Natura 2000 is a network of natural sites whose aim is to preserve species and habitats of relevance in the European Union. The policy underlying Natura 2000 has faced widespread opposition from land users and received extensive support from environmentalists. This paper addresses the ethical framework for Natura 2000 and the probable moral assumptions of its main stakeholders. Arguments for and against Natura 2000 were analyzed and classified according to “strong” or “weak” versions of the three main theories of environmental (...) ethics – anthropocentrism, biocentrism, and ecocentrism. Weak (intergenerational) anthropocentrism was found to underlie the Natura 2000 network itself and the positions of environmentalists, while strong (traditional) anthropocentrism pervaded the positions of economic developers. Land users seemed to fall somewhere between weak and strong anthropocentrism. The paper discusses the relation between ethics and different attitudes towards Natura 2000, highlighting some of the implications for the network’s ongoing implementation. It is shown that Natura 2000 achieves a strong reversal of the burden of proof from conservation to economic development and land use change under anthropocentrism. It is argued that the alleged theoretical divide between anthropocentrism and non-anthropocentrism in relation to the burden of proof does not seem to hold in practice. Finally, it is predicted that the weak versions of anthropocentrism, biocentrism, and ecocentrism, are likely to converge extensively in respect to nature conservation policy measures. (shrink)
This paper argues for contextualism about predicates of personal taste and evaluative predicates in general, and offers a proposal of how apparently resilient disagreements are to be explained. The present proposal is complementary to others that have been made in the recent literature. Several authors, for instance (López de Sa, 2008; Sundell, 2011; Huvenes, 2012; Marques and García-Carpintero, 2014; Marques, 2014a), have recently defended semantic contextualism for those kinds of predicates from the accusation that it faces the problem (...) of lost disagreement. These authors have proposed that a proper account of the resilient disagreement in the cases studied is to be achieved by an appeal to pragmatic processes, and to conflicting non-doxastic attitudes. It is argued here that the existing contextualist solutions are incomplete as they stand, and are subject to objections because of this. A supplementation of contextualism is offered, together with an explanation of why failed presuppositions of commonality (López de Sa), disputes over the appropriateness of a contextually salient standard (Sundell), and differences in non-doxastic attitudes (Sundell, Huvenes, Marques, and García-Carpintero) give rise to conflicts. This paper claims that conflicts of attitudes are the reason why people still have impressions of disagreement in spite of failed commonality presuppositions, that those conflicts drive metalinguistic disputes over the selection of appropriate standards, and hence conflicting non-doxastic attitudes demand an explanation that is independent of those context dependent pragmatic processes. The paper further argues that the missing explanation is 2-fold: first, disagreement prevails where the properties expressed by taste and value predicates are response-dependent properties, and, secondly, it prevails where those response-dependent properties are involved in evolved systems of coordination that respond to evolutionarily recurrent situations. (shrink)
This paper explores some alternative accounts of doxastic disagreement, and shows what problems each faces. It offers an account of doxastic disagreement that results from the incompatibility of the content of doxastic attitudes, even when that content’s truth is relativized. On the best definition possible, it is argued, neither non-indexical contextualism nor assessment-relativism have an advantage over contextualism. The conclusion is that conflicts that arise from the incompatibility (at the same world) of the content of given doxastic attitudes cannot be (...) accommodated by theoretical positions that allow for the compatibility (at the same world) of the content of different doxastic attitudes. (shrink)
John MacFarlane defends a radical form of truth relativism that makes the truth of assertions relative not only to contexts of utterance but also to contexts of assessment, or perspectives. Making sense of assessment-sensitive truth is a matter of making sense of the normative commitments undertaken by speakers in using assessment sensitive sentences. This paper argues against the possibility of making sense of such a practice. Evans raised a challenge to the coherence of relative truth. A modification of the challenge (...) can be given against MacFarlane’s revised views on assertion. The main objection to the relativist is that rational and earnest speakers are not bound by assessment-relative standards of correctness. (shrink)
