This article aims to review the standard objections to dualism and to argue that will either fail to convince someone committed to dualism or are flawed on independent grounds. I begin by presenting the taxonomy of metaphysical positions on concrete particulars as they relate to the dispute between materialists and dualists, and in particular substance dualism is defined. In the first section, several kinds of substance dualism are distinguished and the relevant varieties of this kind of dualism are selected. The (...) remaining sections are analyses of the standard objections to substance dualism : It is uninformative, has troubles accounting for soul individuation, causal pairing and interaction, violates laws of physics, is made implausible by the development of neuroscience and it postulates entities beyond necessity. I conclude that none of these objections is successful. (shrink)
Anthropogenic changes in the biosphere, driven mainly by human cultural habits and technological advances, are altering the direction of evolution on Earth, with ongoing and permanent changes modifying uncountable interactions between organisms, the environment, and humankind itself. While numerous species may go extinct, others will be favored due to strong human influences. The Bio-Evolutionary Anthropocene hypothesizes that directly or indirectly human-driven organisms, including alien species, hybrids, and genetically modified organisms, will have major roles in the evolution of life on Earth, (...) shifting the evolutionary pathways of all organisms through novel biological interactions in all habitats. We anticipate that, in future scenarios, novel organisms will be continuously created, and contemporary native organisms with no obvious economic use will decline—while anthropogenic-favored and novel organisms will spread. The Bio-Evolutionary Anthropocene hypothesis therefore predicts that humankind and novel organisms will interact within a strong evolutionary bias that will lead to unexpected, and probably irreversible, outcomes for the evolution of life on our planet. (shrink)
Esta pesquisa faz parte de um estudo que pretende investigar longitudinalmente a transição da conjugalidade para a parentalidade quanto ao ajustamento diádico e a satisfação conjugal de casais primíparos. O presente relato compreendeu os dados coletados na primeira medida e, portanto, se caracterizo..
O presente artigo, refletindo sobre relação entre Mistério Pascal de Cristo, Liturgia e vida cotidiana, objetiva apresentar a salvação operada por Cristo na liturgia como uma ação inesgotável e constante que extrapola a história e atinge a existência humana. Através da ação litúrgica, o mistério pascal, centro da liturgia, é atualizado e sua celebração é transformada em momento de salvação, recuperação e engajamento de quem dela participa. Considerando alguns números da Constituição Sacrosanctum Concilium sobre a Sagrada Liturgia, comentados por vários (...) teólogos, notaremos ser impossível, depois da encarnação do Filho, o divórcio entre a liturgia e a vida da humanidade assumida por Deus dentro da história na qual também a salva. (shrink)
O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar a concepção de liturgia de Medellín herdada da Sacrosanctum Concilium e atualizadas na Igreja da América Latina. Este percurso será feito partindo-se do contexto fundante de Medellín, passando pelos textos em que serão percebidos os elementos que dão a originalidade de aplicação da liturgia renovada através da 2ª Conferência. A atualidade de Medellín será apresentada pela herança do método ver-julgar-agir que marca a análise pastoral da Igreja latino-americana, pela pastoralidade dos seus documentos e (...) pela força da sua mensagem que ainda provoca questionamentos quando a pastoral não consegue responder às exigências da época vigente. (shrink)
