Responding to recent concerns about the reliability of the published literature in psychology and other disciplines, we formed the X-Phi Replicability Project to estimate the reproducibility of experimental philosophy. Drawing on a representative sample of 40 x-phi studies published between 2003 and 2015, we enlisted 20 research teams across 8 countries to conduct a high-quality replication of each study in order to compare the results to the original published findings. We found that x-phi studies – as represented in our sample (...) – successfully replicated about 70% of the time. We discuss possible reasons for this relatively high replication rate in the field of experimental philosophy and offer suggestions for best research practices going forward. (shrink)
Is it true that innovation occurs only in abundant environments? Baumard defends that increased standards of living are a necessary condition for a change in life history strategy to help understand the Industrial Revolution. Here, we argue that many examples of innovations occur in scarce environments when there is near-zero opportunity cost. We suggest potential psychological pathways to explain this dual-cognitive process.