This article reviews the element of consciousness from a Buddhist and a non-Buddhist (Western) perspective. Within the Buddhist perspective, two practices toward attaining expanded and purified consciousness will be included: the Seven-Point Mind Training and Vipassana. Within the Western perspective, David Hawkins’ works on consciousness will be used as a main guide. In addition, a number of important concepts that contribute to expanded and purified consciousness will be presented. Among these concepts are impermanence, karma, non-harming (ahimsa), ethics, kindness and compassion, (...) mindfulness, right livelihood, charity, interdependence, wholesome view, collaboration, and fairness. This article may be of use to students and workforce members who consider a transdisciplinary approach on human wellbeing in personal and professional environments. (shrink)
This special issue of Erkenntnis is devoted to the varieties of disagreement that arise in different areas of discourse, and the consequences we should draw from these disagreements, either concerning the subject matter and its objectivity, or concerning our own views about this subject matter if we learn, for example, that an epistemic peer disagrees with our view. In this introduction we sketch the background to the recent philosophical discussions of these questions, and the location occupied therein by the articles (...) in this collection. (shrink)
This article has one aim, to reject the claim that negation is semantically ambiguous. The first section presents the putative incompatibility between truth-value gaps and the truth-schema; the second section presents the motivation for the ambiguity thesis; the third section summarizes arguments against the claim that natural language negation is semantically ambiguous; and the fourth section indicates the problems of an introduction of two distinct negation operators in natural language.
Leadership has become a more popular term than management, even though it is understood that both phenomena represent important organizational behaviors. This paper focuses on empathy in leadership, and presents the findings of a study conducted among business students over the course of 3 years. Finding that empathy consistently ranked lowest in the ratings, the researchers set out to discover the driving motives behind this invariable trend, and conducted a second study to obtain opinions about possible underlying factors. The paper (...) presents the findings of both studies, as well as literature reviews on the differences between management and leadership, a historical overview of leadership, a reflection of 21st century leadership, the ongoing debate on the effects of corporate psychopaths on ethical performance, and scholars’ perception on empathy in corporate leadership. The findings indicate the need for a paradigm shift in corporations as well as business schools in regards to leaders’ required skills, and suggest a proactive approach from business faculty to change the current paradigm. (shrink)
This paper discusses and criticizes Segal’s 1989 argument against singular object-dependent thoughts. His argument aims at showing that object-dependent thoughts are explanatorily redundant. My criticism of Segal’s argument has two parts. First, I appeal to common anti-individualist arguments to the effect that Segal’s type of argument only succeeds in establishing that object-dependent thoughts are explanatorily redundant for those aspects of subjects’ behaviour that do not require reference to external objects. Secondly, Segal’s view on singular thoughts is at odds with his (...) view on the semantics of proper names, which favours the singularity and object-dependency of the truth-conditions of sentences in which they occur. In particular, his views are at odds with a position he holds, that truth-conditional semantics can adequately account for all aspects of speakers’ linguistic competence in the use of proper names. (shrink)
A survey conducted among 50 members of the Los Angeles Workforce, all within the age range of 20-50 years, and with a minimum of 2 years of work experience and a minimum of 2 years of college education, delivered results that may be of interest to managers in their efforts to enhance workers' satisfaction and successfully transcend the challenges of these times. The focus of this study was on values that mattered most in challenging times to members of the workforces. (...) The hypothesis that inner-and inter-human aspects would be considered more important than money and status in such times was highly supported, with values such as love and relationships, and positive motivation, in an overwhelming lead. While financial worries were undoubtedly considered, it was underscored that in times of trouble, employees reach inwardly and outwardly to inner-human and inter-human connectedness. (shrink)
This paper focuses on the topic of “soft skills” as an intrinsic part of successful leadership. The first part of the paper presents a literature review about the shift in perspective in recent years on what matters in leadership, and the significant changes this prompted in some areas of education and corporate recruitment. In the second part, the findings of a year round study conducted among Los Angeles based workforce members in an MBA program are presented. By utilizing a multi-method (...) approach, consisting of a survey model with three open ended, interview style questions, and data analysis in phenomenological trend, a number of interesting findings emerged, supporting the literature reviewed, that soft leadership skills, such as self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills, are steadily on the rise, and that greater attention should be apportioned to strengthen these skills in future leaders. (shrink)
