Alfonso de la Torre’s Visión deleitable was one of the most read works during the second half of the 15th century and its interest carried on until the Enlightenment, which allows us to reflect on the foundations of a critical text and review that inventory of interests that clarify us many aspects about the aesthetic and intellectual positioning for more than two centuries. With regard to the handwritten documentation, we have about twenty manuscripts in almost all the peninsular linguistic variants (...) of the 15th century, apart from five incunabula, one in Catalan and four in Castilian, and several editions printed during the 16th century, even one in Italian, which attests to the great demand obtained by the work of the Bachiller. (shrink)
La Psicología de la Sustentabilidad (PS) estudia las problemáticas hídricas considerando la relación entre disponibilidad per cápita y consumo de agua. A partir de conceptos tales como; densidad poblacional, infraestructura hídrica y provisión de agua plantea tres estilos de vida relativos al almacenamiento de agua, la reparación de fugas y el consumo hídrico. La PS advierte que las relaciones causales entre las problemáticas hídricas y los estilos de vida son relevantes si se considera el Desarrollo Local Sustentable más que regional (...) y global. A medida que las problemáticas hídricas se intensifican, procesos actitudinales y de austeridad prevalecen sobre el dispendio de agua. En contraste, las situaciones hídricas en equilibrio con el consumo residencial facilitan el dispendio. La discusión alusiva a las problemáticas hídricas y los estilos de vida permitirá construir un sistema tarifario de consumo y delimitar las políticas públicas que se requerirán en el marco de la crisis de abastecimiento y distribución que se espera en los próximos años. (shrink)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuromuscular response to an agility and repeated sprint ability test according to the level of competition in futsal players. A total of 33 players from two elite teams and one amateur team participated in the study. The participants completed an agility t-test, a 30 m-speed test, and a RSA test. A countermovement jump test and a tensiomyography test of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris of both legs were carried out before (...) and after the tests. RSA test revealed better sprint times in elite players compared to amateurs in the seven bouts, as well as in the 30 m sprint and in the agility test. In conclusion, elite players showed greater performance in the RSA test, in the 30 m tests and in the agility test compared to amateur players. The contractile properties were not a key factor in the RSA performance of the futsal players. (shrink)
In this article, we argue that it can be fruitful for philosophers interested in the nature and moral significance of racism to pay more attention to psychology. We do this by showing that psychology provides new arguments against Garcia's views about the nature and moral significance of racism. We contend that some scientific studies of racial cognition undermine Garcia's moral and psychological monism about racism: Garcia disregards (1) the rich affective texture of racism and (2) the diversity of what makes (...) racial ills morally wrong. Key Words: racism • emotions • implicit bias • psychology • racial ills • pluralism. (shrink)
Three studies explore the intergroup differentiation of heterogeneity as a strategy for validation of polemical social representations. The first study examines this strategy of validation in a context of simple intergroup differentiation. In the second study the context is one of open political conflict. The last study, also in a political context, introduces the perceptions of the relations between the groups as an independent variable. The first two studies show that the subjects adopted a strategy of validating the polemical representations (...) of the ingroup and invalidating the representations of the outgroup consisting of perceiving the ingroup as psychologically diverse and the outgroup as psychologically more homogeneous, with values being perceived as equally homogeneous in the two groups or homogeneous in the ingroup and diverse in the outgroup. In the third study results show that a salient perception of positive interdependence between the groups is accompanied by homogenization of the members of the ingroup who share the prototypical representations of the ingroup. When there is a salient perception of negative interdependence, the members of the ingroup and the outgroup who share the prototypical position of the ingroup are perceived as heterogeneous. Results are discussed in the context of social representations theory and social psychology of social validation of knowledge. (shrink)
In this paper we propose an ‘undisciplinary’ meeting between Elinor Ostrom and Judith Butler, with the intent to broaden the theory of the commons by discussing it as a relational politics. We use Butler’s theory of power to problematize existing visions of commons, shifting from Ostrom’s ‘bounded rationality’ to Butler’s concepts of ‘bounded selves’ and mutual vulnerability. To be bounded – as opposed to autonomous being – implies being an effect of socio-power relations and norms that are often beyond control. (...) Thus, to be a collective of bounded selves implies being mutually vulnerable in power relations which are enabling, albeit injurious. A politics of commoning is not a mere technical management of resources but a struggle to perform common livable relations. We argue that the multiple exposures which produce us are also the conditions of possibility for more just and equalitarian ‘re-commoning’ of democracies around the world. (shrink)
