):283-299.
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  11.  33
    Race, IQ, and the Search for Statistical Signals Associated with so-Called “X”-Factors: Environments, Racism, and the “Hereditarian Hypothesis”.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (1):1-17.
    Some authors defending the “hereditarian” hypothesis with respect to differences in average IQ scores between populations have argued that the sorts of environmental variation hypothesized by some researchers rejecting the hereditarian position should leave discoverable statistical traces, namely changes in the overall variance of scores or in variance–covariance matrices relating scores to other variables. In this paper, I argue that the claims regarding the discoverability of such statistical signals are broadly mistaken—there is no good reason to suspect that the hypothesized (...)
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  12.  18
    When Socially Determined Categories Make Biological Realities: Understanding Black/White Health Disparities in the U.S.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2010 - The Monist 93 (2):281-297.
  13.  16
    Ontologies and Politics of Biogenomic 'Race'.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther & Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2013 - Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 60 (136):54-80.
  14.  70
    Housing Discrimination As a Basis for Black Reparations.Jonathan Kaplan & Andrew Valls - 2007 - Public Affairs Quarterly 21 (3):255-274.
    The renewed interest in the issue of black reparations, both in the public sphere and among scholars, is a welcome development because the racial injustices of the past continue to shape American society by disadvantaging African Americans in a variety of ways. Attention to the past and how it has shaped present-day inequality seems essential both to understanding our predicament and to justifying policies that would address and undermine racial inequality. Given this, any argument for policies designed to pursue racial (...)
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  15.  35
    The Paradox of Stasis and the Nature of Explanations in Evolutionary Biology.Jonathan Kaplan - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):797-808.
    Recently, Estes and Arnold claimed to have “solved” the paradox of evolutionary stasis; they claim that stabilizing selection, and only stabilizing selection, can explain the patterns of evolutionary divergence observed over “all timescales.” While Estes and Arnold clearly think that they have identified the processes that produce evolutionary stasis, they have not. Instead, Estes and Arnold identify a particular evolutionary pattern but not the processes that produce that pattern. This mistake is important; the slippage between pattern and process is common (...)
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  16.  38
    Historical Evidence and Human Adaptations.Jonathan Kaplan - 2002 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 69:S294-S304.
    Phylogenetic information is often necessary to distinguish between evolutionary scenarios. Recently, some prominent proponents of evolutionary psychology have acknowledged this, and have claimed that such evidence has in fact been brought to bear on adaptive hypotheses involving complex human psychological traits. Were this possible, it would be a valuable source of evidence regarding hypothesized adaptive traits in humans. However, the structure of the Hominidae family makes this difficult or impossible. For many traits of interest, the closest extant relatives to the (...)
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  17. Misinformation, Misrepresentation, and Misuse of Human Behavioral Genetics Research.Jonathan Kaplan - 2006 - Law and Contemporary Problems 69 (1-2):47-80.
  18.  8
    Review of Samir Okasha, Evolution and the Levels of Selection[REVIEW]Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2007 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (4).
  19.  68
    Davidson and Wittgenstein on Knowledge, Communication and Social Justice.Sharyn Clough & Jonathan Kaplan - 2003 - In C. G. Prado (ed.), A House Divided: Comparing Analytic and Continental Philosophy. Humanity Books.
    The works of the later Wittgenstein resonate with aspects of the pragmatist tradition in American philosophy. Davidson’s work is similarly informed. We argue that because of their association with the pragmatist tradition, their work can be put to use by philosophers interested in social justice issues, including, for example, feminism, and critical race theory. Philosophers concerned with social justice continue to struggle between the extremes of an untenable foundationalism and a radical relativism. Given their holistic understanding of knowledge, meaning and (...)
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  20.  20
    Evolutionary Innovations and Developmental Resources: From Stability to Variation and Back Again.Jonathan Kaplan - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):861-873.
    Will a synthesis of developmental and evolutionary biology require a focus on the role of nongenetic resources in evolution? Nongenetic variation may exist but be hidden because the phenotypes are stable (developmentally canalized) under certain background conditions. In this case, those differences may come to play important roles in evolution when background conditions change. If this is so, then a focus on the way that developmental resources are made reliable, and the ways in which reliability fails, may prove to be (...)
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  21. Import Bans and Tying One's Hands: Weakness of Will as a Justification for Trade Restrictions.Jonathan Kaplan - 2001 - Public Affairs Quarterly 15 (4):355-372.
  22.  2
    Historical Evidence and Human Adaptations.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (S3):S294-S304.
    Phylogenetic information is often necessary to distinguish between evolutionary scenarios. Recently, some prominent proponents of evolutionary psychology have acknowledged this, and have claimed that such evidence has in fact been brought to bear on adaptive hypotheses involving complex human psychological traits. Were this possible, it would be a valuable source of evidence regarding hypothesized adaptive traits in humans. However, the structure of the Hominidae family makes this difficult or impossible. For many traits of interest, the closest extant relatives to the (...)
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  23. Economic Rationality and Explaining Human Behavior: An Adaptationist Program?Jonathan Kaplan - 2008 - International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 3 (7):79-94.
    Attempts to explain human behavior that appeal to economic rationality share many of the same ontological as- sumptions and methodological practices that the so-called ‘adaptationist program’ in biology was criticized for. This program in biology was largely abandoned by biologists as poorly motivated, and replaced with the active testing of both adaptive and non-adaptive hypotheses regarding the spread and maintenance of traits in populations. This development was largely welcome by the biological community, despite having required the development of new tools, (...)
     
