Introduction: Empathy is a complex human experience that involves the subjective intersection of different individuals. In the context of nursing care in the geriatric setting, the benefits of empathetic relationships are directly related to the quality of the practice of nursing. Objective: Analyze scientific production on the benefits of empathy in the nurse–patient relationship in the geriatric care setting. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was performed using the PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases. The (...) articles retrieved were organized, evaluated, and classified based on the level of scientific evidence. Results: Relationships of empathy between nurses and older people were analyzed in quasi-experimental studies using different assessment tools, the majority of which had moderate levels of validity and reliability. Studies with a qualitative approach discussed the meaning of empathy in terms of the quality of care offered, compassion, and vulnerability. Discussion: Levels of empathy increase when activities are developed with the aim of teaching, sensitization, and training for relational care between nursing staff and older people. The analysis of empathetic relationships is important to the evaluation of the quality of care provided to older people. Conclusion: Empathy in the nurse–patient relationship in the geriatric care setting is an important ethical aspect that contributes to the quality of the practice of nursing. The present findings indicate the need for more robust assessment tools with adequate psychometric properties and the descriptive analysis of empathy. (shrink)
O processo de resposta do Teste Pictórico de Memória (TEPIC-M) classifica seus itens em três categorias sequenciais (céu, terra e água). Assim, aventou-se a hipótese que pessoas com uma familiaridade diária com o mar (Aracaju-grupo A) lembrariam mais desses itens quando comparadas com pessoas sem es..
En el artículo se exponen las ideas principales de Boaventura de Sousa Santos, extrapoladas de sus libros más representativos. Una breve introducción a su reflexión política y a su crítica sociológica; vale decir, se interpreta la razón estratégica y globlal del telos de la Modernidad; a la vez que,..
Este trabajo indaga las resemantizaciones del mito de Venus en tres poetas latinoamericanos: Julián del Casal, Rubén Darío y José Lezama Lima teniendo en cuenta la intertextualidad y las poéticas correspondientes. This paper analyses the Venus myth appropiation into the poetry of Julián del Casal, Rubén Darío and José Lezama Lima considering their poetry and intertextuality.
From 1912, Alejandro Korn and José Ingenieros began to publish articles that then would be part of their historical works, respectively, Influencias filosóficas en la evolución nacional and La evolución de las ideas argentinas. Therefore, they started to generate some discussion in reference to sections that they knew of each other's work. Being the first major works from a developing philosophical field about the history of Argentine thought, their authors sought to create cultural traditions to affirm their own academic, (...) cultural and political positions. Thus, they based their positions about their academic situation through their interventions in the debate on the evaluation of the various features of the intellectual past of the country and national identity during the academic professionalization of historical studies, and actively participated in discussions on the function of culture and philosophy in a national project. Yet, besides, in order to address their history of ideas, the two most important teachers of the philosophical sphere around 1918 tested very different methodological approaches that worked under different conceptions of philosophical and historical practice and two different ways of thinking the reception and circulation of ideas from Europe. (shrink)
As one tries to grasp love and its images within José Leonilson's production, a multiplicity of aspects and meanings are seen that also relate to Louise Bourgeois's oeuvre in regard to the interest in human relations. Through a comparative approach to both artists' poetics, an understanding is created that love is not a simplistic action and all the words read in or applied to their visual discourse must be considered within a wide range of love in visual and literary (...) images. Keywords: literature and visual arts / love / creativity / Bourgeois, Louise / Leonilson, José / word and image. (shrink)
Common notions of comparative philosophy tend to be strongly configured by the East-West axis. This essay suggests ways of seeing Latin American liberation philosophy as a form of comparative philosophy and an important Latin American thinker as being relevant for East-West political philosophy. The essay focuses on the Peruvian activist and intellectual, José Mariátegui, who is widely regarded to have been a leading Marxist, liberatory, and decolonial figure in 20th century Latin America. Like many “Third World” intellectuals of the (...) interwar years, Mariátegui had an interest in decolonization struggles in Asia and wrote with some consistency on this subject and in ways that bear significantly upon key themes in his political theory. Since very little of this has received commentary, this essay begins a discussion of Mariátegui's decolonial experimentation with ideas about Asia, decolonization, and indigenous cultural forms, like those of the Incas and Confucians. After some preliminary discussion of Euro.. (shrink)