I critically discuss some aspects of Recanati's Perspectival Thought, while offering a detailed overview of the book. I suggest that the main aim Recanati proposes to achieve —that a moderate relativist should adopt a Kaplanian framework with three levels of content, rather than a Lewisian framework with only two— seems nonetheless insufficiently motivated, and the arguments offered do not settle the issue. I suggest furthermore that the claim that subjects’ mental states and cognitive situations can determine parameters or indices in (...) circumstances of evaluation is an original and very interesting contribution in the book. It is also an important one, since it sets further apart the radical from the moderate relativist, and it is relevant in the current relativism debate, where truth is deemed to be relative to parameters other than worlds, times, places and individuals. I also offer a few objections to some of the reasons Recanati puts forward in support of this latter claim; I object in particular to those that depend on some considerations about psychological modes. (shrink)
The phenomenon of episodic memory has been studied for over 30 years, but it is only recently that its constructive nature has been shown to be closely linked to the processes underpinning imagination. This paper builds on recent work by the authors in developing architectures for a form of imagination suitable for use in artifacts, and considers how these architectures might be extended to provide a form of episodic memory.
In social sciences, particularly in economics, ceteris paribus clauses give rise to special methodological problems, which make difficult both to regard its generalizations as genuine laws and to test such laws empirically. Daniel Hausman claims that the problem with ceteris paribus clauses in economics is that their content is not fully specified. This paper aims to discuss and criticize Hausman’s reconstruction of an economic law and his ideas as to how they could be tested. Particularly, it will be argued that (...) (a) Hausman does not explain how empirical evidence could be used to evaluate economic generalizations qualified by vaguely specified ceteris paribus clauses; (b) his explanation of the fundamental economic laws is careful and persuasive, but it makes impossible to test them empirically, both in experimental and ordinary economic settings; (c) although Hausman is not concerned with derived economic laws, according to his viewpoint they could, in principle, be tested; unfortunately, however, the tendency to include subjective factors among the clauses’ explicit components makes them also practically nontestable. Finally (d) it will be argued that the real problem with ceteris paribus clauses in economics is to be found in their failure to be well articulated by a social and economic theory. (shrink)
This article discusses the way psychological clinical practice deals with sexual diversity, analyzing life trajectories of five homosexual subjects that went through psychological treatment. The research instrument used was interviews based on life history's approach. We proposed an initial question..
Nosso objetivo é destacar algumas questões concernentes ao problema da matéria e do movimento na filosofia de Bergson. Questões presentes em seu segundo livro, Matéria e memória, as quais indicam uma nova orientação de sua filosofia: a passagem da psicologia à metafísica; mais precisamente, a introdução do tema do movimento e da duração "fora de nós". O primeiro capítulo do livro, ao caracterizar o universo material como um conjunto de imagens, desempenha um papel fundamental nessa passagem, a qual efetivamente se (...) dá no quarto capítulo, momento em que elabora uma metafísica da matéria. Para além desse contexto, é na direção de seu terceiro livro, A evolução criadora, que essa metafísica da matéria consequentemente aponta. Our aim is to highlight some issues concerning the problem of matter and movement in the philosophy of Bergson. Issues presented in his second book, Matter and Memory, which indicate a new direction of his philosophy: the transition from psychology to metaphysics, more precisely, introducing the theme of movement and duration "outside of us." The first chapter of the book, in describing the material universe as a set of images plays a key role in this passage, which effectively occurs in the fourth chapter, at which time elaborates metaphysics of matter. Beyond this context, it is in the direction of his third book, Creative Evolution, that the metaphysics of matter will consequently point. (shrink)
In this paper I argue for the view that structuralism offers the best perspective for an acceptable account of the applicability of mathematics in the empirical sciences. Structuralism, as I understand it, is the view that mathematics is not the science of a particular type of objects, but of structural properties of arbitrary domains of entities, regardless of whether they are actually existing, merely presupposed or only intentionally intended.