The repercussions of the echoes of the Council of Trent , the Counter Reform movement, and the repercussions they had on the artistic production in the Catholic world. The pedagogical-didactic intents behind its composition are grounded on the belief that art could be an effective tool for reconverting of the faithful and for indoctrination in the values of the Catholic faith. Considering that, this paper aims at presenting the way allegory became an important tool for the interpretation and construction of (...) religious discourse, as we can see in the History of the Elected Pilgrim and his Brother Precito. The book is an allegorical narrative that presents the history of two pilgrim brothers born in Egypt from where they set out with the intention of making a fortune . In this way, the book presents continuity with the medieval pattern that highlights the journey, especially the path for salvation. The readiness of allegory to transmit abstract concepts through concrete visualizations allied to a form of indirect expression made it a powerful, didactic, apologetic, and entertaining tool for that time. (shrink)
Índice del número colectivo Minga-Mutirão de Revistas Latinoamericanas de Teología 2013, «A los 40 años de la Teología de la Liberación: balance y futuro» VIGIL, José Maria. Presentación . BARROS, Marcelo; VIGIL, José Maria. Anunciaron su muerte, ¡pero está bien viva! Teología de la Liberación 40 años: balance y perspectivas . SUSIN, Luiz Carlos, Secretario Executivo do Foro Mundial de Teologia e Libertação, Porto Alegre, Brasil, Teologia da Libertação: de onde viemos, para onde vamos? ALMEIDA, Antonio José (...) de , Teologia da Libertação e transições eclesiasis pendentes para o futuro. ARAGÃO, Gilbraz, Recife, Brasil, A Libertação se desdobra em diálogo. Teologia da Libertação e pluralismo religioso. BARROS, Marcelo, Recife, Brasil, Para una teología bolivariana de la Liberación. Teología de la Liberación y Patria Grande hoy . SCHIAVO, Luigi, San José, Costa Rica , Tiempos oscuros, tiempos de monstruos. Teología de la Liberación y nuevos desafíos culturales. OSORIO, Sergio, Bogotá, Colombia , Una nueva dimensión epistemológica para la teología. La Teología de la Liberación y el desafío epistemológico. RODRIGUES SILVA Marcos, Coordenador da Comissão de Teologia Afro da ASETT, Teologia Afro (ou Negra) da Libertação: balanço e perspectivas. TOMICHÁ, Roberto, Cochabamba, Bolivia, Teologías de la liberación indígenas. VÉLEZ, Consuelo, Coordinadora de la Comisión de Teología Feminista de la ASETT, Universidad Xaveriana, Bogotá, Colombia, Teología feminista latinoamericana de la Liberación: balance y futuro. KERBER, Guillermo : Teología de la liberación y movimiento ecuménico. CASTILLO, Jorge, panameño profesor de teología en la Universidad de Nijmegen, Holanda, Teología de la liberación y «cristianismo mundial». VIGIL, José María, Panamá, Panamá, Teología de la Liberación en camino hacia nuevos paradigmas. (shrink)
Introduction: Ethical conflict is a phenomenon that has been under study over the last three decades, especially the types moral dilemma and moral distress in the field of nursing care. However, ethical problems and their idiosyncrasies need to be further explored. Aim: The objectives of this study were, first, to obtain a transcultural Portuguese-language adaptation and validation of the Ethical Conflict Nursing Questionnaire–Critical Care Version and, second, to analyse Portuguese critical care nurses’ level of exposure to ethical conflict and its (...) characteristics. Methods: A cross-cultural validation and descriptive, prospective and correlational study. The sample was made for 184 critical care nurses in 2016. Ethical Considerations: The study was authorised by Bioethics Commission of the University of Barcelona, the Associaçâo de Apoio ao Serviço de Cuidados Intensivos do Centro Hospitalar do Porto and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Enfermagem de Saúde Mental. Findings: The Portuguese version of the Ethical Conflict Nursing Questionnaire–Critical Care Version was a valid and reliable instrument to measure exposure to conflict. Moral outrage was the most common type of conflict. The most problematic situations were the ineffectiveness of analgesic treatments, the administration of treatments considered futile and the mismanagement of resources. (shrink)
O presente artigo tenciona promover um debate entre Gadamer e Habermas, respectivamente partindo das obras La herencia de Europa e A inclusão do outro: estudos de teoria política, no que tange ao problema do multiculturalismo nas sociedades democráticas contemporâneas, uma vez que a partir da globalização econômica e homogeneização cultural surgem graves riscos de autoalienação por parte de certas comunidades e o desrespeito para com as diferenças culturais das minorias inatas. Os pensadores aqui estudados têm como proposta uma racionalidade alternativa (...) voltada ao diálogo solidário, bem como ao respeito intersubjetivo que deve ser constantemente motivado a partir da formação educacional dos sujeitos pertencentes às mais diferentes culturas e nacionalidades. (shrink)
