Modernity brought an impact on the Christian faith and these effects persist in Postmodernity. In the context of theology, the demand for a scientific answer for questions of modernity gave rise to research on the historical Jesus. There was an urgent need to know who is Jesus, how he lived and behaved, what his world or which words he pronounced in fact. That research was developed in distinct phases, revealing a plural understanding of Jesus. The current phase of the research (...) rediscovered Jesus as a Jew, inserted in culture and religion Jewish of his time. This has become an occasion for a return to the Jewish roots of Christianity, but also initiated a process of Judaization of the Christian faith. Badge of Judaization is the phenomenon of Messianic Judaism, currently spread worldwide. To emphasize the Jewishness of Jesus, Messianic Jews calls into question most of the Christians assertions, which developed over two millennia of Christianity, particularly, the understanding about the way of being and acting of the Messiah. (shrink)
O nosso objetivo é propor um diálogo entre Husserl e Heidegger relacionando-os a partir da crítica que estes filósofos apresentam à investigação de viés naturalista acerca do homem, predominante na tradição filosófica. Para Husserl, o domínio do naturalismo representa a influência da Psicologia Experimental na filosofia, Heidegger, por sua vez, destaca a temática antropológica encontrada na história da filosofia. De acordo com o primeiro, o “psicologismo” acarreta na redução do homem aos seus componentes empíricos, para o segundo, o “antropologismo” equivale (...) a um processo de coisificação do homem. O “psicologismo” e o “antropologismo” são reflexões inadequadas pois equiparam o homem ao objeto natural, isto é, são reflexões que não consideram o verdadeiro sentido de ser do homem, ignorando a consciência intencional e a existência. Logo, Husserl e Heidegger compartilham a tentativa de fazer a filosofia retornar sobre aquele âmbito que compõe propriamente o homem, ou seja, ambos filósofos defendem a desnaturalização da reflexão e desenvolvem a fenomenologia como o exercício de tal retorno. (shrink)
O presente artigo tem como objetivo mostrar a leitura heideggeriana da filosofia de Edmund Husserl a partir do tema da intuição categorial desenvolvida por este último e os seus desdobramentos na própria obra de Heidegger. Defendemos a hipótese de que ao retirar a consciência da sua abordagem tradicional, isto é, ao livrá-la do psicologismo, Husserl impulsiona Heidegger na inauguração da sua fenomenologia hermenêutica, pois a consciência deixa de ser tratada como um objeto natural e tem o seu caráter ideal destacado. (...) Desse modo, afirmamos que Heidegger, radicalizando, constrói uma interrogação que desloca o objeto da fenomenologia do campo da consciência para a existência, deixando a teoria do conhecimento, na qual se inseria Husserl, indo em direção de uma ontologia. Para tal, percorreremos por alguns conceitos centrais das Investigações Lógicas, passando em seguida para a análise dos poucos fragmentos onde Heidegger explicita a sua relação com a obra husserliana. (shrink)
As Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) enters the mainstream of professional and institutional investment practice, some perplexities arise. Some SRI market participants are well schooled in finance but are hesitative as to how to apply non-financial criteria in the management of portfolios. Governments too are giving SRI more attention and, in some countries, are discussion whether and how to regulate the SRI market. Advocacy groups are targeting SRI projects through media campaigns using political discourse. Many of the pertinent questions that come (...) with these perplexities are of the philosophical or ethical type and concern legitimisation, demarcation of responsibilities, interpretation of norms and policy formulation. The inclusion of non-financial criteria into investment decision-making leads to a 'puzzle in SRI' for which this article offers a solution. The puzzle arises when the day-to-day implementation of an SRIpolicy coincides with the process of administering justice. Three questions make up that puzzle: (1) what should an investor do when allegations arise about a corporation, (2) what should an investor do when a corporation is brought before a court, (3) what should an investor do when a corporation is found guilty by a court. This article argues, by distinguishing between the rationality of the investor and that of the judge, that allegations, court cases or court verdicts should not be reasons to disinvest from a corporation. This article offers examples from investor practice and points out in which way allegations, court cases and court verdicts make sense for investor behaviour. (shrink)
