We review and discuss A. H. Louie’s book “More than Life Itself: A Reflexion on Formal Systems and Biology” from an interdisciplinary viewpoint, involving both biology and mathematics, taking into account new developments and related theories.
Este repertorio registra información de Husserl en la Internet, una breve historia sobre los Nachlaß, el índice de la Husserliana, un listado de las publicaciones de y sobre Husserl disponibles en la Biblioteca Central de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, y los artículos sobre Husserl que se encuentran en la Hemeroteca. El listado abarca las publicaciones existentes hasta el año 1997.
This article studies the differences between traditional financial intermediaries (commercial banks, savings banks and cooperative banks) and ethical banks based on property rights, in which the owner decides the ideology, principles, standards and objectives of the organisation. In ethical banking, affinity centres on positive social and ethical values. The article consequendy focuses on an index proposed both to differentiate ethical banks from other types of banks, and also to pinpoint the differences between the various ethical banks themselves.This is the Radical (...) Affinity Index (RAI), which groups banks together in terms of their stance on ethical commitment, concentrating on ethical ideology and principles (information transparency, placement of assets, guarantees and participation) and using a sample of 114 European banks. The evidence shows that transparency of information and placement of assets are factors that differentiate ethical banks from other financial intermediaries.Guarantees and participation are characteristics specific to ethical banks; these variables, however, do not offer clear evidence to our analysis. (shrink)
This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism; openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence). At the societal-level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective (...) autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each society, we report the Cronbach’s α statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency (reliability) as well as report interrater agreement (IRA) analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country values. We also examined whether societal development level is related to systematic variation in the measurement and importance of values. Thus, the contributions of our evaluation of the SVS values dimensions are two-fold. First, we identify the SVS dimensions that have cross-culturally internally reliable structures and within-society agreement for business professionals. Second, we report the society cultural values scores developed from the twenty-first century data that can be used as macro-level predictors in multilevel and single-level international business research. (shrink)
La figura del payaso ha pasado por diferentes momentos y lecturas históricas, lo que permite considerarla como una figura arquetípica. Su papel en la sociedad históricamente fue el del ridículo, objeto de risas, pero el payaso no sólo es un ser congruente, auténtico y valiente, sino que también pued..
There are important cases where properties not referred to by expressions from the languages of physics are enabled in certain times and circumstances to get causal control over some kinds of physical events. I will argue that in those cases we would have to transfer to those properties the causal sufficiency to bring about these events. This would offer a principle of causal inheritance in sharp contrast with the inheritance principle for the causal sufficiency of second order properties defended by (...) Jaegwon Kim in his recent discussion of the causal exclusion problem concerning mental properties. The two principles would be very different. Their domains of application would be distinct. Kim's principle would transfer causal sufficiency to the more "concrete" physical properties able to realize mental properties understood as second order properties. Our principle would transfer causal sufficiency to the more "general" properties able to cause the relevant physical effects in the times and circumstances in question. That way, it would be possible to give a quite simple answer to the problem of causal exclusion posed by Kim in relation to mental properties. Our approach also would have very important consequences in relation to ordinary macrophysical causation. (shrink)
In the historical, turbulent and exciting times of the Renaissance Humanism, characterized by a return to classic Antiquity, and the renovation of all cultural manifestations, both philosophy and religion are affected from their very foundations. This scholastic crisis affects in such a way the conscience, of the individuals and the people that it demands a solution immediate although provisional solution, so that we continuing even the business of living. No wonder that among the ruins of tomist morality, some moralists arise, (...) as that of Justus Lipsius (1547-1606), engased in renovating the stoic doctrines of Epicteto (ca. 50 to. of C. -125/138) and Séneca (ca. 4-65), and that of Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), determined to Christianize Epicuro. For some could be a summarise of the Ethics of the Renaissance others believe that the first Ethics of modern philosophy should be considered to be a product of the Renaissance, even if it does not belong chronologically to it they meam Descartes (1596-1650), Spinoza (1632-1677) and Kant (1724-1804). However according to the opinion of some significant authors, we dont need to go back to Kant to find the authentic Ethics of the Renaissance. Juan Luis Vives published in 1524 a small booklet titled Introductio ad Sapientiam that for its internal ideological structure and its origin senequista and christan leaning occupies a privileged place within modern Ethic, and if we take accourt his content and chronology it can be considered as the Ethics of the Renaissance, at least of the Spanish Renaissance. (shrink)