O artigo debate o alcance da conceituação de ética no campo social e na área jurídica. Analisa as transformações sociais e políticas da sociedade capitalista mundial e as peculiaridades dos movimentos sociais e políticos do Brasil recente. Destaca como fundamental desafio ético do Direito, diante da prevalência da ideologia capitalista dominante a necessidade de aproximar o Direito da realidade social e garantir, no plano material, os direitos existentes no plano meramente formal. Debate a necessidade de formação dos agentes sociais e (...) profissionais do Direito na compreensão da emergência histórica e identidade dos novos direitos sociais. Destaca a premissa de que o futuro da humanidade depende do resultado do antagonismo entre dois sistemas: o sistema capitalista e o sistema dos direitos humanos. Afirma que a base ideológica da política criminal da intolerância é sustentada pelo discurso econômico-transnacional, que concebeu o movimento de Lei e Ordem, que estabelece uma política de guerra aos inimigos, selecionados das classes subalternizadas, e mantém a opção por um estado de exceção permanente. Considera que muitos juristas chegam a afirmar que a criminalização das condutas deve prevalecer na guerra contra as drogas, na preservação da vida, no enfrentamento do abortamento, na garantia da segurança individual e, ainda, no enfrentamento das questões relacionadas com o meio ambiente. Conclui que a nova postura pedagógica necessária deve ser o debate sobre valores, que tem como fundamento a dignidade humana, que se constitui no fundamento da vida ética. E o Direito não pode ignorar isso. A busca da felicidade dá sentido à existência humana. Mas não se trata da busca da felicidade individualista, que o sistema capitalista exorta. A felicidade há de ter um sentido social. Felicidade e alteridade, nesse sentido, são palavras que se aproximam tanto, na concepção da ética, que poderíamos considerá-las sinônimas. Com efeito, é preciso romper com o imobilismo e transformar o mundo, fazendo prevalecer os princípios do sistema dos direitos humanos. Esse é o compromisso Ético do Direito. (shrink)
From 1912, Alejandro Korn and José Ingenieros began to publish articles that then would be part of their historical works, respectively, Influencias filosóficas en la evolución nacional and La evolución de las ideas argentinas. Therefore, they started to generate some discussion in reference to sections that they knew of each other's work. Being the first major works from a developing philosophical field about the history of Argentine thought, their authors sought to create cultural traditions to affirm their own academic, (...) cultural and political positions. Thus, they based their positions about their academic situation through their interventions in the debate on the evaluation of the various features of the intellectual past of the country and national identity during the academic professionalization of historical studies, and actively participated in discussions on the function of culture and philosophy in a national project. Yet, besides, in order to address their history of ideas, the two most important teachers of the philosophical sphere around 1918 tested very different methodological approaches that worked under different conceptions of philosophical and historical practice and two different ways of thinking the reception and circulation of ideas from Europe. (shrink)
Common notions of comparative philosophy tend to be strongly configured by the East-West axis. This essay suggests ways of seeing Latin American liberation philosophy as a form of comparative philosophy and an important Latin American thinker as being relevant for East-West political philosophy. The essay focuses on the Peruvian activist and intellectual, José Mariátegui, who is widely regarded to have been a leading Marxist, liberatory, and decolonial figure in 20th century Latin America. Like many “Third World” intellectuals of the (...) interwar years, Mariátegui had an interest in decolonization struggles in Asia and wrote with some consistency on this subject and in ways that bear significantly upon key themes in his political theory. Since very little of this has received commentary, this essay begins a discussion of Mariátegui's decolonial experimentation with ideas about Asia, decolonization, and indigenous cultural forms, like those of the Incas and Confucians. After some preliminary discussion of Euro.. (shrink)
