Interest in republicanism as a political theory has burgeoned in recent years, but its implications for the understanding of law have remained largely unexplored. Legal Republicanism is the first book to offer a comprehensive, critical survey of the potential for creating republican accounts of fundamental issues in law and legal theory.
El concepto de "comunidad" en Kant es mucho más complejo de lo que un pensamiento político apresurado nos sugiere. De las dos posibles acepciones que dicho concepto comporta, communio y commercium, referidas respectivamente a una comunidad sustancial predominante sobre el individuo y a una interacción recíproca entre individuos en sí mismos sustanciales, Kant se decanta por la segunda de ellas. Sin embargo, de ello no puede deducirse que la posición kantiana sea asimilable sin más a la de los defensores del (...) liberalismo, enfrentados a las posturas comunitaristas. Kant aspira también a la formación de una esfera de lo común en la cual quedarían englobadas las nociones de justicia, verdad, belleza y bondad. Sin embargo, dicha esfera común no preexiste a la interacción entre los individuos en el marco de la sociedad civil; por el contrario, se conforma a partir de los encuentros morales exitosos en ese mismo marco. La posición de Kant podría ser definida como un republicanismo crítico, que aspira a la formación de lazos de civilidad entre los ciudadanos al tiempo que somete a crítica las formas dogmáticas de expresión de la comunidad. Este tipo de comunidad dinámica de seres racionales establece sus nexos mediante la formación de un sentido común capaz de fundamentar los consensos, sin lo cual la racionalidad crítica sería una actividad puramente destructiva. Kant´s notion of community is more complex than what is suggested by a hasty political thought. In the alternative between the two possible meanings of this notion, communio and commercium , Kant advocates for the latter. However, we cannot deduce from this that the kantian stance should be equated without further ado with that of those who defend liberalism, as opposed to the communitarians. Kant aims also at the formation of a sphere of commonness which encompasses the concepts of justice, truth, beauty and the good. Nevertheless, such a sphere doesn't preexist to the interaction of individuals in the context of civil society; on the contrary, it springs from the successful moral encounters in that same context. Kant´s stance could be described as critical republicanism, one that aims at the formation of civil links among citizens at the same time that criticizes all forms of dogmatic expression of community. Such a type of dynamic community of rational beings establishes its links through the construction of a common sense able to lay the foundations of consent. Without this, critical rationality would be a purely destructive activity. (shrink)
Decision Theory and Rationality offers a challenging new interpretation of a key theoretical tool in the human and social sciences. This accessible book argues, contrary to orthodoxy in politics, economics, and management science, that decision theory cannot provide a theory of rationality.
Resumen: En este artículo reviso la interpretación de Eduardo Nicol de la teoría de la propiedad de Francisco Suárez. Para ello, presento la posición de Suárez acerca de la propiedad y la propiedad privada atendiendo dos cuestiones fundamentales. La primera es si la propiedad y la propiedad privada son derechos; la segunda es si ambos pertenecen a la naturaleza humana o no. Al final, argumento que la lectura de Nicol es insostenible, pues difícilmente puede admitirse que Suárez defendió algún tipo (...) de comunismo.: In this paper I revisit Eduardo Nicol’s interpretation of Suarez’s theory of property. To this purpose, I present Suárez’s account of property and private property focusing on two main aspects. The first is whether property and private property are rights; the second is whether they belong to the human nature or not. Finally, I argue that Nicol’s reading of Suárez is untenable for it can hardly be accepted that Suárez defended some kind of communism. (shrink)
The embedding and promotion of social change is faced with aparadoxical challenge. In order to mainstream an approach to socialchange such as responsible research and innovation and makeit into a practical reality rather than an abstract ideal, we need tohave conceptual clarity and empirical evidence. But, in order to beable to gather empirical evidence, we have to presuppose that theapproach already exists in practice. This paper proposes a social labmethodology that is suited to deal with this circularity. Themethodology combines the (...) defining features of social labs emergingfrom the literature such as agility and real-world focus withestablished theories and approaches such as action research andexperiential learning. Thereby it enables the parallel investigationand propagation of RRI. The framework thus constructed provides atheoretical embedding of sociallabs and overcomes some of theknown limitations of the constitutive approaches. (shrink)
Increasingly, contemporary medical ethicists have become aware of the need to explicate a foundation for their various models of applied ethics. Many of these theories are inspired by the apparent incompatibility of patient autonomy and provider beneficence. The principle of patient autonomy derives its current primacy to a large extent from its legal origins. However, this principle seems at odds with the clinical reality. In the bioethical literature, the notion of authenticity has been proposed as an alternative foundational principle to (...) autonomy. This article examines this proposal in reference to various existentialist philosophers (Heidegger, Sartre, Camus and Marcel). It is concluded that the principle of autonomy fails to do what it is commonly supposed to do: provide a criterion of distinction that can be invoked to settle moral controversies between patients and providers. The existentialist concept of authenticity is more promising in at least one crucial respect: It acknowledges that the essence of human life disappears from sight if life's temporal character is reduced to a series of present decisions and actions. This also implies that the very quest for a criterion that allows physicians to distinguish between sudden, unexpected decisions of their patients to be or not to be respected, without recourse to the patient's past or future, is erroneous. (shrink)
ANDREO, Igor Luis. Teologia da libertação e cultura política maia chiapaneca: O Congresso Indígena de 1974 e as raízes do Exército Zapatista de Libertação Nacional. São Paulo: Alameda, 2013, 313p. ISBN: 978 85 7216 618-8.
