"This concise, elegant essay on the roots and historical justification of philosophy marks a decisive step in posing the problem of what philosophy is. With consummate clarity and the charisma that distinguished him as a lecturer, Jos Ortega y Gasset re-creates ""that moment when Parmenides began talking about something exceptionally strange, which he called 'being.'"" How and why, he asks, did such a surprising adventure come about?Considering the human qualities that prompt a curiosity about existence and eternity, (...) class='Hi'>Ortega examines philosophy's etymology, its connection to poetry, and its differentiation from religion and other modes of thought. He lucidly delineates radical differences of doctrine and style among early Greek thinkers, especially the ""madman of reason"" Parmenides and the ""absolute individual"" Heraclitus. He also considers philosophy's fundamental task of revealing the latent world poised behind the manifest world and discovering the relations between them.""Unable to find lodging among the philosophies of the past,"" Ortega observes, ""we have no choice but to attempt to construct one of our own."" The Origin of Philosophy argues for the vital importance of philosophy as a human endeavor, even while noting that each generation of thought reveals the past as ""a defunct world of errors.""". (shrink)
"The Spanish original, 'La rebelión de las masas,' was published by 1930; this translation, authorized by Sr. Ortega y Gasset, remains anonymous at the translator's request." Contents: 1. The Coming of the Masses 2. The Rise of the Historical Level 3. The Height of the Times 4. The Increase of Life 5. A Statistical Fact 6. The Dissection of the Mass-Man Begins 7. Noble Life and Common Life, or Effort and Inertia 8. Why the Masses Intervene in Everything, (...) and Why Their Intervention is Solely by Violence 9. The Primitive and the Technical 10. Primitivism and History 11. The Self-Satisfied Age 12. The Barbarism of “Specialisation” 13. The Greatest Danger, the State 14. Who Rules the World 15. We Arrive at the Real Question. (shrink)
Ligado directamente a la dinámica de los movimientos renovadores del arte que surgieron en la España de los años veinte, el texto de Ortega y Gasset ofrece unas perspectivas más amplias y entronca con la renovación de la estética y la historia del arte que había iniciado la tradición teórica e historiográfica alemana a finales del siglo XIX. Ofrecemos, además otros escritos que, como «¿Una exposición Zuloaga?», «La Gioconda», «Diálogo sobre el arte nuevo», «Ensayo de estética a manera (...) de prólogo» y «Sobre la crítica del arte», permiten una mejor comprensión del pensamiento de Ortega y del debate artístico y estético en España. La presente edición va precedida de un prólogo de Valeriano Bozal. (shrink)
Contents: The Sportive Origin of the State – Unity and Diversity of Europe – Man the Technician – History as a System. Translation of "El origen deportivo del Estado"; (1924); "Prólogo para franceses" (1937); and Meditación de la técnica (1939). "History as a System" was published originally in English in Philosophy and History: Essays Presented to Ernst Cassirer. Edited by Raymond Klibansky and H. J. Paton. Oxford: at the Clarendon Press (London, H. Milford), 1936, pp. 283-322.