As one tries to grasp love and its images within José Leonilson's production, a multiplicity of aspects and meanings are seen that also relate to Louise Bourgeois's oeuvre in regard to the interest in human relations. Through a comparative approach to both artists' poetics, an understanding is created that love is not a simplistic action and all the words read in or applied to their visual discourse must be considered within a wide range of love in visual and literary (...) images. Keywords: literature and visual arts / love / creativity / Bourgeois, Louise / Leonilson, José / word and image. (shrink)
This paper studies in detail about the early years of José Gaos (1900- 1969) and his education in philosophy and literature. Therefore, we know that their studies (academic or not) were not purely “philosophical” in 1915. Literature and philosophy played in Gaos an equally important role. The first real encounter with philosophy happens before he comes to Valencia in 1915; but in this year Gaos also receives a strong education, in aesthetic and literary, through press and philosophical journals, and (...) especially within the group formed with Max Aub, José Medina Echeverría and his brother Carlos Gaos. (shrink)
Desde su anónima irrupción en “Algo se aproxima” hasta su último avistamiento en La grande, Carlos Tomatis, personaje emblemático en la narrativa del argentino Juan José Saer, se erige como metáfora de la esterilidad posmoderna en la melancólica figura del escritor sin escritura. Sorna epigramática, desdén autosuficiente y fantasías punitivas configuran su carácter melancólico y pendular. Nuestro trabajo busca correlacionar su imposibilidad de capitalizar la experiencia en forma de narración con la escritura saereana, signada por destellos epifánicos y una (...) pulsión balbuceante que acaba, puntuación obsesiva mediante, por disolver la sintaxis. Si bien Tomatis y su troupe reproducen el tono hostil de los ensayos saereanos de los años 60 y 70 signados por el rechazo a la doxa literaria, en su prolífico discurrir Saer constituye la inversión especular de su héroe condenado al silencio. (shrink)
Summary The article deals with the political thought of the young Spanish philosopher and intellectual, José Ortega y Gasset (1883?1955). The main aim is to examine to what extent his political thought was articulated in a systematic manner, and to understand if it was meant to be practically implemented. Ortega's political thought has been described as liberal on the one hand, and anti-democratic and conservative on the other. The disparities regarding Ortega's politics usually arise from his declarations, which aimed (...) to confront the changing social and political situation in Spain. To many researchers, these declarations seem incoherent, evolutionary, or ideas that can be directly deduced from the evolution of his philosophical theory. The extent to which Ortega's political theory was systematic will be understood through focusing on the role designed for the Spanish intellectuals in Ortega's declarations and works. Instead of considering his political thought in relation to either his philosophy or the political events and changing circumstances in Spain, I will attempt to examine how, during the years of his youth, his political declarations were always guided by a consistent feature with a practical political purpose: to challenge the Spanish intellectuals to promote social awareness of and reflection on the country's problems, and to consider potential solutions to these problems. (shrink)
En este texto se analiza cómo el filósofo español exiliado en México, José Gaos (1900- 1969), considera que la filosofía hispanoamericana, e incluso las propias tierras americanas, son lugares de una “utopía – aunque no ucronía-, debido a que tanto las tradiciones trascendente-religiosas como inmanente-filosóficas europeas han convertido a América, y como resultado final de una determinada filosofía de la historia, en lugar ideal del futuro del pensamiento filosófico –y, en última instancia, del hombre contemporáneo.
