La primera parte del presente estudio (J.M. Panea) aborda el pensamiento de Giambattista Vico en torno a conceptos como utopía, historia y deber; y muestra cómo Vico nos abre a una concepción trágica de la acción. La segunda parte (F.H. Llano) pretende realizar, desde un marco iusfilosófico, un análisis introspectivo que ponga de manifiesto los principales hitos y fundamentos del pensamiento jurídico viquiano, destacando en particular aquellos aspectos que, por su incidencia en la actual Teoría del Derecho, presentan un (...) mayor interés científico. (shrink)
Nos proponemos en este artículo analizar la lectura foucaultiana del Edipo Rey. Foucault se centra fundamentalmente en la relación entre saber y poder. Su lectura nos ofrece una interesante concepción simbólica de la verdad, cuyo desvelamiento seguiría las pautas de lo que Foucault llama “ley de las mitades”. El modo y los tiempos en que aparecen los diferentes fragmentos de la verdad, serán el centro de gravedad de su interpretación, esencialmente política. Proponemos, no obstante, ir un poco más allá de (...) tan sugerente enfoque, reflexionando sobre las diferentes voces y perspectivas del texto, y preguntándonos, más allá del mero alcance político de la obra, por la voz del poeta, su posible significado filosófico, no sólo para los ciudadanos de su tiempo, sino también para nosotros. (shrink)
Precariousness is a concept which fundamentally refers to a lack of means. Thereafter, its nature is protean: it appears in multifarious aspects. But all of them share concepts such as scarcity, weakness, frailty, or vulnerability. At the political level, if we talk about democracy, or about the crisis of democracy, it would also be necessary to uncover, from its root, a process of progressive precarization of political life, with huge consequences for citizenry. My view is that these problems would, in (...) turn, stem from a deeper cause, which could be summarized under the following formula: democracy without citizens. (shrink)
El objeto de este artículo es examinar las relaciones entre ‘utilidad’, universalidad’, ‘razón’ y ‘sentimientos de humanidad’ en el contexto de la filosofía moral de D. Hume. No hay utilidad per se; sostenemos que no podemos entender la utilidad humeana sin hablar de los ‘sentimientos de humanidad’.
La intención de este artículo es destacar la importancia de Cervantes en Aranguren. El filósofo español interpreta el pensamiento del Quijote centrándose en la relevancia del héroe y su importancia para la moral, como una referencia crítica y ejemplar en tiempos de crisis y desánimo como los de Cervantes y los nuestros.
El trabajo presenta las distintas actividades científicas que con motivo del cuarto centenario del fallecimiento de Francisco Suárez se han celebrado y se han organizado durante el año 2017 o el curso académico 2017-18. En las iniciativas presentadas se advierte la vigencia de la reflexión suareciana, no sólo por su relevancia histórica, sino también como un pensamiento con el que poder replantear los retos de nuestra situación contemporánea.
ABSTRACT:We examine whether religion influences company decisions related to corporate community involvement. Employing a large US sample, we show that the CCI initiatives of a company are positively associated with the level of Christian religiosity present in the region within which that company’s headquarters is located. This association persists even after we control for a wide range of firm characteristics and after we subject our results to several econometric tests. These results support our religious morality hypothesis which holds that companies (...) headquartered in regions with higher levels of Christian religiosity will engage in more CCI initiatives. We also find that while Catholic and mainline Protestant religiosity have a positive influence on firms’ CCI initiatives, evangelical Protestant religiosity does not. This supports our differentiated responses hypothesis which holds that institutional differences among religious groups will produce different effects on companies’ CCI. This hypothesis is based on institutional theory. (shrink)
The issue of management’s relations to the environment has received a significant amount of attention in the literature on corporate social responsibility. Yet the influence of religion on managers’ environmental decisions has until now remained unexamined despite its known importance. In this article, we examine the empirical association between religion—primarily Christianity—and the environmental practices a firm’s management undertakes by investigating their OLS, principal component, simultaneous, and endogenous effects. Employing a large and extensive U.S. sample, we find a negative association between (...) the environmental practices initiated by a firm’s managers and the religiosity of the surrounding community, after controlling for various firm and demographic characteristics. In addition, after mitigating endogeneity with the dynamic system generalized method of moment, we still find an inverse association between religiosity and environmental-friendly decisions of management. We interpret these results as providing some support for the “dominion hypothesis” that claims Christian beliefs discourage environmental concern, but not for the “stewardship hypothesis” that implies that Christianity encourages people to “exercise a responsible stewardship over nature.” Nevertheless, additional analysis shows Christian groups differ significantly in how each influences managers’ environmental decisions. (shrink)