Source: "This book addresses the fundamentals of machine ethics. It discusses abilities required for ethical machine reasoning and the programming features that enable them. It connects ethics, psychological ethical processes, and machine implemented procedures. From a technical point of view, the book uses logic programming and evolutionary game theory to model and link the individual and collective moral realms. It also reports on the results of experiments performed using several model implementations. Opening specific and promising inroads into the terra incognita (...) of machine ethics, the authors define here new tools and describe a variety of program-tested moral applications and implemented systems. In addition, they provide alternative readings paths, allowing readers to best focus on their specific interests and to explore the concepts at different levels of detail. Mainly written for researchers in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, robotics, philosophy of technology and engineering of ethics, the book will also be of general interest to other academics, undergraduates in search of research topics, science journalists as well as science and society forums, legislators and military organizations concerned with machine ethics.". (shrink)
The principle of maximum entropy is a general method to assign values to probability distributions on the basis of partial information. This principle, introduced by Jaynes in 1957, forms an extension of the classical principle of insufficient reason. It has been further generalized, both in mathematical formulation and in intended scope, into the principle of maximum relative entropy or of minimum information. It has been claimed that these principles are singled out as unique methods of statistical inference that agree with (...) certain compelling consistency requirements. This paper reviews these consistency arguments and the surrounding controversy. It is shown that the uniqueness proofs are flawed, or rest on unreasonably strong assumptions. A more general class of inference rules, maximizing the so-called Re[acute ]nyi entropies, is exhibited which also fulfill the reasonable part of the consistency assumptions. (shrink)
Computational machineries dedicated to the attribution of legal responsibility should be based on (or, make use of) a stack of definitions relating the notion of legal responsibility to a number of suitably chosen causal notions. This paper presents a general analysis of legal responsibility and of causation in fact based on Hart and Honoré’s work. Some physical aspects of causation in fact are then treated within the “lite” version of DOLCE foundational ontology written in OWL-DL, a standard description logic for (...) the Semantic Web. (shrink)
Este ensayo muestra la diferencia entre neoliberalismo y ordoliberalismo a partir de las raíces weberianas del segundo movimiento. Decisivas en este sentido son las críticas de Weber a los ideales-tipo de las abstracciones económicas clásicas y las necesarias determinaciones desde los "hombres vivientes". Para identificar estas raíces el ensayo usa tanto de las reflexiones de Weber como de las aportaciones decisivas de Foucault en "El nacimiento de la biopolítica".
In _Michael Polanyi and His Generation_, Mary Jo Nye investigates the role that Michael Polanyi and several of his contemporaries played in the emergence of the social turn in the philosophy of science. This turn involved seeing science as a socially based enterprise that does not rely on empiricism and reason alone but on social communities, behavioral norms, and personal commitments. Nye argues that the roots of the social turn are to be found in the scientific culture and political events (...) of Europe in the 1930s, when scientific intellectuals struggled to defend the universal status of scientific knowledge and to justify public support for science in an era of economic catastrophe, Stalinism and Fascism, and increased demands for applications of science to industry and social welfare. At the center of this struggle was Polanyi, who Nye contends was one of the first advocates of this new conception of science. Nye reconstructs Polanyi’s scientific and political milieus in Budapest, Berlin, and Manchester from the 1910s to the 1950s and explains how he and other natural scientists and social scientists of his generation—including J. D. Bernal, Ludwik Fleck, Karl Mannheim, and Robert K. Merton—and the next, such as Thomas Kuhn, forged a politically charged philosophy of science, one that newly emphasized the social construction of science. (shrink)
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