One of the most characteristic features of Comparative Literature in terms of methodological practice is that of operating in “in between” spaces. Not only does this feature suggest the comparative approach as something which originates through movement, thus making it imperative for the researcher to deal with the notion of mobility, it also characterizes many of the concepts with which it operates. Considering the possibility, as well as the fertility, of practicing this methodology in the analysis and critique of contemporary (...) visual art, we understand that it fits the analysis of any enterprise regarding the in-betweens of visual and verbal texts. These fundamental aspects were elected for a comparative analysis of two visuals artists whose œuvres operate in in-between spaces between the visual and the verbal as much as between the self and the Other. José Leonilson (Brazil 1957-1993) and Louise Bourgeois (France/EUA 1911-2010) reveal, through a comparative analysis, creative and constitutive actions which elaborate a space we could best understand through the image of a seaside landscape where the line we try to draw to divide the saltwater from the sand never stands. But, in what manners could the constituted poetic space created by them be of significance for a broader spectrum than the literary interest? In our understanding, Leonilson’s and Bourgeois’s poetics operate through a silent hearing of the Other, might that be their loved ones, the stone or cloths. This conceptual notion, required for the creative action, thus establishes a particular notion of balance between them and the Other. It is this precise aspect that also operates the mobility of the notion of love through their œuvre, and through the election of personal emotional narratives as the thriving force for creation. And what could be more needed nowadays, here as elsewhere, than considering together with Leonilson’s and Bourgeois’ images that love shall be the perpetual moving space that at times nears, and later distances us from each other? (shrink)
The following paper aims to show that the reception of José María Arguedas’most ambitious work, Todas las Sangres [Every Blood], and his suicide were the consequences of a generation that valued authenticity over sincerity. By making acritical analysis of the life and works of Argueda in the light of Lionel Trilling’s conceptsof “sincerity” and “authenticity”, the following paper concludes that Argueda’s natural sincerity might actually have been more complex and productive than the authenticity of his literary and academic peers.
"Aranguren: filosofía en la vida y vida en la filosofía" llevó por nombre la exposición sobre la figura y el legado de José Luis L. Aranguren (Ávila 1909- Madrid 1996) que pudo verse desde el 4 de junio al 26 de julio de 2009 en el Pabellón Transatlántico de la Residencia de Estudiantes de Madrid con ocasión del centenario del nacimiento del filósofo abulense.
This paper seeks to show the proximity between the phenomenologicalreflection that Merleau-Ponty presents in the article “The War Has Taken Place”, and the stories of Jose Carlos Agüero, in his book, Los rendidos. From a phenomenological perspective, both authors describe the experience of pain, shame and forgiveness as the pursuit of freedom and justice. The text is divided into two parts. In the first part, we present discourses of justice which were established after the Peruvian armed conflict and the need (...) of exercising the phenomenological “epochè” in order to describe the feelings of terror and shame that underlie as background of this shared experience. In the second part, supported by Merleau Ponty’s concepts of intersubjectivity and historicity, we define freedom as the pursuit of justice, which can only be understood at the primordialaction of being in relation with others, from which we give meaning to the past. (shrink)
José Ortega y Gasset not only expressed his views on subjects such as art or mass culture but he was also one of the promoters and founders of a United Europe which he considered a cultural unity. However, his view on the proper functioning of multicultural societies was as skeptical as his attitude towards the possibility of constructing an unified world that could be based on cultural coexistence of the Western World societies.
Looking to understand religiosity as a social factor, contributory of constructions of meaning and omnipresent in diverse historical and cultural universes, this article focuses on the ritualistic dimension of religiosity. Adopting as a research problem the religious pilgrimages, take particular note of the shrines as symbolic markers towards the supernatural. This work has a double aim: to carry out a review and critical analysis of the religious pilgrimages and to study the specificity of the pilgrimages to the Shrine of Fatima, (...) located in Portugal. After a brief mention of the dialectic dissidence-coexistence of ancient religious practices in secularized societies, the concepts of worship, rites and sacrifices are revisited. There follows a more in-depth analysis of the theme of pilgrimages to shrines, from the concept and historical review to the particularity of pilgrimages to the Shrine of Fatima, the latter viewed as a geo-symbol of religious tourism in Portugal. The results of a survey of 784 pilgrims to the Shrine of Fátima are presented, focusing on the beliefs, experiences, perceptions, purposes and expectations regarding the pilgrimage, as well as the nature of the requests addressed to the Lady of Fatima and promises fulfilled. Throughout the article the pilgrim character is emphasized, not neglecting the analysis of the active, voluntary and sacrificial behavioral implication as legitimating the benefits already granted or to be granted. (shrink)