The World Bank recently noted: “Social license to operate has traditionally referred to the conduct of firms with regard to the impact on local communities and the environment, but the definition has expanded in recent years to include issues related to worker and human rights”. In this paper, we examine a factor that can influence the kind of work conditions that can facilitate or obstruct a firm’s attempts to achieve the social license to operate. Specifically, we examine the empirical association (...) between a company’s employee practices and the religiosity of its local community by investigating their fixed and endogenous effects. Using a large and extensive U.S. sample, we find a positive association between the “employee friendly” practices of a firm and the religiosity of the local community after controlling for several firm characteristics. In addition, after mitigating endogeneity with the dynamic panel system generalized method of moment and after employing several other econometric tests, we still find a robust positive association between the religiosity of the local community and employee-friendly practices. Since recent research has shown that the firm’s treatment of its stakeholders is a key to achieving an SLO, and since employees constitute a highly significant stakeholder group, we interpret our results as supporting the view that religion is an important influence on the kinds of employee practices that can increase the likelihood that a firm will acquire the SLO. (shrink)
The legalization of euthanasia, both in the Netherlands and in other countries is usually justified in reference to the right to autonomy of patients. Utilizing recent Dutch jurisprudence, this article intends to show that the judicial proceedings on euthanasia in the Netherlands have not so much enhanced the autonomy of patients, as the autonomy of the medical profession. Keywords: allowing to die, criminal law, euthanasia, law enforcement, legal aspects, legislation, medical ethics, medical profession, self determination, the Netherlands, voluntary euthanasia, withholding (...) treatment CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
In order to protect patients against medical paternalism, patients have been granted the right to respect of their autonomy. This right is operationalized first and foremost through the phenomenon of informed consent. If the patient withholds consent, medical treatment, including life-saving treatment, may not be provided. However, there is one proviso: The patient must be competent to realize his autonomy and reach a decision about his own care that reflects that autonomy. Since one of the most important patient rights hinges (...) on the patient's competence, it is crucially important that patient decision making incompetence is clearly defined and can be diagnosed with the greatest possible degree of sensitivity and, even more important, specificity. Unfortunately, the reality is quite different. There is little consensus in the scientific literature and even less among clinicians and in the law as to what competence exactly means, let alone how it can be diagnosed reliably. And yet, patients are deemed incompetent on a daily basis, losing the right to respect of their autonomy. In this article, we set out to fill that hiatus by beginning at the very beginning, the literal meaning of the term competence. We suggest a generic definition of competence and derive four necessary conditions of competence. We then transpose this definition to the health care context and discuss patient decision making competence. (shrink)
Increasingly, contemporary medical ethicists have become aware of the need to explicate a foundation for their various models of applied ethics. Many of these theories are inspired by the apparent incompatibility of patient autonomy and provider beneficence. The principle of patient autonomy derives its current primacy to a large extent from its legal origins. However, this principle seems at odds with the clinical reality. In the bioethical literature, the notion of authenticity has been proposed as an alternative foundational principle to (...) autonomy. This article examines this proposal in reference to various existentialist philosophers (Heidegger, Sartre, Camus and Marcel). It is concluded that the principle of autonomy fails to do what it is commonly supposed to do: provide a criterion of distinction that can be invoked to settle moral controversies between patients and providers. The existentialist concept of authenticity is more promising in at least one crucial respect: It acknowledges that the essence of human life disappears from sight if life's temporal character is reduced to a series of present decisions and actions. This also implies that the very quest for a criterion that allows physicians to distinguish between sudden, unexpected decisions of their patients to be or not to be respected, without recourse to the patient's past or future, is erroneous. (shrink)
Workforce diversity has received increasing amounts of attention from academics and practitioners alike. In this article, we examine the empirical association between a firm’s workforce diversity and the degree of religiosity of the firm’s management by investigating their unidirectional and endogenous effects. Employing a large and extensive U.S. sample of firms from the years 1991–2010, we find a positive association between a measure of the firm’s commitment to diversity and the religiosity of the firm’s management after controlling for various firm (...) characteristics. In addition, after controlling for endogeneity with the dynamic panel generalized method of moment, we still find a positive association between the firm’s diversity and management’s religiosity. We interpret these results as supportive of the religious motivation explanation that views the firm as a human community and considers religion as a factor that influences managers to more positively embrace diversity. Our results, however, provide no support for the resource-constraint hypothesis that views the firm as a nexus of contracts and sees managers as aiming to maximize shareholder returns under resource constraints that force them to invest only in projects that have a positive net present value and reject diversity initiatives since these do not have a positive NPV. (shrink)