‘Stakeholder’ and related notions have been coined to enhance managerial practice in mainstream corporations. Currently, these notions are abundantly present in all kinds of discourses, especially those on ‘socially responsible investing’. But what kind of stakeholder management are these socially responsible investors promoting and what might be reasonable expectations about outcomes? We find that they promote an approach that has shareholder value as motivation and legitimisation and that they nowhere promote sharing of governance with stakeholders other than shareholders. We explain (...) why this might reasonably be expected. Besides mainstream investors and corporations, investing through co-operatively structured corporations differs regarding stakeholder positions with respect to the position of at least one stakeholder group, whether this be consumers, employees or producers. What are the implications thereof and are these investments then superior from a socially responsible perspective on investment? We find that co-operative investors meet their own set of difficulties in implementing stakeholder management. Our questions and findings enable us to formulate some critical remarks on the stakeholder-notion in both discourses and in general. We suggest that its use, if not halted altogether, should at least be restricted and substituted by the use of more specific notions. (shrink)
Professor Margaret Jo Osler of the University of Calgary, an historian of early modern science and philosophy (and a member of the Board of Directors of the Journal of the History of Philosophy since 2002) died on September 15, 2010. Born on November 27, 1942, she proudly proclaimed herself to be a "red diaper baby" and particularly delighted in telling her right-wing friends how her middle name was her parents' homage to Stalin. An energetic scholar with a vibrant and positive (...) personality, Maggie, as everyone who worked with her came to call her, never considered retirement and was actively working right up to her diagnosis with pancreatic cancer in early July, 2010.After graduating from Swarthmore College in .. (shrink)
Drawn from thousands of photos taken over fifteen years, We Animals illustrates and investigates animals in the human environment: whether they're being used for food, fashion and entertainment, or research, or are being rescued to spend their remaining years in sanctuaries. Award-winning photojournalist and animal advocate Jo-Anne McArthur provides a valuable lesson about our treatment of animals, makes animal industries visible and accountable, and widens our circle of compassion to include all sentient beings.
Jo Ann Boydston, 2 July 1924 - 25 January 2011Jo Ann Boydston enjoyed a distinguished career as general editor of the Collected Works of John Dewey and director of the Center for Dewey Studies at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. Born in Poteau, Oklahoma of Choctaw Indian heritage, she graduated summa cum laude from Oklahoma State University in 1944. She received an M.A. from Oklahoma State (1947), a Ph.D. from Columbia University (1950), and honorary doctorates from Indiana University (1994) and Southern (...) Illinois University (2004).In 1961, Boydston joined the staff of a modest research project at Southern Illinois University called "Co-operative Research on Dewey Publications" as assistant to project .. (shrink)
The basic assumption present in these articles is that naturalism is highly compatible with a wide range of relevant philosophical questions and that, regardless of the classical problems faced by the naturalist, the price paid in endorsing naturalism is lower than that paid by essentialist or supernaturalist theories. Yet, the reader will find a variety of approaches, from naturalism in Moral Philosophy and Epistemology to naturalism in the Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Mind and of the Aesthetics.
