There is a growing interest in understanding consumer ethical actions in relation to their dealings with firms. This paper examines whether there are differences between Northern and Southern European Union (EU) consumers'' perceptions of ethical consumer behaviour using Muncy and Vitell''s (1992) Consumer Ethics Scale (CES). The study samples 962 university students across four Northern EU countries (Germany, Denmark, Scotland, The Netherlands) and four Southern EU countries (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece). Some differences are identified between the two samples, which might (...) question the ability of organisations to consider the EU as one homogeneous market. (shrink)
Historians and philosophers of science generally conceptualize scientific progress to be dichotomous, viz., experimental observations lead to scientific laws, which later facilitate the elaboration of explanatory theories. There is considerable controversy in the literature with respect to Mendeleev’s contribution to the origin, nature, and development of the periodic table. The objectives of this study are to explore and reconstruct: a) periodicity in the periodic table as a function of atomic theory; b) role of predictions in scientific theories and its implications (...) for the periodic table; and c) Mendeleev’s contribution: theory or an empirical law? The reconstruction shows that despite Mendeleev’s own ambivalence, periodicity of properties of chemical elements in the periodic table can be attributed to the atomic theory. It is argued that based on the Lakatosian framework, predictions play an important role in the development of scientific theories. In this context, Mendeleev’s predictions played a crucial role in the development of the periodic table. Finally, it is concluded that Mendeleev’s contribution can be considered as an “interpretative” theory which became “explanatory” after the periodic table was based on atomic numbers.Author Keywords: Periodic table; Mendeleev’s contribution; Theory; Empirical law; Interpretative theory. (shrink)
Since the advent of a post-structuralist ethos, the assertion of a notion of truth, conceived as an infallible point d’appui from which a given social order could be evaluated as ideological or non-ideological, seems no longer possible. As Rorty has pointed out ‘[we can now] see ourselves as never encountering reality except under a chosen description as…making worlds rather than finding them’. However, we could still legitimately ask whether or not an inevitable condition of the ‘post-modern world’, that is, a (...) world deprived of a manifest intrinsic meaning, is the renouncement of the assumption of a certain notion of an objective truth for a critique of ideology. I will suggest in this essay that a way to respond to this question is by revisiting Habermas's theory of communicative action, viewed through the lens of the theory of ideology formulated by Slavok Žižek. Furthermore, the main thesis of this work is that by using the notion of the Real or ‘primordial repressed’ taken from a Žižekian reading of Lacan, it would allow the production of a critique of ideology in which the truth — the unmasking of the extra-ideological place — becomes possible as a hypothetical objective category. (shrink)
This article proposes to examine the relation between art and the experience of alterity through the typology of modes of existence which Deleuze extracts from literature and cinema. Through the figures of slavery, automatism, petrification, and exhaustion which characterize this typology, it suggests that these experiences of alterity define "minor" modes of existence and thought which are opposed to that volitional autonomy which, for Kant, defines our maturity . The hypothesis examined here is that the notion of the minor marks (...) a turning point from which the emancipatory vocation of the Enlightenment is replaced by an idea of resistance – understood here, according to Deleuze and Lyotard, as an ethical category designating an experience of the alterity constitutive of the self. From this common point, the article finally seeks to identify what separates the ethics of Deleuze from that of Lyotard, analyzing how Deleuze's typology fits neither a logic of freedom nor that of the gift, making itself unavailable for morality. (shrink)
Este trabajo analiza los intentos llevados a cabo por Jeremy Bentham y John Stuart Mill para hacer converger algunos de los principales modelos de fundamentación moral: las éticas de la felicidad, como la aristotélica, o la propia ética utilitarista, las éticas del deber de raíz kantiana y las éticas de los derechos.Si conseguimos “reducir”, en primer lugar, las éticas de los derechos al modelo de la ética del deber, podremos simplificar mucho la cuestión y limitarnos a contrastar este último modelo (...) con las éticas de la felicidad, que a su vez deberían converger en la propia ética de la utilidad. No obstante, y aun reconociendo su gran interés, una convergencia completa entre modelos alternativos se revela como imposible. A pesar de los esfuerzos, sobre todo de John Stuart Mill, no es posible una unificación completa de los planteamientos utilitaristas con los de Aristóteles y Kant. La continuación de la empresa utilitarista de lucha por la unificación teórica en el ámbito del problema de la fundamentación moral encuentra un buen ejemplo actual en la obra de Esperanza Guisán. (shrink)