RESUMENEl objetivo de este artículo es analizar las relaciones entre Moral y Política en el pensamiento de Hobbes. En nuestra opinión, Hobbes no fue un pesimista antropológico, sino un buen conocedor del hombre y de sus posibilidades, Por ello, fue un decidido defensor de la razón práctica, cuyo concepto se construye sin perder de vista a los otros, tanto en la acción moral como en la política.PALABRAS CLAVEHOBBES-MORAL-POLÍTICA-RAZÓN PRÁCTICAABSTRACTThe aim of this paper is to examine the relation between morals and (...) polithics in the thought of Thomas Hobbes. My point is that Hoobes was not an anthropological pessimist, buy a deep thinker of man and his possibilities. Therefore, he was a etermined defender of practical reason, the concepto f wich is baed upon the experience of human interaction, both moral and political.KEYWORDSHOBBES- MORALS-POLITICS-PRACTICAL, REASON. (shrink)
El presente ensayo aborda el problema filosófico de la muerte en Antonio Machado, tanto en su poesía como en su prosa. No compartimos la tesis de que Machado arribó a la filosofía al decaer como poeta. La inquietud filosófica de Machado le acompaña desde sus primeros poemas. Y el tema de la muerte es un buen ejemplo. Analizaremos principalmente su poesía, estableciendo conexiones con su pensamiento filosófico en prosa. Por todo ello, no nos extrañará el feliz encuentro con la filosofía (...) de Heidegger en los años treinta. Igualmente, Unamuno nos servirá para comprender el pensamiento filosófico de Machado, estableciendo entre ambos una comparación en torno al tema que nos ocupa. (shrink)
Juan Luis Vives reflexionó sobre el tema de la pobreza como un problema de justicia personal y social. El abandono en el que vivían los pobres, cuyo número iba en aumento en pleno siglo XVI, plantea no sólo problemas de orden social, sino también moral y religioso. Reflexionar sobre dicho asunto le ofrece a Vives la oportunidad para realizar una fuerte crítica, no sólo de aquellos que detentan el poder político y religioso, sino también para exigir un cambio de actitud, (...) en el plano individual e institucional, y una reflexión sobre la propia esencia del cristianismo. Por todo ello, Vives ofrece no sólo un conjunto de medidas concretas para tratar de afrontar dicho problema, sino también un amplio abanico de razones morales y religiosas, con las que será muy difícil poder negar nuestra responsabilidad para con los pobres, a la vez que nos exhorta a que hagamos frente común contra la pobreza. (shrink)
Cómo pueden las emociones favorecer una sociedad democrática más justa y estable? En tal sentido, es necesario preguntarse por el papel que han de jugar las Humanidades, para dar viabilidad y continuidad a tal proyecto. El presente artículo se cen-tra en el análisis de dos tragedias de Sófocles, Áyax y Filoctetes. A través de sus obras, Sófocles propone una revisión crítica de la moral agonal del héroe. Es preciso desplazar la mirada desde el campo de batalla a la pólis. Por (...) ello se necesita un nuevo ciudadano, y repensar conceptos como los de venganza, crueldad, honor, justicia, compasión. Las trage-dias cumplen así una función doble: cuestionar la moral tradicional, revisando el presente, y modificar las emociones y pensamientos de los espectadores. A través de sus tragedias, Sófocles nos propondrá un humanismo cívico, donde la libertad y la responsabilidad han de ejercerse en un contexto de interacciones personales, sabiendo que es imposible tener todo bajo control. Por ello, irremediablemente surgirán conflictos trágicos, que habrá que abordar desde su complejidad, apelando a la moderación y a la prudencia, desde la plena conciencia de nuestra humana finitud y vulnerabilidad. (shrink)
In the literature three mechanisms are commonly distinguished to make decisions about the care of incompetent patients: A living will, a substituted judgment by a surrogate (who may or may not hold the power of attorney ), and a best interest judgment. Almost universally, the third mechanism is deemed the worst possible of the three, to be invoked only when the former two are unavailable. In this article, I argue in favor of best interest judgments. The evermore common aversion of (...) best interest judgments entails a risk that health care providers withdraw from the decision-making process, abandoning patients (or their family members) to these most difficult of decisions about life and death. My approach in this article is primarily negative, that is, I criticize the alleged superiority of the living will and substituted judgment. The latter two mechanisms gain their alleged superiority because they are supposedly morally neutral, whereas the best interest judgment entails a value judgment on behalf of the patient. I argue that on closer inspection living wills and substituted judgments are not morally neutral; indeed, they generally rely on best interest judgments, even if those are not made explicit. (shrink)
This article provides a summary overview of the ideas on medical anthropology and anthropological medicine of the German philosopher-psychiatrist Viktor Emil von Gebsattel (1883–1974), and discusses in more detail his views on the doctor-patient relationship. It is argued that Von Gebsattel''s warning against a dehumanization of medicine when the person of both patient and physician are not explicitly present in their relationship remains valid notwithstanding the modern emphasis on respect for patient (and provider) autonomy.
