The current assessment of behaviors in the inventories to diagnose autism spectrum disorders (ASD) focus on observation and discrete categorizations. Behaviors require movements, yet measurements of physical movements are seldom included. Their inclusion however, could provide an objective characterization of behavior to help unveil interactions between the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Such interactions are critical for the development and maintenance of spontaneous autonomy, self-regulation and voluntary control. At present, current approaches cannot deal with the heterogeneous, dynamic and stochastic (...) nature of development. Accordingly, they leave no avenues for real-time or longitudinal assessments of change in a coping system continuously adapting and developing compensatory mechanisms. We offer a new unifying statistical framework to reveal re-afferent kinesthetic features of the individual with ASD. The new methodology is based on the non-stationary stochastic patterns of minute fluctuations (micro-movements) inherent to our natural actions. Such patterns of behavioral variability provide re-entrant sensory feedback contributing to the autonomous regulation and coordination of the motor output. From an early age, this feedback supports centrally driven volitional control and fluid, flexible transitions between intentional and spontaneous behaviors. We show that in ASD there is a disruption in the maturation of this form of proprioception. Despite this disturbance, each individual has unique adaptive compensatory capabilities that we can unveil and exploit to evoke faster and more accurate decisions. Measuring the kinesthetic re-afference in tandem with stimuli variations we can detect changes in their micro-movements indicative of a more predictive and reliable kinesthetic percept. Our methods address the heterogeneity of ASD with a personalized approach grounded in the inherent sensory-motor abilities that the individual has already developed. (shrink)
This paper studies in detail about the early years of José Gaos (1900- 1969) and his education in philosophy and literature. Therefore, we know that their studies (academic or not) were not purely “philosophical” in 1915. Literature and philosophy played in Gaos an equally important role. The first real encounter with philosophy happens before he comes to Valencia in 1915; but in this year Gaos also receives a strong education, in aesthetic and literary, through press and philosophical journals, and (...) especially within the group formed with Max Aub, José Medina Echeverría and his brother Carlos Gaos. (shrink)
El objetivo de este artículo es explicar las características básicas de la concepción aristotélica de la continuidad sostenida a lo largo de su Física. Tal como intentaré mostrar, es imposible comprender realmente qué entiende Aristóteles por “continuidad” si no se comienza por dilucidar la particular posición que tiene la continuidad junto a otros términos, dentro del marco de su teoría física, tales como “sucesión”, contigüidad” y “contacto”. En este punto, mostraré cómo una correcta aproximación a la noción de “continuidad” exige (...) especificar la relación, así como también la diferencia, entre “continuidad” y “contigüidad”, ya que no es del todo claro cómo debemos entender esta diferencia terminológica al interior de la física aristotélica. Luego, y finalmente, mi análisis se concentrará en examinar qué afirma Aristóteles en relación a la “continuidad” propiamente tal. Éste análisis, a su vez, aborda los conceptos más importantes de la teoría aristotélica de la continuidad y aborda, a su vez, el llamado carácter operativo de la concepción aristotélica del continuum.The aim of this paper is to explain the basic characteristics of Aristotle’s theory of continuity in his treatise on Physics. As I shall try to show, it is impossible to really understand what Aristotle means by the term ‘continuity’ unless we place it context with other significant terms he uses in developing the framework of his physical theory, for example: ‘succession’, ‘contiguity’ and ‘contact’. In addition, I will explain the importance of specifying particularly both the relation and difference between the terms ‘continuity’ and ‘contiguity’, since other commentators have placed a variety of interpretations on this terminological difference. Then, and finally, my analysis will concentrate on examining what Aristotle deduces from his theory of continuity. In conclusion, this analysis goes further than any other in detailing and explaining the most important concepts of Aristotle’s theory of continuity. (shrink)