Para el pensamiento contemporáneo, el argumento schopenhaueriano en contra de la moral kantiana ofrece un modelo de crítica radical de la razón que será en muchos sentidos, más o menos explícitamente, desarrollado a lo largo de nuestro siglo. La autoafirmación moderna, que se funda en las leyes incondicionadas de la razón, empieza a ser considerada como una ficción de ésta. Es, sin embargo, importante recuperar la génesis de este pensamiento crítico, examinando de nuevo la argumentación schopenhaueriana. Nuestra conclusión es que (...) ella no destruye los supuestos básicos de la ética kantiana, sino que aparece como un reto que promueve una comprensión más profunda de la dialéctica naturaleza-libertad de las dos primeras Críticas. (shrink)
Can an appeal to the difference between contrary and contradictory statements, generated by a non-uniform behaviour of negation, deal adequately with paradoxical cases like the sorites or the liar? This paper offers a negative answer to the question. This is done by considering alternative ways of trying to construe and justify in a useful way (in this context) the distinction between contraries and contradictories by appealing to the behaviour of negation only. There are mainly two ways to try to do (...) so: i) by considering differences in the scope of negation, ii) by considering the possibility that negation is semantically ambiguous. Both alternatives are shown to be inapt to handle the problematic cases. In each case, it is shown that the available alternatives for motivating or grounding the distinction, in a way useful to deal with the paradoxes, are either inapplicable, or produce new versions of the paradoxes, or both. (shrink)
This study discusses the relationship between Green Chemistry and Environmental Sustainability as expressed in textbooks and articles on Green Chemistry authored by their promoters. It was found that although the Brundtland concept of Sustainable Development/Sustainability has been mentioned often by green chemists, a full analysis of that relationship was almost never attempted. In particular, green chemists have paid scarce attention to the importance of The Second Law of thermodynamics on Environmental Sustainability and the consequences of the limitations it imposes on (...) Green Chemistry, which are discussed in this paper. (shrink)
In Book IV of the Metaphysics Aristotle argues that first philosophy investigates not only being qua being but also the axioms or principles of demonstration. In the same place he establishes which principles are first. The first among these is the principle of contradiction. The thesis I defend in my communication is that the principle of contradiction in Aristotle is not merely formal in the style of modern symbolic logic, but is the constituent law of all discourse. As such, the (...) most precise sense in which it is a 'first principle' is that of a condition of the possibility of significance: terms and judgments have significance if they comply with the condition; if they violate it they signify nothing and are vacuous. If my interpretation is correct, various consequences will be derivable from a first principle, of which the most important is its link with essence and substance. (shrink)
This paper presents a new method - which does not rely on the cut-elimination theorem - for characterizing the provably total functions of certain intuitionistic subsystems of arithmetic. The new method hinges on a realizability argument within an infinitary language. We illustrate the method for the intuitionistic counterpart of Buss's theory Smath image, and we briefly sketch it for the other levels of bounded arithmetic and for the theory IΣ1.