This paper seeks to define and delimit the scope of the social responsibilities of health professionals in reference to the concept of a social contract. While drawing on both historical data and current empirical information, this paper will primarily proceed analytically and examine the theoretical feasibility of deriving social responsibilities from the phenomenon of professionalism via the concept of a social contract.
This article examines whether cosmetic interventions by dentists and plastic surgeons are medically indicated and, hence, qualify as medical interventions proper. Cosmetic interventions (and the business strategies used to market them) are often frowned upon by dentists and physicians. However, if those interventions do not qualify as medical interventions proper, they should not be evaluated using medical-ethical norms. On the other hand, if they are to be considered medical practice proper, the medical-ethical principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice and others hold (...) true for cosmetic interventions as much as they do for other medical and dental interventions. It is concluded that most cosmetic interventions do not qualify as medical interventions proper because they do not restore or maintain the patient's health (defined as the patient's integrity) by any objective standards. Rather, cosmetic interventions are intended to enhance a person's physical appearance; more specifically, they intend to fulfill the client's subjective perception of an enhanced appearance. (shrink)
This bibliographical study involved first the exploitation of four data-banks: Medline, CNRS, Bioethics and AIDS, with the following key words (in conjunction with AIDS): ethics, human rights, confidentiality, legislation, jurisprudence. A total of 412 references were listed between 1983 and the end of 1987. Examination of the quantitative increase of articles over these years shows that, while references to AIDS and/or HIV infection--referred to as 'AIDS' for brevity--increased by about one third per year, the number of papers treating ethical problems (...) linked to AIDS doubled each year. This increase makes it clear that these problems are important and pressing, that they are evolving rapidly and can be given no easy solution. After reading and analysis of accessible articles in readily comprehensible languages, the different themes can be classified in two categories: 1: Measures intended to protect society (starting with the most coercive); quarantine and isolation; discriminatory measures concerning specific groups; non-respect of the confidential nature of medical information; application of the penal code; screening; obligatory declaration and registration; testing of blood given by donors; vaccination and medical innovations, therapeutic assays; information, education. 2. Measures intended to protect the individual: fundamental rights of the patient: his/her right to confidentiality, to information and to treatment; civil rights: civil liberty, right to education, right to work, etc...; rights of the healthy individual: right of those in contact with the patients, safety of hospital staff, of those receiving blood-transfusions, etc... The legislation adopted in the various countries and the main opinions to be found in these articles are listed and analysed, and for each particular theme it is possible to refer to a list of the 232 most important articles. While the debate seems to concentrate on the conflict between the right of society to protect itself against the spread of infection and the 'civil' rights of the infected minorities, our conclusion tends to reduce this antagonism, showing that, particularly as far as the confidential nature of medical information is concerned, measures intended to protect the individual also protect society. (shrink)
In this article, I argue that the relationship between patients and their health care providers need not be construed as a contract between moral strangers. Contrary to the (American) legal presumption that health care providers are not obligated to assist others in need unless the latter are already contracted patients of record, I submit that the presence of a suffering human being constitutes an immediate moral commandment to try to relieve such suffering. This thesis is developed in reference to the (...) French philosopher Levinas and the Dutch theologian Schillebeeckx. An expanded version of the biblical parable of the Good Samaritan serves as test case. (shrink)
On one side of his sign board, a nineteenth century surgeon depicted a physician operating on a patient's leg; the other side showed the Good Samaritan taking care of the victim's wounds. Christ's parable has often been quoted and depicted as a primary example of human compassion, to be followed by all persons and, a fortiori, by so-called professionals such as physicians and nurses. If we grant that the parable has not lost its narrative power for 20th century “postmodern” readers (...) living in a “pluralistic” society, it merits a closer analysis. (shrink)