This paper studies in detail about the early years of José Gaos (1900- 1969) and his education in philosophy and literature. Therefore, we know that their studies (academic or not) were not purely “philosophical” in 1915. Literature and philosophy played in Gaos an equally important role. The first real encounter with philosophy happens before he comes to Valencia in 1915; but in this year Gaos also receives a strong education, in aesthetic and literary, through press and philosophical journals, and (...) especially within the group formed with Max Aub, José Medina Echeverría and his brother Carlos Gaos. (shrink)
Summary The article deals with the political thought of the young Spanish philosopher and intellectual, José Ortega y Gasset (1883?1955). The main aim is to examine to what extent his political thought was articulated in a systematic manner, and to understand if it was meant to be practically implemented. Ortega's political thought has been described as liberal on the one hand, and anti-democratic and conservative on the other. The disparities regarding Ortega's politics usually arise from his declarations, which aimed (...) to confront the changing social and political situation in Spain. To many researchers, these declarations seem incoherent, evolutionary, or ideas that can be directly deduced from the evolution of his philosophical theory. The extent to which Ortega's political theory was systematic will be understood through focusing on the role designed for the Spanish intellectuals in Ortega's declarations and works. Instead of considering his political thought in relation to either his philosophy or the political events and changing circumstances in Spain, I will attempt to examine how, during the years of his youth, his political declarations were always guided by a consistent feature with a practical political purpose: to challenge the Spanish intellectuals to promote social awareness of and reflection on the country's problems, and to consider potential solutions to these problems. (shrink)
Desde su anónima irrupción en “Algo se aproxima” hasta su último avistamiento en La grande, Carlos Tomatis, personaje emblemático en la narrativa del argentino Juan José Saer, se erige como metáfora de la esterilidad posmoderna en la melancólica figura del escritor sin escritura. Sorna epigramática, desdén autosuficiente y fantasías punitivas configuran su carácter melancólico y pendular. Nuestro trabajo busca correlacionar su imposibilidad de capitalizar la experiencia en forma de narración con la escritura saereana, signada por destellos epifánicos y una (...) pulsión balbuceante que acaba, puntuación obsesiva mediante, por disolver la sintaxis. Si bien Tomatis y su troupe reproducen el tono hostil de los ensayos saereanos de los años 60 y 70 signados por el rechazo a la doxa literaria, en su prolífico discurrir Saer constituye la inversión especular de su héroe condenado al silencio. (shrink)
One of the most characteristic features of Comparative Literature in terms of methodological practice is that of operating in “in between” spaces. Not only does this feature suggest the comparative approach as something which originates through movement, thus making it imperative for the researcher to deal with the notion of mobility, it also characterizes many of the concepts with which it operates. Considering the possibility, as well as the fertility, of practicing this methodology in the analysis and critique of contemporary (...) visual art, we understand that it fits the analysis of any enterprise regarding the in-betweens of visual and verbal texts. These fundamental aspects were elected for a comparative analysis of two visuals artists whose œuvres operate in in-between spaces between the visual and the verbal as much as between the self and the Other. José Leonilson (Brazil 1957-1993) and Louise Bourgeois (France/EUA 1911-2010) reveal, through a comparative analysis, creative and constitutive actions which elaborate a space we could best understand through the image of a seaside landscape where the line we try to draw to divide the saltwater from the sand never stands. But, in what manners could the constituted poetic space created by them be of significance for a broader spectrum than the literary interest? In our understanding, Leonilson’s and Bourgeois’s poetics operate through a silent hearing of the Other, might that be their loved ones, the stone or cloths. This conceptual notion, required for the creative action, thus establishes a particular notion of balance between them and the Other. It is this precise aspect that also operates the mobility of the notion of love through their œuvre, and through the election of personal emotional narratives as the thriving force for creation. And what could be more needed nowadays, here as elsewhere, than considering together with Leonilson’s and Bourgeois’ images that love shall be the perpetual moving space that at times nears, and later distances us from each other? (shrink)
The following paper aims to show that the reception of José María Arguedas’most ambitious work, Todas las Sangres [Every Blood], and his suicide were the consequences of a generation that valued authenticity over sincerity. By making acritical analysis of the life and works of Argueda in the light of Lionel Trilling’s conceptsof “sincerity” and “authenticity”, the following paper concludes that Argueda’s natural sincerity might actually have been more complex and productive than the authenticity of his literary and academic peers.