This is a special issue of Disputatio on normativity and rationality. The idea for this volume originated after the fifth European Congress of Analytic Philosophy, ECAP5, which took place in Lisbon in August of 2005. This volume collects the contributions of John Broome, Pascal Engel, Kevin Mulligan, Josep Prades and John Skoruspki, who were speakers on that occasion. The common thread in the diverse talks suggested that a volume on the topic would be of general interest. This common thread, which (...) revealed itself naturally, testifies to issues hotly debated in recent years and also to the centrality of normativity in various philosophical areas. (shrink)
El trabajo identifica dos problemas metodológicos que dificultan la contrastación de teorías económicas: 1) en su empleo habitual, no es posible decidir si se satisfacen sus condiciones de aplicación, antes e independientemente de la aplicación de las mismas; 2) si es admisible modificar las condiciones de aplicación de una teoría, debe aceptarse que también pueda ser "manipulada" su clase de predicciones consideradas relevantes. Ambas tesis conforman la base de la argumentación de Milton Friedman contra el realismo de los supuestos, pero (...) no han sido debatidos explícitamente y, consecuentemente, sus argumentos no han recibido una respuesta adecuada de parte de sus críticos. Two methodological problems obstruct the tests of economic theories: 1) usually it is not possible to ascertain whether the domain assumptions are satisfied before of the applications of the theory; 2) if it is admissible to modify the domain assumptions of a theory, it must also be accepted that the class of its supposedly relevant predictions can be modified. Both thesis are the foundations of Friedman's argumentation against the realism of the economic assumptions, but they have not been debated explicitly and therefore, his arguments haven't received an adequate response. (shrink)
Este texto trata de um clássico da filosofia platônica, o Crátilo. Redigido em forma de diálogo, característico do estilo platônico de escrita, nele está distinta a supervenção de uma das grandes temáticas da filosofia contemporânea, isto é, a linguagem, em que se traz à tona a discussão sobre a adequação de um nome a um objeto, também conhecido coma a justeza do nome à coisa. Figuram-se como questões centrais as teses do naturalismo e convencionalismo, que estruturam o que se entende (...) como instrumentalização da linguagem, e que, hodierno, arremete, enquanto desconstrução desta instrumentalização, a uma epistemologia da linguagem, que fora, de forma capitular no Século V, primada na ideia de essência. Expõe-se na conjuntura textual a importância da linguagem para a filosofia desde a antiguidade, e que, por sua vez, consubstancia-se, em relevo, numa discussão sobre a verdade. (shrink)
ABSTRACT When Hume, in the Treatise on Human Nature, began his examination of the relation of cause and effect, in particular, of the idea of necessary connection which is its essential constituent, he identified two preliminary questions that should guide his research: For what reason we pronounce it necessary that every thing whose existence has a beginning should also have a cause and Why we conclude that such particular causes must necessarily have such particular effects? Hume observes that our belief (...) in these principles can result neither from an intuitive grasp of their truth nor from a reasoning that could establish them by demonstrative means. In particular, with respect to the first, Hume examines and rejects some arguments with which Locke, Hobbes and Clarke tried to demonstrate it, and suggests, by exclusion, that the belief that we place on it can only come from experience. Somewhat surprisingly, however, Hume does not proceed to show how that derivation of experience could be made, but proposes instead to move directly to an examination of the second principle, saying that, "perhaps, be found in the end, that the same answer will serve for both questions". Hume's answer to the second question is well known, but the first question is never answered in the rest of the Treatise, and it is even doubtful that it could be, which would explain why Hume has simply chosen to remove any mention of it when he recompiled his theses on causation in the Enquiry concerning Human Understanding. Given this situation, an interesting question that naturally arises is to investigate