O artigo se propõe apresentar alguns elementos da cosmovisão umbandista para que possamos entender de que maneira esta legitima e ressignifica os espaços de inclusão social de parte da população brasileira. Esta cosmovisão recria e dá sentido às vidas e identidades das pessoas e, ao mesmo tempo, evidencia as exclusões sofridas ao longo das décadas. O texto busca uma compreensão dessas dinâmicas antropológicas e sociológicas baseado em algumas teorias que se debruçaram sobre a umbanda. Desde cedo afrodescendentes transitam entre universos (...) simbólicos distintos e lançam mão de sua espiritualidade para reelaborarem suas tradições criando possibilidades de jogar com papéis e identidades diversas. A Umbanda, por ser constitutivamente plural, é, muitas vezes, julgada por não ter identidade própria. Por isso alguns elementos que compõem o arranjo da cosmovisão umbandista foram levantados na expectativa de apresentar um eixo compreensivo dessa identidade religiosa. Entretanto, faz-se necessário apontar traços marcantes da Umbanda justamente para que seu caráter identitário não fique à margem de outras denominações religiosas afro-brasileiras. Palavras-chave : Umbanda. Espiritualidade. InclusãoThis article presents some elements of Umbanda worldview to a better understanding of how this religion legitimizes and reframes the spaces of social inclusion of a portion of the Brazilian population. This worldview recreates and gives meaning to the lives and identities of people and at the same time, highlights the exclusions suffered by this people over the decades. Since their early years, Brazilian Afrodescendants move between different symbolic universes and use their spirituality to redesign their traditions, creating possibilities to play with different roles and identities. Umbanda, being constitutively plural, is often judged not to have its own identity. Thus, some elements that comprise Umbanda worldview were raised with the purpose of presenting an axis understanding of this religious identity. However, it is necessary to point out some relevant features of Umbanda, so that their identity features do not stay on the sidelines of other african Brazilian religious denominations.Finally, it seeks an understanding of these anthropological and sociological dynamics, based on some theoretical currents that investigate the Umbanda. Keywords : Umbanda. Spirituality. Inclusion. (shrink)
O propósito deste artigo é explicitar o modo como Gadamer reformula a hermenêutica diltheiana (desenvolvida sobre o conceito moderno de vida utilizado como fundamento da noção de auto-consciência histórica), ao formular um novo modo de compreender a razão e a existência humanas, tomando como ponto de partida a experiência concreta da finitude da vida humana.
Rawls says that public reason is the reason of the citizens of a democratic state and takes the Supreme Court in the USA as the exemplar of public reason. It differs from non public reason, which is used e.g., in universities and academic institutions. Rawls contrasts with Kant, which opposes the public reason of the scholar—or the philosopher—, who speaks before the world, to the private reason of state or church officials. The later, once they accept an authority, cannot think (...) by themselves (selbst denken). A closer examination shows that Rawls is not so far from Kant as it seems, because he takes the constitutional judges not as they are, but as they should be. However Rawls still apparently refuses Kant’s unity of reason. Further investigation of the relations between ethical reason, democratic reason and legal reason is needed. Democratic reason is tantamount both to public reason and to legal reason in a modern constitutional state. It is a requirement of ethics but still not identical with ethical reason, since it is possible to accept democratic reason and to argue against it from an ethical point of view. There is just one good way of reasoning, in spite of the constraints that the sources of law and the rules of procedure impose on legal reasoning, compared with ethics. Such constraints are based on the democratic principle, which is again based on ethical reason, which at last both grounds and limits the constraints that law imposes on reason. (shrink)
O presente artigo pretende dar conta de alguns dos aspectos mais salientes da questão relativa à pertinência da Filosofia (especialmente na qualidade de Filosofia da Ciência) para a prática científica dos cientistas. Nesse sentido, a autora recorre sobretudo a exemplos vigentes nos finais do século xx, dando especial relevância a manifestações de "impaciência" por parte de alguns investigadores em relação a algumas críticas epistemológicas e éticas dos filósofos, sobretudo no que se refere à famosa controvérsia da "guerra das ciências" e (...) a toda uma ofensiva cultural relativa a uma terceira cultura que apresenta os cientistas como sendo os novos humanistas e em que os "filósofos empíricos" estariam a perder peso. Como resposta, a autora propõe que, embora possam ser dispensáveis no laboratório, aos filósofos deve ser reconhecida a capacidade de disponibilizar às ciências uma linguagem que seja capaz de facilitar o diálogo cultural alargado, uma linguagem, portanto, de que as próprias ciências não se poderão dispensar se realmente quiserem sobreviver no âmbito da cultura do século XXI. /// The present article intends to give an account of some of the more relevant aspects pertaining to the question about the importance of Philosophy, and in particular Philosophy of Science, for the scientific work of scientists. The author of the article gives special attention to examples taken from the scientific landscape at the end of the xx Century, whereby special consideration is given to the impatience shown by some scientists in relation to some epistemological and ethical criticisms coming from the side of Philosophy. Particular attention is given to the famous "war of sciences" and the cultural offensive related to the introduction of a third culture in which the scientists are presented as the new humanists and in which even the "empirical philosophers" were losing weight. In that sense, the author suggests that, even though they might be of not much use in the laboratory, the philosophers keep intact the capacity of offering to the sciences a language that is capable of facilitating the cultural dialogue at large, a language, therefore, of which the sciences will not be able to dispense themselves should they want to thrive and be culturally influential in the XXI century. (shrink)