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  24.  27
    “Relevant Similarity” and the Causes of Biological Evolution: Selection, Fitness, and Statistically Abstractive Explanations.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (3):405-421.
    Matthen (Philos Sci 76(4):464–487, 2009) argues that explanations of evolutionary change that appeal to natural selection are statistically abstractive explanations, explanations that ignore some possible explanatory partitions that in fact impact the outcome. This recognition highlights a difficulty with making selective analyses fully rigorous. Natural selection is not about the details of what happens to any particular organism, nor, by extension, to the details of what happens in any particular population. Since selective accounts focus on tendencies, those factors that impact (...)
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  25.  15
    Overcoming the Conceptual Barriers to Understanding Evolution.Jonathan Kaplan - 2015 - Metascience 24 (1):55-58.
    In Understanding Evolution, Kostas Kampourakis has two related goals. The first is to demonstrate that there are conceptual hurdles to properly understanding evolutionary theory. Kampourakis argues that educators, and other promoters of evolutionary theory, have underestimated how difficult it is to understand evolutionary theory and have tended to treat some gaps in understanding that are in fact the result of conceptual difficulties as if they were instead the result of, e.g., religious intolerance to the theory. This, he thinks, is a (...)
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  26.  9
    Race, Genomics, and Philosophy of Science.Jonathan Michael Kaplan, Ludovica Lorusso & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2014 - Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (2):160-223.
  27.  6
    Gould on Morton, Redux: What Can the Debate Reveal About the Limits of Data?Jonathan Michael Kaplan, Massimo Pigliucci & Joshua Alexander Banta - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 52:22-31.
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  28.  9
    More Misuses of Evolutionary Psychology.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2006 - Metascience 15 (1):177-181.
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  29.  7
    Accidental Germ-Line Modifications Through Somatic Cell Gene Therapies: Some Ethical Considerations.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Ina Roy - 2000 - American Journal of Bioethics: Ajob 1 (4):W13 - W13.
  30.  8
    Adaptive Landscapes: Concepts, Tools and Metaphors , The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology). [REVIEW]Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):613-616.
  31.  5
    Tying One's Hands: Weakness of Will as a Justification for Trade Restrictions.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - forthcoming - Public Affairs Quarterly.
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  32.  1
    Adaptive Landscapes: Concepts, Tools and Metaphors. [REVIEW]Jonathan Kaplan - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 44 (4a):613-616.
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  33.  4
    Beyond Cloning: Religion and the Remaking of Humanity (Review).Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (3):68-69.
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  34. Marcel Weber, Philosophy of Experimental Biology Reviewed By.Jonathan Kaplan - 2005 - Philosophy in Review 25 (6):447-449.
     
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  35.  4
    Perspectives on Integrating Developmental and Evolutionary Biology: Genes in Development: Re-Reading the Molecular Paradigm, Eva M. Neumann-Held and Christoph Rehmann-Sutter , Eds. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006, (384 Pp; $23.95 Pbk; ISBN 0-8223-3656-1). [REVIEW]Jonathan Kaplan - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (4):427-429.
  36.  4
    Review of Lenny Moss, What Genes Can't Do[REVIEW]Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2003 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (8).
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  37.  2
    Review of Gordon Graham, Genes: A Philosophical Inquiry[REVIEW]Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2003 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (5).
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  38. 2000 Books and More an Annotated and Selected Bibliography of Jewish History and Thought.Jonathan Kaplan, Bet Ha-Sefer le-Talmide Hu L. A. Sh Sh Rotberg & World Zionist Organization - 1983
     
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  39. International Bibliography of Jewish History and Thought.Jonathan Kaplan - 1987 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 92 (1):138-138.
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  40. Marcel Weber, Philosophy of Experimental Biology. [REVIEW]Jonathan Kaplan - 2005 - Philosophy in Review 25:447-449.
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  41. Networks of Support: Politics and Genes in Contemporary Society.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 1996 - Dissertation, Stanford University
    The dissertation explores the way that large-scale research projects in human genetics influence and are influenced by various social and political issues in contemporary U.S. society. In short, the dissertation argues that the same cultural assumptions which make research projects like the Human Genome Project and human behavioral genetics research seem like promising and worthwhile endeavors simultaneously lead to the results of these projects getting used to define the terms that various social issues are discussed in. In cases where the (...)
     
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