"Aranguren: filosofía en la vida y vida en la filosofía" llevó por nombre la exposición sobre la figura y el legado de José Luis L. Aranguren (Ávila 1909- Madrid 1996) que pudo verse desde el 4 de junio al 26 de julio de 2009 en el Pabellón Transatlántico de la Residencia de Estudiantes de Madrid con ocasión del centenario del nacimiento del filósofo abulense.
José Ortega y Gasset not only expressed his views on subjects such as art or mass culture but he was also one of the promoters and founders of a United Europe which he considered a cultural unity. However, his view on the proper functioning of multicultural societies was as skeptical as his attitude towards the possibility of constructing an unified world that could be based on cultural coexistence of the Western World societies.
This paper seeks to show the proximity between the phenomenologicalreflection that Merleau-Ponty presents in the article “The War Has Taken Place”, and the stories of Jose Carlos Agüero, in his book, Los rendidos. From a phenomenological perspective, both authors describe the experience of pain, shame and forgiveness as the pursuit of freedom and justice. The text is divided into two parts. In the first part, we present discourses of justice which were established after the Peruvian armed conflict and the need (...) of exercising the phenomenological “epochè” in order to describe the feelings of terror and shame that underlie as background of this shared experience. In the second part, supported by Merleau Ponty’s concepts of intersubjectivity and historicity, we define freedom as the pursuit of justice, which can only be understood at the primordialaction of being in relation with others, from which we give meaning to the past. (shrink)
LEIBNIZ’S CONCEPT OF OPTIMISM IN THE INTERPRETATION OF JOSE ORTEGA Y GASSET The article aims to analyze the problem of Leibniz’s optimism in the interpretation of José Ortega y Gasset. His reflections on the philosophy of Leibniz are certainly characterized by originality and innovation. Ortega is trying to set Leibniz in modern times and show the influence of his intellectual ideas on the twentieth-century philosophy. For this purpose, the Spanish thinker evokes the most popular of Leibniz’s doctrines—the doctrine of (...) optimism. Keywords: LEIBNIZ, JOSE ORTEGA Y GASSET, THE DOCTRINE OF OPTIMISM Discipline: PHILOSOPHY. (shrink)
SPANISH: En el presente trabajo nos hemos propuesto la factura de una interpretación en torno a la idea de la filosofía, entendida como liberación del pensamiento, a partir justamente de la obra de José Gaos. Consideramos que esta posibilidad es viable en virtud de que en la obra de nuestro autor pueden localizarse por lo menos dos alusiones a este sentido de emancipación de la misma filosofía. La primera de éstas tiene que ver con el derrumbe del espíritu de (...) sistema como la forma y camino exclusivo del pensamiento filosófico. Asimismo, la segunda alusión de esta emancipación se ve satisfecha cuando mediante la hipostación de la conciencia histórica, el autor dibuja el horizonte para la liberación de la existencia individual y el pensamiento, so pretexto de una filosofía inmanentista. ENGLISH: The purpose of this paper is drawing an interpretation around the idea of philosophy understood as thought’s liberation, just based on the work of José Gaos. We think that this is possible because in our author’s work at least two mentions to this sense of emancipation of the philosophy can be found. The first one has to do with the collapse of the spirit of system as the only form and unique way of philosophical thinking. Likewise, the second mention to this emancipation is fulfilled when, through hypostatization of historical consciousness, the author sketches the horizon for the liberation of the individual existence and thinking, under the pretext of an immanentist philosophy. (shrink)