the relations of logical or conceptual implication between these two principles. Hume seems to have thought that an answer to would also be sufficient to provide an answer to. Henry Allison, in his turn, argued that the two questions are logically independent. My proposal here is to try to show that there is indeed a logical dependency between them, but the implication is, rather, from to. If accepted, this result may be particularly interesting for an interpretation of the scope of the so-called "Kant's reply to Hume" in the Second Analogy of Experience, which is structured as a proof of the a priori character of, but whose implications for remain controversial. (shrink)
O presente artigo pretende dar conta de alguns dos aspectos mais salientes da questão relativa à pertinência da Filosofia (especialmente na qualidade de Filosofia da Ciência) para a prática científica dos cientistas. Nesse sentido, a autora recorre sobretudo a exemplos vigentes nos finais do século xx, dando especial relevância a manifestações de "impaciência" por parte de alguns investigadores em relação a algumas críticas epistemológicas e éticas dos filósofos, sobretudo no que se refere à famosa controvérsia da "guerra das ciências" e (...) a toda uma ofensiva cultural relativa a uma terceira cultura que apresenta os cientistas como sendo os novos humanistas e em que os "filósofos empíricos" estariam a perder peso. Como resposta, a autora propõe que, embora possam ser dispensáveis no laboratório, aos filósofos deve ser reconhecida a capacidade de disponibilizar às ciências uma linguagem que seja capaz de facilitar o diálogo cultural alargado, uma linguagem, portanto, de que as próprias ciências não se poderão dispensar se realmente quiserem sobreviver no âmbito da cultura do século XXI. /// The present article intends to give an account of some of the more relevant aspects pertaining to the question about the importance of Philosophy, and in particular Philosophy of Science, for the scientific work of scientists. The author of the article gives special attention to examples taken from the scientific landscape at the end of the xx Century, whereby special consideration is given to the impatience shown by some scientists in relation to some epistemological and ethical criticisms coming from the side of Philosophy. Particular attention is given to the famous "war of sciences" and the cultural offensive related to the introduction of a third culture in which the scientists are presented as the new humanists and in which even the "empirical philosophers" were losing weight. In that sense, the author suggests that, even though they might be of not much use in the laboratory, the philosophers keep intact the capacity of offering to the sciences a language that is capable of facilitating the cultural dialogue at large, a language, therefore, of which the sciences will not be able to dispense themselves should they want to thrive and be culturally influential in the XXI century. (shrink)
In this paper I discuss the version of predicative analysis put forward by Hermann Weyl in Das Kontinuum. I try to establish how much of the underlying motivation for Weyl''s position may be due to his acceptance of a phenomenological philosophical perspective. More specifically, I analyze Weyl''s philosophical ideas in connexion with the work of Husserl, in particular Logische Untersuchungen} and Ideen .I believe that this interpretation of Weyl can clarify the views on mathematical existence and mathematical intuition which are (...) implicit in Das Kontinuum. (shrink)
No presente artigo,investigo como o humanismo renascentista, a partir de seu desejo de conhecimento e de uma idéia de dignidade do homem,pode ser encarado como um estágio prévio da subjetividade moderna que eclodirá no século XVII.