Autism has been defined as a disorder of social cognition, interaction and communication where ritualistic, repetitive behaviors are commonly observed. But how should we understand the behavioral and cognitive differences that have been the main focus of so much autism research? Can high-level cognitive processes and behaviors be identified as the core issues people with autism face, or do these characteristics perhaps often rather reflect individual attempts to cope with underlying physiological issues? Much research presented in this volume will point (...) to the latter possibility, i.e. that people on the autism spectrum cope with issues at much lower physiological levels pertaining not only to Central Nervous Systems (CNS) function, but also to peripheral and autonomic systems (PNS, ANS) (Torres, Brincker, et al. 2013). The question that we pursue in this chapter is what might be fruitful ways of gaining objective measures of the large-scale systemic and heterogeneous effects of early atypical neurodevelopment; how to track their evolution over time and how to identify critical changes along the continuum of human development and aging. We suggest that the study of movement variability—very broadly conceived as including all minute fluctuations in bodily rhythms and their rates of change over time (coined micro-movements (Figure 1A-B) (Torres, Brincker, et al. 2013))—offers a uniquely valuable and entirely objectively quantifiable lens to better assess, understand and track not only autism but cognitive development and degeneration in general. This chapter presents the rationale firstly behind this focus on micro-movements and secondly behind the choice of specific kinds of data collection and statistical metrics as tools of analysis (Figure 1C). In brief the proposal is that the micro-movements (defined in Part I – Chapter 1), obtained using various time scales applied to different physiological data-types (Figure 1), contain information about layered influences and temporal adaptations, transformations and integrations across anatomically semi-independent subsystems that crosstalk and interact. Further, the notion of sensorimotor re-afference is used to highlight the fact that these layered micro-motions are sensed and that this sensory feedback plays a crucial role in the generation and control of movements in the first place. In other words, the measurements of various motoric and rhythmic variations provide an access point not only to the “motor systems”, but also access to much broader central and peripheral sensorimotor and regulatory systems. Lastly, we posit that this new lens can also be used to capture influences from systems of multiple entry points or collaborative control and regulation, such as those that emerge during dyadic social interactions. (shrink)
Compared to philosophers, the leading Latin American novelists, poets, and playwrights are relatively well known in the United States and many of their works are available in English translations. The Latin American philosophers, however, are an unknown quantity--not only to the reading public at large, but also to practically all U.S. philosophic and scholastic communities. Yet, Latin America contains a number of important original thinkers whose works would reward study here. Philosophical concepts developed in an ambient of young and not (...) yet fully-formed nations, without a long national cultural tradition of their own and struggling to overcome semi-primitive economic and political conditions, are bound to add some interesting dimensions to what is commonly called the "philosophy of the western world." This is particularly true when the philosophizers are distinguished--as they are in many cases--by a personal moral commitment to social and political involvement and activity. Jose Vasconcelos was such a figure. The volume under review gives us our first English summary of Vasconcelos' whole philosophical system: his metaphysics, his epistemology, his ethics and his aesthetics. It also ties in his social and political philosophy and some biographical details. The full impact of Vasconcelos' aesthetic monism comes through clearly, concisely and forcefully in nine carefully-chosen selections in the Appendix. It is to be hoped that this little volume portends a new trend toward making available in English the works of other outstanding Latin American philosophers.--H. B. (shrink)
Cholinergic-rich grafts have been shown to be effective in restoring maze-learning deficits in rats with lesions of the forebrain cholinergic projection system. However, the relevance of those studies to developing novel therapies for Alzheimer's disease is questioned.