This paper argues that a principle manner in which Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset’s historicist maxim ’man has no nature, what he has is history’ can be understood is through a pragmatist basis of anti-dualism, in part inherited from American philosopher John Dewey. The thesis here is that it is not that man has no nature, per se, rather that history is his nature because the two are anti-dualistic concepts; history is our nature because it is comprised of, (...) as famously posited by Ortega, “myself and my circumstance”. Hence, neither philosopher negates that “preparedness”, or “nature”, influences our being and behavior, rather they are arguing, more importantly, that “plasticity”, or nurture, plays a greater role given that this encompasses “nature” when we relate Ortega’s application of “history” to Dewey’s use of “experience”. Our “experiences” create our history, and interpretations as to the nature of them are not only potentially infinite, but they are primarily just that - interpretations, which can also change over time. Hence what we truly are is our history. Although these two philosophers are not frequently linked, there is a clear connection in this basic, Deweyen pragmatist anti-dualism as an elder of Ortega. And even though Dewey, unlike Ortega, wrote little on specifically the discipline of history, much of it was indeed fundamentally historical. (shrink)
La universidad fue una invención europea y desde su origen en el siglo XIII ha tenido un papel decisivo en la formación de la Europa moderna y en su expansión al resto del mundo. Pero, a partir de 1945, Europa pierde su hegemonía y las universidades se globalizan. Además, en las cuatro últimas décadas se ha impuesto el neoliberalismo y, con él, el llamado capitalismo académico o educativo. En este artículo se hace un balance de las grandes transformaciones de la (...) institución universitaria y, siguiendo la inspiración de José Ortega y Gasset, Jacques Derrida y Boaventura de Sousa Santos, se esbozan algunas propuestas sobre el papel que debería desempeñar en el siglo XXI. (shrink)
1. Hume e a Magna Carta: em torno do círculo da justiça, Maria Isabel Limongi; 2. Hume e o problema da justificação da resistência ao governo, Stephanie Hamdan Zahreddine; 3 O surgimento dos costumes da sociedade comercial e as paixões do trabalho, Pedro Vianna da Costa e Faria; 4. O sentido da crença: suas funções epistêmicas e implicações para a teoria política de Hume, Lilian Piraine Laranja; 5. O Status do Fideísmo na Crítica de Hume à Religião Natural, Marília Côrtes (...) de Ferraz; 6. Da imaterialidade da alma: a desconstrução mais incisiva de Hume de um pressuposto metafísico, Marcos César Seneda; 7. A “irresistibilidade” e a “inevitabilidade” das crenças naturais e o caráter normativo da epistemologia de Hume, Claudiney José de Sousa; 8. Filosofia e vida comum na epistemologia de Hume, Marcos Fonseca Ribeiro Balieiro; 9. Hume e o relativismo moral, Flávio Zimmermann; 10. Hume e a vivacidade das crenças morais, André Luiz Olivier da Silva; 11. Virtudes sociais e refinamento na filosofia moral de David Hume, Andreh Sabino Ribeiro; 12. O movimento razão-crença na interpretação da teoria da motivação de Hume, Franco Nero Antunes Soares; 13. Sentimentos e Normatividade em David Hume segundo Annette Baier, Giovani Lunardi; 14. Simpatia e aprovação moral da justiça na filosofia de David Hume, Denize Carolina da Cunha & Nivaldo Machado; 15. Do eu como feixe de percepções ao eu das paixões: Hume e a identidade pessoal no Tratado, Susie Kovalczyk dos Santos; 16. Imaginação em Hobbes e Hume: cadeias mentais reguladas e princípios de associação, Andrea Cachel; 17. Hume e o princípio fundamental da filosofia moderna, Rafael Bittencourt Santos; 18. A conexão necessária entre Hume e Malebranche, Bruna Frascolla; 19. Realismo ontológico e antirrealismo epistemológico na problemática sobre o mundo externo em Hume, Leandro Hollanda; 20. Uma possível inversão kantiana da tese humeana da inércia da razão, Carlos Eduardo Moreno Pires; Nota sobre João Paulo Monteiro, Rolf Nelson Kuntz. (shrink)