O artigo se propõe apresentar alguns elementos da cosmovisão umbandista para que possamos entender de que maneira esta legitima e ressignifica os espaços de inclusão social de parte da população brasileira. Esta cosmovisão recria e dá sentido às vidas e identidades das pessoas e, ao mesmo tempo, evidencia as exclusões sofridas ao longo das décadas. O texto busca uma compreensão dessas dinâmicas antropológicas e sociológicas baseado em algumas teorias que se debruçaram sobre a umbanda. Desde cedo afrodescendentes transitam entre universos (...) simbólicos distintos e lançam mão de sua espiritualidade para reelaborarem suas tradições criando possibilidades de jogar com papéis e identidades diversas. A Umbanda, por ser constitutivamente plural, é, muitas vezes, julgada por não ter identidade própria. Por isso alguns elementos que compõem o arranjo da cosmovisão umbandista foram levantados na expectativa de apresentar um eixo compreensivo dessa identidade religiosa. Entretanto, faz-se necessário apontar traços marcantes da Umbanda justamente para que seu caráter identitário não fique à margem de outras denominações religiosas afro-brasileiras. Palavras-chave : Umbanda. Espiritualidade. InclusãoThis article presents some elements of Umbanda worldview to a better understanding of how this religion legitimizes and reframes the spaces of social inclusion of a portion of the Brazilian population. This worldview recreates and gives meaning to the lives and identities of people and at the same time, highlights the exclusions suffered by this people over the decades. Since their early years, Brazilian Afrodescendants move between different symbolic universes and use their spirituality to redesign their traditions, creating possibilities to play with different roles and identities. Umbanda, being constitutively plural, is often judged not to have its own identity. Thus, some elements that comprise Umbanda worldview were raised with the purpose of presenting an axis understanding of this religious identity. However, it is necessary to point out some relevant features of Umbanda, so that their identity features do not stay on the sidelines of other african Brazilian religious denominations.Finally, it seeks an understanding of these anthropological and sociological dynamics, based on some theoretical currents that investigate the Umbanda. Keywords : Umbanda. Spirituality. Inclusion. (shrink)
Raramente um texto filosófico desperta uma polêmica como a que envolveu as Regras para o parque humano, do filósofo alemão Peter Sloterdijk. Neste artigo, examino esse texto, buscando identificar as razões para sua conturbada recepção, e proponho que, mais do que às conseqüências éticas da aplicação da genética à seleção e determinação das características da espécie, a polêmica se relaciona a um movimento mais profundo de distensão das férreas diretrizes político-intelectuais que governam, desde o pós-guerra, a interpretação da história alemã (...) recente.Seldom does a philosophical text raise such a controversy as the book Regeln für den Menschenpark by the German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk. This paper examines Sloterdijk's book and tries to identify the reasons for the explosive reaction it produced. I suggest that the controversy owes more to an intellectual weakening of the stringent guidelines that have dictated the interpretation of postwar German history than to fears of the ethical consequences of the application of genetics to select and determine the characteristics of the human species. (shrink)
El artículo se interroga acerca de las posibilidades de alcanzar arreglos institucionales, al menos en el “espacio de gobernanza y de democracia local”, que aproximen nuestras democracias liberales al horizonte normativo del republicanismo moderno. Un reciente trabajo de Pedro Ibarra Güell (2008) servirá de base para nuestras reflexiones. Se expondrán los dilemas a los que se enfrenta su propuesta de una “democracia relacional”, se precisarán las condiciones que ésta debe satisfacer y, a la luz de diversas observaciones empíricas, se juzgará (...) su plausibilidad. (shrink)
In this paper I discuss Husserl's solution of the problem of imaginary elements in mathematics as presented in the drafts for two lectures hegave in Göttingen in 1901 and other related texts of the same period,a problem that had occupied Husserl since the beginning of 1890, whenhe was planning a never published sequel to Philosophie der Arithmetik(1891). In order to solve the problem of imaginary entities Husserl introduced,independently of Hilbert, two notions of completeness (definiteness in Husserl'sterminology) for a formal axiomatic (...) system. I present and discuss these notionshere, establishing also parallels between Husserl's and Hilbert's notions ofcompleteness. (shrink)
Este trabalho é uma reflexão sobre a teoria da harmonia universal de Leibniz, procurando mostrar como esta parte significativa do pensamento leibniziano tem repercussões em suas concepções morais, na medida em que o homem é elemento integrante de um universo harmônico.