O objetivo desta publicação é incentivar a produção filosófica de excelência por parte de pesquisadores notadamente influenciados pela filosofia de Wittgenstein e cujos temas possam suscitar um debate aprofundado. Além de desafiar o empreendimento filosófico contemporâneo, os temas aqui apresentados abordam questões que muitas vezes estão além daquelas consideradas por Wittgenstein em seu tempo. O leitor encontrará neste volume questões relacionadas ao ceticismo semântico e epistêmico, ao relativismo ético, às leituras literárias de Wittgenstein, ao problema das outras mentes e percepção (...) de aspectos, a intersubjetividade e o caráter contrassensual do Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, e, também, relacionadas ao Paradoxo de Moore. (shrink)
Twenty years ago, Slobodan Milosevic uttered a sentence which was afterwards repeated in the literature about the Yugoslav tragedy innummerable times. The sentence "Niko ne sme da vas bije" was directed to the Serb demonstrators in Kosovo. In this text, the author analyzes the ways this sentence was translated in factional literature and shows that different versions, apart from being different lexically and semantically, influence the political interpretation and understanding of the Yugoslav conflict. This text poses another, maybe even more (...) important question: are unprecise and wrong translations of Milosevic's words a proof of what Georg Johannesen claimed - that faction is fiction.. Pre dvadeset godina Slobodan Milosevic je izgovorio jednu recenicu koja je ponavljana nebrojeno puta u literaturi o jugoslovenskoj tragediji. Ta recenica je izgovorena u neposrednom kontaktu sa demonstrantima srpske nacionalnosti na Kosovu i glasi "Niko ne sme da vas bije". U ovom tekstu autor istrazuje nacine na koje je ova recenica prevodjena u strucnoj literaturi i/ili faktivnoj prozi i pokazuje kako njene razlicite verzije, osim sto se odlikuju velikim jezickim i semantickim razlikama, usmeravaju politicko tumacenje i razumevanje jugoslovenskog konflikta. Ovim tekstom postavlja se jos jedno, mozda i vaznije pitanje: da li je neprecizno i pogresno navodjenje Milosevicevog iskaza potvrda onoga sto je o faktivnoj prozi i/ili strucnoj literaturi govorio Georg Johanesen - da se radi o izmisljanju - fikciji sklopljenoj od reci.. (shrink)
Neste artigo analisaremos como a filosofia de Charles Sanders Peirce influencia o pensamento de Karl-Otto Apel na elaboração da sua ética do discurso. Pretendemos mostrar que Apel compreende que Peirce elabora uma transformação da filosofia transcendental kantiana, substituindo o “eu penso” por um “eu argumento”, neste viés Peirce demonstrou a existência de um acordo mútuo intersubjetivo dentro da comunidade científica. Sendo que, este acordo é mediado pela linguagem, e se dá em função da garantia da verdade das proposições. Conclui-se que (...) Apel ver em Peirce a introdução de uma ética mínima que supera o solipsismo metódico, e se baseia na intersubjetividade, tornando possível um acordo mútuo, que mais tarde será a base para a fundamentação pragmático-transcendental da ética do discurso. (shrink)
Consistent with the planning–control model, recent fMRI data reveal that the inferior parietal lobe, the frontal lobes, and the basal ganglia are involved in motor planning. Inconsistent with the planning–control model, however, recent behavioral data reveal a spatial repulsion effect, indicating that the visual context surrounding the target can sometimes influence the on-line control of goal-directed action.
Reasoning about causation in fact is an essential element of attributing legal responsibility. Therefore, the automation of the attribution of legal responsibility requires a modelling effort aimed at the following: a thorough understanding of the relation between the legal concepts of responsibility and of causation in fact; a thorough understanding of the relation between causation in fact and the common sense concept of causation; and, finally, the specification of an ontology of the concepts that are minimally required for (automatic) common (...) sense reasoning about causation. This article offers a worked-out example of the indicated analysis. Such example consists of: a definition of the legal concept of responsibility (in terms of liability and accountability); a definition of the legal concept of causation in fact (in terms of the initiation of physical processes by an agent and of the provision of reasons and/or opportunities to other agents); CausatiOnt, an AI-like ontology of the common sense (causal) concepts that are minimally needed for reasoning about the legal concept of causation in fact (in particular, the concepts of category, dimension, object, agent, process, event and act). (shrink)
Computational machineries dedicated to the attribution of legal responsibility should be based on (or, make use of) a stack of definitions relating the notion of legal responsibility to a number of suitably chosen causal notions. This paper presents a general analysis of legal responsibility and of causation in fact based on Hart and Honoré’s work. Some physical aspects of causation in fact are then treated within the “lite” version of DOLCE foundational ontology written in OWL-DL, a standard description logic for (...) the Semantic Web. (shrink)