In contrast with the development of big theories in the context of social sciences, there is nowadays an increasing interest in the construction of simulation models for complex phenomena. Those simulation models suggest a certain image of social sciences as a kind of, let us say, "patchwork". In that image, an increase in understanding about the phenomena modeled is obtained through a certain sort of aggregation. There is not an application of sound, established theories to all the phenomena of a (...) certain kind, but an aggregation of the structures supposed, and of the results obtained, when particular systems are modeled. The recent case of the "El Farol Bar" problem, and the models built in order to face this problem, are a good example of this. We will analyze that case, trying to make clear what would be implied by the image above mentioned. Special attention will be paid to the need to take seriously the notion of a bounded rationality, linked to the special circumstances generating each decision problem, and to the existence of an irreducible pluralism of models. (shrink)
Describimos en este artículo algunos de los puntos que consideramos más relevantes y, sobre todo, menos trabajados, de lo que podríamos denominar "la herencia humana e intelectual de Bertrand Rusell". Concretamente, nos centramos en el estudio de dos materias a las que el filósofo británico concedió gran importancia: el amor y la pasión. Previamente, apuntamos aquellos acontecimientos y sucesos de su vida que hoy, tras los veinticinco años de su desaparición, nos pueden resultar de mayor interés.
En la primera parte de este artículo se quiere exponer la posición de Ludwig Wittgenstein en las Investigaciones filosóficas donde ya se percibe un importante giro respecto a la concepción semántica del Tractatus. El Wittgenstein tardío asume el lenguaje y su significado no como el resultado aislado de una conciencia monológica sino el producto una praxis social mediada por reglas. Sin embargo, al pensador austríaco le falta aun el espacio para el encuentro con la otredad que se muestra en la (...) posibilidad de la traducción de las reglas de otros juegos de lenguaje al propio, ya sean entre comunidades distintas o dentro de una misma cultura en épocas diferentes. En la segunda parte se muestra como en la hermenéutica filosófica de Hans-Georg Gadamer se abre el lugar para la comprensión en inclusión de estos otros juegos gracias al despliegue de los modos que le son propios como son la asunción del círculo hermenéutico, la dialéctica de la pregunta y respuesta, la fusión de horizontes y el juego. En especial, se hace referencia a cómo la otredad que se presenta como tradición histórica produce en el sujeto que comprende y de la tradición interpretada, un mayor enriquecimiento. Esto es el centro de la comprensión hermenéutica y sucede cuando el sujeto incorpora en su horizonte las perspectivas y puntos de vista de otros horizontes gracias al vaivén inacabado y abierto de la comprensión.The first part of this paper presents the position of Ludwig Wittgenstein in the Philosophical Investigations where it can see a significant turn respect to the semantic conception of the Tractatus. The later Wittgenstein takes language and its meaning not as an isolated result of a monological consciousness but the product of a social practice mediated by rules. However, the Austrian philosopher lacks even the space for the encounter with otherness that is displayed on the possibility of translation of the rules of other language games to the own, whether between different communities or within the same culture in different times. In the second part is shown as in the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer is open the space for the understanding of these other games through the deployment of the modes of its own such as the assumption of the hermeneutic circle, the dialectic of question and answer, the fusion of horizons and the play. In particular, it refers to how otherness, presented as historical tradition produce in the subject that comprehend and in the tradition interpreted greater enrichment. That is the center of the hermeneutic comprehension and happens when subject includes on his horizon the perspectives and views of other horizons thanks to unfinished and open sway of understanding. (shrink)
Estudiamos en este artículo la evolución de los valores de la polis griega, desde sus más remotos antecedentes (Homero) hasta su máximo esplendor que coincide con el enfrentamiento entre los sofistas y Platón.
