Behavior analysis emphasizes the study of overt animal (human and nonhuman) behavior as a subject matter in its own right. This paper provides a metaphysical foundation for such an emphasis via an elucidation of a thesis that I generically call "realism about behavior," where by "realism" I mean an assertion of mind-independent existence. The elucidation takes the form of a conceptual framework that combines a property-exemplification account of events with modal realism in the context of three opposing philosophies of mind: (...) property dualism, reductive physicalism, and type behaviorism. Each philosophy leads to the thesis that at least one possible world exists in which counterparts of all actual behavioral events occur and no counterpart of any actual "mental" (either nonphysical, neuro-mental, or behavioro-mental) event occurs. The third thesis is false because it violates the assumption that nothing can exist independently of itself, which leads to a rejection of type behaviorism. The other two theses provide the sought-after foundation through a counterfactual characterization of behavior qua behavior as a scientific subject matter. Its study thus becomes the study of behavior as if the nonphysical and the neural did not exist, even if they may factually exist and play a causal role in behavior. Some implications are discussed. (shrink)
Both the target article and the precommentary demonstrate that relatively simple biobehavioral processes have the cumulative effect of fostering behavioral outcomes characteristic of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As such, the articles illustrate a central theme of Darwinian thinking – basic processes acting over time can produce complex and diverse outcomes. In this commentary, we indicate that tracing the action of processes over time can be facilitated by quantitative methods such as artificial neural networks.
In their account of learning and behavior, the authors define an interactor as emitted behavior that operates on the environment, which excludes Pavlovian learning. A unified neural-network account of the operant-Pavlovian dichotomy favors interpreting neurons as interactors and synaptic efficacies as replicators. The latter interpretation implies that single-synapse change is inherently Lamarckian.
A new paradox of quantum mechanics has recently been proposed by an author claiming that any attempt to inject realism in physical theory is bound to lead to inconsistencies. In this paper we show that the mentioned paradox is not such a one and that at present there are no reasons to reject realism.
We present three different derivations of the transition probabilities to the continuum. It is shown that calculations, performed as a direct application of the postulates of orthodox quantum mechanics (OQM), do not yield results consistent with experiments. Traditional treatments are summarized and criticized. The relation of the transitions to the continuum with the traditional quantum measurement problem is pointed out; we sum up and comment some contributions concerning this issue. It is shown that an approach based on the notion of (...) spontaneous projections yields expressions of the transition probabilities similar to those obtained in the traditional way and new predictions which could be submitted to experimental tests. (shrink)
We assume, in the first place, that two kinds of processes occur in nature: the strictly continuous and causal ones, which are governed by the Schrödinger equation and those implying discontinuities, which are ruled by probability laws. In the second place, we adopt a postulate ensuring the statistical sense of conservation laws. These hypotheses allow us to state a rule telling, in principle, in which situations and to which vectors the system's state can collapse, and which are the corresponding probabilities. (...) The way our proposed approach works is illustrated with some examples and with the analysis of the measurement problem. We obtain the exponential decay law. A comparison with other attempts to solve the measurement problem is performed. (shrink)
A new interpretation of quantum theory is proposed. It coincides in a number of points with the orthodox interpretation, the main difference being that the projection of the state vector can occur without the intervention of any observer.
SILVA, Roberto Donizeti da. (Pós) Modernidade, Razão e Religião Cristã: o Pensamento de Zygmunt Bauman e José Maria Mardones. 2013. 98p. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências da Religião) - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte.
Potencialidades y Límites de la Democracia DigitalAgradezco la oportunidad que me brinda la Universidad Bolivariana de comentar, a modo de bienvenida, este libro sobre democracia digital. La obra constituye una oportuna contribución al quehacer académico, que pone a disposición del público un material intelectual variado, bien escogido y no siempre accesible. José Ignacio Porras y Rubén Araya nos entregan un conjunto de bien seleccionados artículos que, por su variedad, deben resultar atracti..