SPANISH: En el presente trabajo nos hemos propuesto la factura de una interpretación en torno a la idea de la filosofía, entendida como liberación del pensamiento, a partir justamente de la obra de José Gaos. Consideramos que esta posibilidad es viable en virtud de que en la obra de nuestro autor pueden localizarse por lo menos dos alusiones a este sentido de emancipación de la misma filosofía. La primera de éstas tiene que ver con el derrumbe del espíritu de (...) sistema como la forma y camino exclusivo del pensamiento filosófico. Asimismo, la segunda alusión de esta emancipación se ve satisfecha cuando mediante la hipostación de la conciencia histórica, el autor dibuja el horizonte para la liberación de la existencia individual y el pensamiento, so pretexto de una filosofía inmanentista. ENGLISH: The purpose of this paper is drawing an interpretation around the idea of philosophy understood as thought’s liberation, just based on the work of José Gaos. We think that this is possible because in our author’s work at least two mentions to this sense of emancipation of the philosophy can be found. The first one has to do with the collapse of the spirit of system as the only form and unique way of philosophical thinking. Likewise, the second mention to this emancipation is fulfilled when, through hypostatization of historical consciousness, the author sketches the horizon for the liberation of the individual existence and thinking, under the pretext of an immanentist philosophy. (shrink)
LEIBNIZ’S CONCEPT OF OPTIMISM IN THE INTERPRETATION OF JOSE ORTEGA Y GASSET The article aims to analyze the problem of Leibniz’s optimism in the interpretation of José Ortega y Gasset. His reflections on the philosophy of Leibniz are certainly characterized by originality and innovation. Ortega is trying to set Leibniz in modern times and show the influence of his intellectual ideas on the twentieth-century philosophy. For this purpose, the Spanish thinker evokes the most popular of Leibniz’s doctrines—the doctrine of (...) optimism. Keywords: LEIBNIZ, JOSE ORTEGA Y GASSET, THE DOCTRINE OF OPTIMISM Discipline: PHILOSOPHY. (shrink)
: As relações que Wittgenstein mantém com o pensamento de Freud,como atestaram vários estudiosos, são marcadamente ambíguas: existe, por um lado, uma crítica acerba do caráter pseudocientífico com que a psicanálise apresenta supostas “descobertas empíricas”, e do fascínio exercido por este modo de proceder; mas há, por outro lado, evidências da sua admiração pelo efeito dissolvente do uso de metáforas e interpretações, chegando mesmo Wittgenstein a incorporar essa estratégia ao seu próprio método de investigação lógica dos conceitos filosóficos. Neste trabalho (...) pretendo retirar de uma reflexão acerca do método incorporado às Investigações Filosóficas, comparável em muitos aspectos à clínica de uma psicanálise lingüística dessubstancializada, alguns pontos positivos que se poderiam acrescentar à crítica da concepção de linguagem de Lacan. (shrink)
This paper argues that a principle manner in which Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset’s historicist maxim ’man has no nature, what he has is history’ can be understood is through a pragmatist basis of anti-dualism, in part inherited from American philosopher John Dewey. The thesis here is that it is not that man has no nature, per se, rather that history is his nature because the two are anti-dualistic concepts; history is our nature because it is comprised of, (...) as famously posited by Ortega, “myself and my circumstance”. Hence, neither philosopher negates that “preparedness”, or “nature”, influences our being and behavior, rather they are arguing, more importantly, that “plasticity”, or nurture, plays a greater role given that this encompasses “nature” when we relate Ortega’s application of “history” to Dewey’s use of “experience”. Our “experiences” create our history, and interpretations as to the nature of them are not only potentially infinite, but they are primarily just that - interpretations, which can also change over time. Hence what we truly are is our history. Although these two philosophers are not frequently linked, there is a clear connection in this basic, Deweyen pragmatist anti-dualism as an elder of Ortega. And even though Dewey, unlike Ortega, wrote little on specifically the discipline of history, much of it was indeed fundamentally historical. (shrink)