Wittgenstein’s “grammatical method” analyzes multiple uses of language across contexts of use, with the aim of identifying differences and dissolving conceptual confusion. This paper uses Wittgenstein’s method to undermine Jorge L. A. Garcia’s volitional account of racism. Garcia claims that his theory accommodates the ordinary use of terms like “racist belief.” However, he did not consider whether such terms might have multiple uses/meanings. My paper identifies three uses of “racist belief” that escape Garcia’s analysis. Consequently, philosophers should take Wittgenstein’s (...) advice to heart: do not assume that target-terms have a single use, but “look and see” whether they do. (shrink)
The idea that natural selection acts on many levels—and not only at the level of organisms or individual genes—is increasingly accepted among biologists. However, it is not easy to reconcile this idea with the strictly “individualistic” conception of the evolutionary process that has always characterized Darwinian thought. Moreover, the individuality of some forms of life is a vague concept and therefore controversial. This is the case of Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis, whose discovery immediately inspired the following question: Does the concept of (...) individuality have degrees? Alternatively, how far is this structure of prokaryotic cells from deserving to be called an organism? In this article, we propose a new conceptual scheme based on an idea of individuality that is not limited to organisms and that makes sense in terms of Darwinian evolution. In this conceptual scheme, selection at levels above that of the individual organism is interpreted as the evolutionary emergence of higher-level individuality. This proposal may serve as a basis on which to construct a promising hierarchical evolutionary theory. (shrink)
La exposición crítica de la doctrina de las ideas y las creencias nos lleva a formular ciertas dificultades teóricas que surgen a la luz de la interrelación entre dos nociones de verdad (a saber: las de correspondencia y coherencia) y en función de la experiencia dubitativa primordial en cuanto correlato suyo.
The practice of law is an occupation that has historically been dominated by white men. In recent decades, however, a small but growing number of Chicanas have entered this field. Their entry raises a number of questions regarding their occupational incorporation and mobility. This article analyzes the findings from qualitative interviews with 15 Chicana attorneys. These women identify organizational practices embedded in law firms that reinforce racism, sexism, classism, and homophobia. These structural and interactional dynamics often limit opportunities for professional (...) advancement of Chicana attorneys who “cross the border” into this white, male-dominated occupation. This research also illuminates innovative tactics employed by Chicanas to achieve their own definitions of professional “success.” My analysis reveals key mechanisms in workplace structure and interaction that reinforce racially gendered “borders” created by co-workers and supervisors who “nunca toman en cuenta ” the presence of successful Chicanas. (shrink)
The goal of this paper is to examine whether business performance is affected by the adoption of practices included under the term Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). To achieve this goal, we analyse the relation between CSR and certain accounting indicators and examine whether there exist significant differences in performance indicators between European firms that have adopted CSR and others that have not. The effects of compliance with the requirements of CSR were determined on the basis of firms included in the (...) Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI), and specific accounting indicators were applied to measure performance. For the purposes of this study, we selected one group of firms belonging to the DJSI and another comprised of firms quoted on the Dow Jones Global Index (DJGI) but not on the DJSI. The sample was made up of two groups of 55 firms, studied for the period 1998–2004. Empirical analysis supports the conclusion that differences in performance exist between firms that belong to the DJSI and to the DJGI and that these differences are related to CSR practices. We find that a short-term negative impact on performance is produced. (shrink)