Responding to recent concerns about the reliability of the published literature in psychology and other disciplines, we formed the X-Phi Replicability Project to estimate the reproducibility of experimental philosophy. Drawing on a representative sample of 40 x-phi studies published between 2003 and 2015, we enlisted 20 research teams across 8 countries to conduct a high-quality replication of each study in order to compare the results to the original published findings. We found that x-phi studies – as represented in our sample (...) – successfully replicated about 70% of the time. We discuss possible reasons for this relatively high replication rate in the field of experimental philosophy and offer suggestions for best research practices going forward. (shrink)
No two individuals with the autism diagnosis are ever the same—yet many practitioners and parents can recognize signs of ASD very rapidly with the naked eye. What, then, is this phenotype of autism that shows itself across such distinct clinical presentations and heterogeneous developments? The “signs” seem notoriously slippery and resistant to the behavioral threshold categories that make up current assessment tools. Part of the problem is that cognitive and behavioral “abilities” typically are theorized as high-level disembodied and modular functions—that (...) are assessed discretely (impaired, normal, enhanced) to define a spectral syndrome. Even as biology reminds us that organic developing bodies are not made up of independent switches, we remain often seduced by the simplicity of mechanistic and cognitive models. Developmental disorders such as autism have accordingly been theorized as due to different modular dysfunctions—typically of cortical origin, i.e., failures of “theory of mind” (Baron-Cohen et al., 1985), of the “mirror neuron system” (Ramachandran and Oberman, 2006), of “weak central coherence” (Happe and Frith, 2006) or of the balance of “empathizing” and “systemizing” (Baron-Cohen, 2009), just to list a few. -/- The broad array of autonomic (Ming et al., 2005; Cheshire, 2012) and sensorimotor (Damasio and Maurer, 1978; Maurer and Damasio, 1982; Donnellan and Leary, 1995; Leary and Hill, 1996; Donnellan and Leary, 2012; Donnellan et al., 2012) differences experienced and reported by people with autism have by such theories typically been sidelined as “co-morbidities,” possibly sharing genetic causes, but rendered as incidental and decisively behaviorally irrelevant symptoms—surely disconnected from cognition. But what if the development of cortically based mental processes and autonomous control relies on the complexities and proper function of the peripheral nervous systems? Through such an “embodied” lens the heterogeneous symptoms of autism invites new interpretations. We propose here that many behavioral-level findings can be re-defined as downstream effects of how developing nervous systems attempt to cope and adapt to the challenges of having various noisy, unpredictable, and unreliable peripheral inputs. (shrink)
The current rise of neurodevelopmental disorders poses a critical need to detect risk early in order to rapidly intervene. One of the tools pediatricians use to track development is the standard growth chart. The growth charts are somewhat limited in predicting possible neurodevelopmental issues. They rely on linear models and assumptions of normality for physical growth data – obscuring key statistical information about possible neurodevelopmental risk in growth data that actually has accelerated, non-linear rates-of-change and variability encompassing skewed distributions. Here, (...) we use new analytics to profile growth data from 36 newborn babies that were tracked longitudinally for 5 months. By switching to incremental (velocity-based) growth charts and combining these dynamic changes with underlying fluctuations in motor performance – as the transition from spontaneous random noise to a systematic signal – we demonstrate a method to detect very early stunting in the development of voluntary neuromotor control and to flag risk of neurodevelopmental derail. (shrink)
Most studies investigating the relationship between cultural constructs and ethical perception have focused on individual- and societal-level values without much attention to other type of cultural constructs such as social beliefs. In addition, we need to better understand how social beliefs are linked to ethical perception and the level of analysis at which social beliefs may best predict ethical perceptions. This research contributes to the cross-cultural ethical perception literature by examining the relationship of individual-level social cynicism belief, one of five (...) universally endorsed social beliefs, together with individual social dominance orientation and the perception of unethical behavior. By means of two studies, we examine these relationships across societies that significantly differ on societal-level social cynicism belief. Using 371 business students from Russia and the U.S. in Study 1 and 268 professionals from Portugal and the U.S. in Study 2, we found that individual-level social cynicism belief was positively associated with social dominance orientation. Social dominance orientation, in turn, mediated the relationship between individual social cynicism belief and the perception of unethical behavior. Although we found significant societal-level differences in social cynicism belief in both studies, the relationships between individual-level social cynicism belief, social dominance orientation, and the perception of unethical behavior were structurally equivalent across societies in both studies, suggesting that societal-level differences did not significantly affect these relationships. Implications for cross-cultural business ethics research and practice are discussed. (shrink)
We consider, from a physical perspective, the case where the interface between an organism and its environment becomes large enough that it acts as a buffer regulating their matter and energy exchanges. We illustrate the physiological and evolutionary role of buffers through the example of lungfish estivation. Then we ponder the relevance of buffers of this kind to the quest for a general definition of concepts like niche construction, the extended phenotype, and related ones, whose meaning is conveyed at present (...) mostly through particular examples. Finally, we comment on the potential significance of buffers to organism—environment codetermination in the sense originally suggested by Lewontin. (shrink)
Experimental high-energy and nuclear physics was created in Spain thanks to Joaquín Catalá de Alemany, who founded the Institute of Corpuscular Physics (IFIC) at the University of Valencia in 1950. The physics of photographic emulsions, cheap and easy to manipulate, were well adapted to the depressed situation in Spain following the Civil War. This essay describes how, using these techniques, Catalá de Alemany created a group, established links with international laboratories, and fostered a tradition that continues today.