After having presented briefly the life and work of José Ortega y Gasset, it is shown that it is human life as ultimate reality and meaning that predominates in his thought, and the various treatment that Ortega y Gasset makes of this notion is explained. Résumé: Après avoir présenté rapidement la vie et l'oeuvre de José Ortega y Gasset, l'A. montre que c'est la vie humaine qui prédomine dans sa pensée comme réalité et signification ultimes, et explique le (...) traitement varié que fait Ortega y Gasset de cette notion. (shrink)
RESUMEN El presente estudio está dirigido a establecer coincidencias entre el pensamiento de José Martí y de Carlos Marx en el terreno filosófico. Ambos representan los más altos exponentes del saber filosófico y humanista de la cultura europea y latinoamericana del siglo XIX, respectivamente, con un alcance genuinamente universal. No fue objetivo en modo alguno convertir a Martí en marxista, del mismo modo que sería absurdo afiliar a Marx a las ideas y las concepciones martianas. Sin embargo, no es (...) posible dejar de subrayar la profundidad del ideario martiano en el terreno filosófico, político, social y económico y sus aproximaciones a las concepciones marxistas o al socialismo científico. ABSTRACT The present study is directed to establish coincidences between the thought of José Martí and Carlos Marx in the philosophical area. Both are represented by the highest exponents of the philosophical and humanist knowledge of the European and Latin-American culture of the 19th century, respectively, with an authentically universal scope. It was not objective in any way to turn Martí into Marxist, in the same way that it would be absurd to affiliate Marx to the ideas and the Martí´s conceptions. Nevertheless, it is not possible to stop underlining the depth of the Martí´s ideology in the philosophical, political, social and economic area and his approaches to the Marxist conceptions or to the scientific socialism. (shrink)
A principios del siglo XX en gran parte de América Latina se comenzaron a suceder importantes fenómenos asociados a la incipiente urbanización e industrialización en los modos de vivir y trabajar, y junto a ellas se desataron crisis sociales, políticas y económicas que no terminaban de controlarse c..
This paper focuses on a crucial and insufficiently examined issue of the conflict between legality and legitimacy, seen as a key element in securing continuity and providing the intellectual justification of the Francoist regime. Without analyzing the tension between legality and legitimacy, it is impossible to comprehend and successfully dismantle the thesis of the regime's intellectuals, recently revitalized by revisionist historians, according to which Francoism succeeded in re-establishing historical continuity and political normalcy in Spanish society. In the context of the (...) Cold War, it was crucial for Spanish legal scholars to portray Francoism not as a bastion of anti-liberalism, but as a regime whose survival entailed an original interpretation of notions such as freedom, rule of law, sovereignty and authority. They argued that the significance of Francoism consisted not only in defeating liberalism in Spain but in offering an alternative interpretation of its main tenets. By aspiring to justify and overcome its own historical exceptionality, the Francoist regime sought to avoid the inevitability of its demise. By virtue of its failure to do so, Francoism remained outside the European political norm, to which only democratic Spain would be re-admitted. (shrink)
This pa per at tempts to look at read ing and all that this im plies, to some how find a view - point, such as a look at one self and through the eyes of one self, re gard ing one sit u a tion or an - other, one mat ter or an other. This view arises from ten sion be tween the text of fic tion a..