Apresentamos um resumo do desenvolvimento e do contexto institucional do Projecto Humanização dos Cuidados Paliativos em Contexto Domiciliário, aprovado e financiado pela Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. Utilizam-se largamente os próprios documentos que o justificaram e os relatórios oficiais para dar uma imagem vivida, realista e técnica das dificuldades da profissionalização e reforma dos Cuidados Paliativos, mesmo quando integrada em acções de formação num serviço de um Centro de Tratamento Compreensivo do Cancro. We put forward a synopsis of the development and institutional (...) context of the Project Humanização dos Cuidados Paliativos em Contexto Domiciliário, approved and financed by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. The groundwork documents are widely used as well as official reports so as to convey a lively, realistic and technical image arising from professionalizing and reforming Palliative Medicine even when it is based on in-service training programmes in an Comprehensive Cancer Center. (shrink)
The disagreement about intertemporal coordination between Austrians and Keynesians is explained pointing out to differences both in the way expectations and motivations are treated and the methodological principles assumed by each view. Austrians believe that research should proceed showing first what guarantees a successful coordination in individualsŠ plans, and only latter showing which could hinder the “natural” course. Keynes, on the contrary, do not start with any ideal state of affairs, but allows economies to work either “good” or “bad” according (...) to the prevailing expectations among entrepreneurs. In this way uncertainty and expectations are fully incorporated into economic theory. A link between Austrian approach and popperian situational analysis is suggested. (shrink)
Desde o 11 de setembro de 2001, debates sobre o Islã foram intensificados, em busca de explicações plausíveis sobre os ataques terroristas ao World Trade Center. Foram colocadas em pauta, sobretudo nas mídias, nacional e internacional, hoje, uma das mais importantes fontes de informação e de construção dos nossos mundos cognitivos, questões sobre o que são os muçulmanos e o Islã. Motivada por esse cenário e pelo crescimento do número de muçulmanos no mundo, praticamente um quarto da população mundial, no (...) qual os muçulmanos por conversão também são parte, decidi observar e comparar os dois campos, Brasil e em Portugal, tomando nota das ricas relações entre religião e cultura, entre tradição e modernidade. Dois campos com diferentes procedências, vertentes religiosas, escolas de pensamento, movimentos religiosos, que resultaram não somente em diversidade, mas igualmente em semelhança, em conflito e em dilema. De onde se observa que também a diferença une todos os muçulmanos do mundo. Palavras-chave: Islã; Muçulmanos; Convertidos.Since September 11th 2001, debates over Islam have been intensified in search for plausible explanations for the terrorist attacks to the World Trade Center . Questions on what Muslims and Islam are have been at stake, above all, in the national and international media nowadays, one of the most important information sources as well as for building our cognitive worlds. Inspired by the scenario as well as by the growing number of Muslims in the world, almost a quarter of the population, included converted Muslims, I decided to observe and compare two fields, Brazil and Portugal, taking note about the richly relations between religion and culture, tradition and modernity. They are two fields with different origins, religious tendencies, schools of thought, religious movements, which have resulted not only in diversity, but also in similarity, conflict and dilemma. In observing that the difference also unites all Muslims in the world. Key words: Islam; Muslims; Converted. (shrink)
Apresentam-se os resultados clínicos principais de uma primeira investigação efectuada a familiares de doentes sob tratamento paliativo no domicílio da área de Lisboa, com o instrumento de medida da satisfação SERVQUAL Modificado. Dos 58 familiares/doentes que responderam ao questionário apenas uma minona estava insatisfeita (uma classe de 5 indivíduos mostra-se francamente insatisfeita), uma classe de 15 estava moderadamente satisfeita, havendo 38 individuos fortemente satisfeitos com a qualidade e prontidäo dos serviços prestados. Porém urna percentagem elevada de doentes, segundo a opinião (...) retrospectiva dos cuidadores, faleceu com sintomatologia agravada, nomeadamente dores (60%), obstipação (67%) e depressão/ansiedade (43%). Discute-se a consistência e validade do questionáno SERVQUAL Modificado, contextualizam-se os resultados no que é o standard da prática da MCP e integram-se na promoção da dignidade humana no fim da vida. We present the main clinical findings of research on palliative home care, carried out among relatives of patients in the Lisbon area. An adapted version of SERVQUAL was used. Of a total of 58 carers surveyed only a small number (5) was unsatisfied 15 were only moderately satisfied. 38 family carers were strongly satisfied with the services. Yet, a high percentage of patients, as viewed in retrospect by their relatives died with some aggravated symptoms: 60% with more pain, 67% constipation, and 43% anxiety/depression. We discuss the consistency and validity of this adapted SERVQUAL tool and the main results are contextualized beanng in mind the standard practice of palliative medicine and the pursuit of human dignity in death. (shrink)