O artigo debate o alcance da conceituação de ética no campo social e na área jurídica. Analisa as transformações sociais e políticas da sociedade capitalista mundial e as peculiaridades dos movimentos sociais e políticos do Brasil recente. Destaca como fundamental desafio ético do Direito, diante da prevalência da ideologia capitalista dominante a necessidade de aproximar o Direito da realidade social e garantir, no plano material, os direitos existentes no plano meramente formal. Debate a necessidade de formação dos agentes sociais e (...) profissionais do Direito na compreensão da emergência histórica e identidade dos novos direitos sociais. Destaca a premissa de que o futuro da humanidade depende do resultado do antagonismo entre dois sistemas: o sistema capitalista e o sistema dos direitos humanos. Afirma que a base ideológica da política criminal da intolerância é sustentada pelo discurso econômico-transnacional, que concebeu o movimento de Lei e Ordem, que estabelece uma política de guerra aos inimigos, selecionados das classes subalternizadas, e mantém a opção por um estado de exceção permanente. Considera que muitos juristas chegam a afirmar que a criminalização das condutas deve prevalecer na guerra contra as drogas, na preservação da vida, no enfrentamento do abortamento, na garantia da segurança individual e, ainda, no enfrentamento das questões relacionadas com o meio ambiente. Conclui que a nova postura pedagógica necessária deve ser o debate sobre valores, que tem como fundamento a dignidade humana, que se constitui no fundamento da vida ética. E o Direito não pode ignorar isso. A busca da felicidade dá sentido à existência humana. Mas não se trata da busca da felicidade individualista, que o sistema capitalista exorta. A felicidade há de ter um sentido social. Felicidade e alteridade, nesse sentido, são palavras que se aproximam tanto, na concepção da ética, que poderíamos considerá-las sinônimas. Com efeito, é preciso romper com o imobilismo e transformar o mundo, fazendo prevalecer os princípios do sistema dos direitos humanos. Esse é o compromisso Ético do Direito. (shrink)
A pesquisa que fundamenta este artigo investiga a eficácia dos cursos de formação em direitos humanos e controle de convencionalidade ministrados pela ENFAM e Escolas judiciais e verificar se os magistrados estão aplicando as normas de DDHH e realizando o controle de convencionalidade. A pesquisa apresenta resultados de um estudo sobre as sentenças proferidas em Campinas, de 2015 a 2019, verificando a abordagem ou referências feitas nessas decisões sobre “direitos humanos” e “controle de convencionalidade”. Foram verificadas todas as sentenças proferidas (...) em 33 varas judiciais. Os resultados indicam que as Escolas judiciais devem ampliar, intensificar e aprofundar o seu compromisso ético, estético e político de formação para garantir a dignidade humana e os direitos humanos no sistema jurisdicional. (shrink)
José-Antonio Orosco’s Toppling the Melting Pot: Immigration and Multiculturalism in American Pragmatism carefully documents an expansive history of US anti-immigrant rhetoric dating back to the late nineteenth century. Along with its historical tracing, this work contributes great depth to current debates on immigration.The book focuses on writers described as US American philosophers including Horace Kallen, Louis Adamic, W. E. B. Du Bois, Josiah Royce, Jane Addams, and Cesar Chavez. Their works are meant to deliver a pragmatic conceptual framework on (...) US immigration and interculturalism, a term Orosco favors against popular assimilatory values. Following this frame of analysis, Orosco explains the ways in which... (shrink)