La experiencia política que sustentó la Polis clásica, pareció a quienes reflexionaron filosóficamente sobre ella, inevitable e incluso natual; desde la filosofía contemporánea se la puede considerar, además, existenciaria y aporética. En la Atenas del siglo V a.C. encontramos fórmulas políticas que ponen de manifiesto la fuerza que, en la expresión de lo público, tienen las vivencias estéticas, el mito y la metáfora. Llama la atención en ellas la aspiración a perfeccionar los modos humanos de pervivir, convivir y pertenecer según (...) modelos vitales .The political experience which the classical i’olis’ was based on seenied unavoidable and even natural to those who philosophically reflected on it; besides, it can be considered, from the view of the contemporary philosophy, existenciary’ and aporetic. In V b.C. Athenes, we can find political formulae which show the strength which connected to the expression of Ihe public matters, is hold by aesthetic experience, myth and metaphor. Something Ithat attracts our attention about then is the wish to make perfect the human ways of living on, living together and belonging according lo the patterns relatedto life experience. (shrink)
The tree-based data structure of -tree for propositional formulas is introduced in an improved and optimised form. The -trees allow a compact representation for negation normal forms as well as for a number of reduction strategies in order to consider only those occurrences of literals which are relevant for the satisfiability of the input formula. These reduction strategies are divided into two subsets (meaning- and satisfiability-preserving transformations) and can be used to decrease the size of a negation normal form A (...) at (at most) quadratic cost. The reduction strategies are aimed at decreasing the number of required branchings and, therefore, these strategies allow to limit the size of the search space for the SAT problem. (shrink)
This article explores the complex bond between human life and the force of law from the contributions made by Michel Foucault and Giorgio Agamben. Both authors realize the transit of the legal system from sovereign power —which brings death by spilling the blood of men as a symbol of the naked life— to the analytics of biopower —which grants life but lets the race die—. However, Agamben goes further and proves the way contemporary biopower, closely linked to sovereign right, reduces (...) human life to the mere idea of biological life producing survivors. (shrink)
Long-term ecological research (LTER), addressing problems that encompass decadal or longer time frames, began as a formal term and program in the United States in 1980. While long-term ecological studies and observation began as early as the 1400s and 1800s in Asia and Europe, respectively, the long-term approach was not formalized until the establishment of the U.S. long-term ecological research programs. These programs permitted ecosystem-level experiments and cross-site comparisons that led to insights into the biosphere’s structure and function. The holistic (...) ecosystem approach of this initiative also allowed the incorporation of the human-dimension of ecology and recently has given rise to a new concept of long-term socio-ecological research (LTSER). Today, long-term ecological research programs exist in at least thirty-two countries (i.e., members of the International Long-Term Ecological Research Network, ILTER). However, consolidation of the international network within the long-term socio-ecological research paradigm still requires: (1) inclusion of certain remote regions of the world, such as southwestern South America, that are still poorly represented; (2) modifications of the type of research conducted, such as integrating social and natural sciences with the humanities and ethics; and (3) the incorporation of findings and results into broader social and political processes. In this context, a nascent long-term socio-ecological research network in Chile, which extends over the longest latitudinal range of temperate forest in the Southern Hemisphere, adds a new remote region to international long-term ecological research previously overlooked. In addition, collaboration with the University of North Texas and other international partners helps to further develop an interdisciplinary approach for the integration of the ecological sciences and environmental philosophy together with traditional ecological knowledge, informal and formal education, policy, the humanities, socio-political processes, and biocultural conservation. (shrink)