O objetivo deste artigo é a análise das críticas de Hannah Arendt à concepção dos direitos humanos, introduzida pelo pensamento dos filósofos contratualistas e efetivada, politicamente, pelas revoluções americanas e francesas no final do século XVIII. Contudo, este objetivo não seria plenamente alcançado sem a avaliação da proposta de Arendt para a superação de suas próprias críticas: a reconstrução dos direitos humanos através do reconhecimento que cada indivíduo tem direito a ter direitos, independente das fronteiras do Estado-nação. Arendt vai buscar (...) na moral universalista e cosmopolita kantiana o conceito de humanidade e dá a ele as dimensões ontológicas e políticas necessárias para se construir um espaço público internacional, onde o direito a ter direito seja decorrente do mero pertencimento à humanidade, não se dissolvendo nos limites de cada Estado-nação. The purpose of this article is the analysis of the criticisms of Hannah Arendt's conception of human rights, introduced by the thought of the contractual philosophers and made effective, politically, by American and French revolutions in the late eighteenth century. However, this aim would not be fully achieved without the review of Arendt's proposal to overcome her own criticisms: the reconstruction of human rights by recognizing that every individual has the right to have rights, regardless of borders of the Nation-State. Arendt tries to discover in the universal and cosmopolitan moral of Kant the concept of humanity and gives him the ontological and political dimensions needed to build an international public space where the right to have rights is due to the mere belonging to the humanity, not dissolving itself in the limits of each Nation-State. (shrink)
Does Duncan Kennedy successfully cannibalize jurisprudence? He attempts to do it by demonstrating the inexistence of rightness in legal argumentation. If there is no right legal argument, then there is no right answer in adjudication, adjudication is not a rational enterprise and legal doctrine cannot be said to be a science. It can be shown that skepticism is self-defeating. Duncan Kennedy can avoid self defeat only because he actually believes in a lot of legal arguments. His thesis that judges decide (...) questions of policy without any methodology that distinguishes them from legislators does not hold. Judicial reasoning is subject to constraints that do not affect legislators. It must be based on the sources of law and is limited by rules of procedure. Even when the judges have ‘interstitial’ legislative powers they are, unlike the legislator, bound to fit the system and their decisions are considered in procedure from the perspective of the right answer doctrine. The only work that can convincingly refute the skeptic argument against legal science is the reconstruction of jurisprudence as a scientific enterprise. Such work is beyond the scope of any single paper. The article aims to give some inspirations for such a task. (shrink)
The epistemological tradition set up by Plato has been permanently reading as a way of doing philosophy in which the dualisms: reality versus illusion, on the one hand, and individual versus the social, on the other, would present not only in an explicit and incommensurable opposition to modern co..
Numa época em que as transformações económicas, políticas e sociais têm vindo a criar à física (e às ciências em geral) um novo contexto de investigação, procuro dar conta do modo como estes novos desafios, que se estendem ao domínio filosófico e cultural, estão a ser encarados pelos cientistas. Num momento em que a "ciência de investigação" ("académica", "normal") sofre uma retracção face à expansão duma ciência "pós-normal", "pós-académica", e em que, ao lado da clivagem entre as "duas" culturas (científica (...) e humanística) uma "terceira", de face tecnológica se vai impondo, aponta-se o risco da concepção duma física "imune" à mudança cultural. /// I attempt to show how scientists are dealing with some new challenges coming from both the philosophical and the cultural domains, in the new context of research that is being created to physics (and indeed to sciences in general) by economical, political and social changes. Now that "research science" (" academic", "normal") becomes less important than a "post-normal", "postacademic" one, and in a time that besides the distinction between the "two" cultures (scientific and humanistic) a "third" one of technological nature is being generally accepted, the danger is shown of conceiving physics as "immune" to cultural change. (shrink)
El artículo se interroga acerca de las posibilidades de alcanzar arreglos institucionales, al menos en el “espacio de gobernanza y de democracia local”, que aproximen nuestras democracias liberales al horizonte normativo del republicanismo moderno. Un reciente trabajo de Pedro Ibarra Güell (2008) servirá de base para nuestras reflexiones. Se expondrán los dilemas a los que se enfrenta su propuesta de una “democracia relacional”, se precisarán las condiciones que ésta debe satisfacer y, a la luz de diversas observaciones empíricas, se juzgará (...) su plausibilidad. (shrink)