Neste artigo, estudamos as características que o filósofo espanhol Ortega y Gasset atribuiu à vida. Mostramos que o essencial de sua meditação girou em torno do assunto. No entanto, o tema ganhou densidade metafísica somente no final dos anos 1920, quando suas considerações foram inseridas na tradição filosófica do ocidente. Foi quando ele apontou a insuficiência do realismo e do idealismo na abordagem do fundamento pretendido pela Filosofia e apresentou a filosofia da razão vital como um passo adiante (...) das duas grandes perspectivas filosóficas que marcaram a história da metafísica. In this article, we study the characteristics that the Spanish philosopher Ortega y Gasset attributed to life. We show that the essence of his meditations revolved around the subject. However, the issue gained metaphysical density only in the late 1920s, when his remarks were inserted into the philosophical tradition of the West. That is when he pointed out the failure of realism and idealism in the approach to foundations pretended by philosophy, and presented the philosophy of vital reason as a step forward from the two great philosophical perspectives that have marked the history of metaphysics. (shrink)
Huescar presents a systematic critique of idealism and modernity, framing Edmund Husserl's phenomenological philosophy as the most refined and far-reaching version of idealism. Contents: Prologue / Julian Marias -- Pt. I. A Textual Exposition of Ortega's Critique of Idealism. Ch. 1. A Conceptual Introduction to Ortega's Critique of Idealism. Ch. 2. Ortega's Straightforward Critique of Idealism Properly So Called. Ch. 3. Ortega's Critique of Phenomenological Philosophy as the Most Recent Historical Form of Idealism -- Pt. II. (...)Ortega's Overcoming of Idealism. Toward the System of Life Categories. Ch. 4. The Categories of Life. (shrink)
After having presented briefly the life and work of José Ortega y Gasset, it is shown that it is human life as ultimate reality and meaning that predominates in his thought, and the various treatment that Ortega y Gasset makes of this notion is explained. Résumé: Après avoir présenté rapidement la vie et l'oeuvre de José Ortega y Gasset, l'A. montre que c'est la vie humaine qui prédomine dans sa pensée comme réalité et signification (...) ultimes, et explique le traitement varié que fait Ortega y Gasset de cette notion. (shrink)
_The Social Thought of Ortega y Gasset_ is the third and final volume of John T. Graham's massive investigation of the thought of Ortega, the renowned twentieth-century Spanish essayist and philosopher. This volume concludes the synthetic trilogy on Ortega's thought as a whole, after previous studies of his philosophy of life and his theory of history. As the last thing on which he labored, Ortega's social theory completed what he called a "system of life" in three (...) dimensions—a unity in the plurality of philosophy, history, and sociology as three fundamental disciplines that enter into and overlap each other and other humanities. In this volume, Graham investigates Ortega's social thought as expressed in his central work, _Man and People,_ and in several pragmatic fields, interpreting it all in terms of comprehensive categories of postmodernism and interdisciplinarity. While others have studied Ortega's social thought and recently his postmodernity, no one has done so in the context of his thought as a whole or by such a variety of methods. The "unity in plurality" of Ortega's system is evident in the broad and varied structure of his sociology, which he intended to serve for postmodern times. His own postmodernism was rooted in Nietzsche but also in the pragmatism—from James, Peirce, and Dewey—that informs all parts of this trilogy. Ortega was the first educator with an interdisciplinary theory and practice—another aspect of the "unity in plurality" of his system. He found inspiration in both ancient and modern precedents for what he saw as a postmodern method of investigating themes and problems that are common to all the human sciences. Innovations at his Institute of Humanities were early postmodern precedents for a new interdisciplinary social method for use by specialists in a variety of fields. All of those interested in Ortega can utilize such methods to elucidate his thought as a whole as well as to pursue their own collaborative work. Home Complete Catalog Order Information Search. (shrink)
José Ortega y Gasset not only expressed his views on subjects such as art or mass culture but he was also one of the promoters and founders of a United Europe which he considered a cultural unity. However, his view on the proper functioning of multicultural societies was as skeptical as his attitude towards the possibility of constructing an unified world that could be based on cultural coexistence of the Western World societies.
Autobiography and phenomenology: Preface for Germans (1934).--Phenomenology and theory of knowledge: Sensation, construction, and intuition (1913). On the concept of sensation (1913). Consciousness, the object, and its three distances (1916).--Phenomenology and esthetics: An essay in esthetics by way of a preface (1914). Esthetics on the streetcar (1916).--An esthetics of historical reason: The idea of theater: an abbreviated view (1946). Reviving the paintings (Velázquez, chapter I) (1946).
A remarkably condensed statement of the main features of Ortega's philosophy, organized "biographically" around three stages of his intellectual development, termed "objectivism," "perspectivism," and "ratio-vitalism," with chief attention given to the last. The presentation is marked by a soberness unusual in writers on Ortega. As a result, a certain fairness and balance are achieved, yet not at the cost of any adequacy to the vitality of Ortega's own thought.--L. K. B.
In this paper, relying mainly on his "Preface for Germans" I describe Ortega's complaints about Husserl's transcendental reduction, his own "anti-idealistic" approach to phenomenology, and his alternative version of the reduction, a reduction to life. Similarities with the work of Michel Henry are noted, but not explored in detail. Mention is made of Graham Harmon's interpretation of Ortega in "Guerrilla Metaphysics," but only to set up my interpretation of Ortega.