The global environmental and social-economic crises of industrialized agriculture have led to the emergence of agroecology as an alternative approach aiming to increase the ecological, social and economic sustainability of agri–food systems. The ‘multi-level perspective’ is now a widely used framework to understand and promote the upscaling of local innovation niches, such as agroecology, to broader scales, thus reconfiguring the dominant socio-technical regimes. Additionally, emergent ‘hybrid forums’ can provide a space between niche and regime where niche innovators can become important (...) actors in scaling up and out emergent innovations. In this paper, we examine a university training program, to better understand its role as a ‘hybrid forum’. Our analysis focuses especially on how the program, as an example of a hybrid forum, worked to reconfigure practices, concepts, and tools of local development practitioners. We also assess to what extent the program contributed to transitioning local development institutions toward agroecology. An online survey and in-depth interviews were carried out to determine how the training program has impacted the student’s opinions and their respective institutions. The results show that most of the students consider that they have acquired new theoretical frameworks and useful methods to re-framing their local development projects, that new alliances with multi-actor networks have been perceived, and that some internal changes of the local development practices have taken place. We conclude that the training program, as a hybrid forum, is capable of outscaling niche innovations through linkages with different kind of actors both from the niche and the regime. Political changes in the socio-technical landscape level offer an opportunity to amplify the impact of the innovations which are being generated by those multi-actor networks, but with a limited multi-level impact as far as institutional regime-actors not aligned with agroecological transition keep the most of the competencies on agri–food systems. (shrink)
In the seventh and most recent edition of their classic book, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, Tom Beauchamp and James Childress define a virtue as a character trait that is “socially valuable and reliably present” and a moral virtue as such a trait that is also both “dispositional” and “morally valuable”. The virtues that they single out as “focal” within biomedical ethics are compassion, discernment, trustworthiness, integrity, and conscientiousness. Not all is well in their treatment of virtue. Beauchamp and Childress seem (...) to worry that an ethical theory in which virtues are fundamental will neglect duties, rights, and societal needs. Further, they insist that there is no reason to think that, within ethical theory, one family of ethical concepts is the most important, nor that one theoretical approach is correct, or even superior to others. I will try to show, that there are strong reasons to see language, concepts, and matters of virtue as fundamental within normative ethical theory, both generally and in such specialized subareas as medical ethics. These reasons reveal themselves when we analyze concepts at the core of the alternative approaches to theorizing ethics that Beauchamp and Childress identify. (shrink)
This paper uses tools of philosophical analysis critically to examine accounts of the nature of racism that have recently been offered by writers including existentialist philosopher Lewis Gordon, conservative theorist Dinesh D'Souza, and sociologists Michael Omi and Howard Winant. These approaches, which conceive of racism either as a bad-faith choice to believe, a doctrine, or as a type of 'social formation', are found wanting for a variety of reasons, especially that they cannot comprehend some forms of racism. I propose an (...) account that conceives racism chiefly as a motivational/volitional matter, in short, as a form of moral viciousness. I show how this approach offers a unified account that comprises inter alia individual and institutional racism, expressed and unexpressed racism. I point out advantages that my view has over Thomas Schmid's somewhat similar suggestion, and use the account to examine a number of claims made about racism by H. L. Gates, Jr, Elizabeth Young-Bruehl, Gertrude Ezorsky, and others. Finally, I defend this approach from the general criticism that Benjamin DeMott has levelled against any effort so to understand racism. Key Words: Benjamin DeMott • Dinesh D'Souza • existentialism • Lewis Gordon • moral concepts • Michael Omi • racism • social formation • Howard Winant. (shrink)
International trade, the network that underpins globalization, shows an extreme inequality. Despite efforts of multilateral organizations to foster a more fair world through trade agreements, it is hard to assess the effect of these changes on such a complex system. We have measured, using numerical simulation on a recently published network model, the impact of simple policies to boost trade chances among the weakest economies. Results suggest that global inequality may be reduced improving trade among low-income economies.
In the remainder of this article, we will disarm an important motivation for epistemic contextualism and interest-relative invariantism. We will accomplish this by presenting a stringent test of whether there is a stakes effect on ordinary knowledge ascription. Having shown that, even on a stringent way of testing, stakes fail to impact ordinary knowledge ascription, we will conclude that we should take another look at classical invariantism. Here is how we will proceed. Section 1 lays out some limitations of previous (...) research on stakes. Section 2 presents our study and concludes that there is little evidence for a substantial stakes effect. Section 3 responds to objections. The conclusion clears the way for classical invariantism. (shrink)