In the history of literary criticism the name of Ortega y Gasset is indispensable, since in this, as well as in all other sectors of cultural activity, the influence of his thought has been most decisive. He opened paths and established guidelines that remain in effect; his vision of the Quijote not only counterbalanced that of Unamuno, against which it purposely rebelled, but also, by underscoring the resources called into play by Cervantes in composing his master work, he (...) has shaped the attitudes of subsequent professional and academic criticism; and his analysis of the personalities of such important writers as Baroja is as yet unsurpassed. Among his many influential works, Francisco Ayala has written Reflexiones sobre la estructura narrativa (criticism) and España, a la fecha. (essays). His collected fiction appeared in 1969 under the title Obras narrativas completas. At Professor Ayala's request, this essay, and Ideas sobre Pío Baroja, by José Ortega y Gasset, were translated by Richard Ford. (shrink)
The theory of history is a central topic in Ortega’s writings. The American pragmatists wrote little on history. Ortega had fervent critiques of American Pragmatism. The argument presented here is that there are similarities in his theory on history with a pragmatist view, nonetheless, which can be summarized as a pragmatist perspectivism on the philosophy of history and historiography. Historical data selected for recording is largely determined by pragmatic reasoning; the historical details are useful, meaningful, relevant, and interesting (...) –and continue to be– as they help us solve problems, since a study of the past is effective in helping us better prepare for the future. There is important epistemological and metaphysical value to be found in a pragmatist perspective on history and historiography. (shrink)
These essays examine the contribution of Ortega y Gasset, reflecting his own diversity of interests with topics on philosophy, history, literature, esthetics, language and art. The collection draws together scholars from a variety of disciplines in an effort to deepen appreciation for one of the leading writers of modern Spain. Originally delivered at Espectador Universal to mark the 100th anniversay of Ortega y Gasset's birth, these essays are sure to open new perspectives on the thought and (...) work of one who has long been regarded as the prototytpe to the twentieth century humanist. (shrink)
Em 18 de setembro de 1789, referindo-se ao alcance do poder constituinte da Assembleia Nacional, Mirabeau afirmou que era preciso, nessas horas de mudança, “evitar a subitaneidade do trânsito”. Em um luminoso ensaio de 1927, consagrado ao “Orador do Povo”, José Ortega y Gasset ensina que, na ocasião, “a política de Mirabeau, como toda política autêntica, postula a unidade dos contrários. É pre-ciso, ao mesmo tempo, um impulso e um freio, uma força de acele-ração, de mudança social, e (...) uma força de contenção que impeça a vertiginosidade”. Esta definição de Ortega, que equipara a construção de um novo regime com o método da política, não só é singularmente útil para analisar as situações em que os processos de mudança não são descontínuos, onde a ruptura é de alguma maneira negociada, mas torna a nosso autor um autêntico teórico da reforma social e, por esta via, da moderação política (e da virtude, na tradição aristotélica). Não se esgota aqui, porém, o veio da moderação em Ortega. Em outra obra contemporânea da anterior, o filósofo espanhol evoca uma dimensão não menos importante dela: o tema da convivência e da conciliação. E se vale de um autor do século XIV, Ibn Khaldun, para lembrar-nos o ilusório da table rase, para que advirtamos que ainda em nossos dias toda mudança duradoura deve valer-se sempre de uma tradição longa contra uma tradição curta, que é através do retorno que se faz o novo. Parafraseando, pois, o título deste segundo ensaio, Ortega y Gasset nos revela o segredo: as chaves da mudança social em liberdade. (shrink)
Some Lessons in Metaphysics is José Ortega y Gasset’s testament to metaphysics in relation to existential longing. While Ortega writes about metaphysics in other of his works, it is in Some Lessons in Metaphysics that he defines metaphysics as springing from man’s immediate necessity to find coherence in individual human existence, which man experiences as a «shipwrecked» being in the cosmos. Metaphysical reflection aims to establish coherence and meaning in human life. As a result of existential inquietude, (...)Ortega argues that metaphysics is the cornerstone of thoughtful philosophical reflection for people who «need it». (shrink)
Includes "The Sportive Origin of the State" (El origen deportivo del Estado, 1924); "Unity and Disunity of Europe" (Prólogo para franceses, 1937); "Man the Technician" (Meditación de la técnica, 1939); and "History as a System" (Historia como sistema, 1935).