RESUMENEl modelo democrático vigente, en especial el latino, adolece de un grave defecto de diseño: la excesiva hegemonía de los partidos políticos, sin cuya mediación –y mediatización– no es posible participar en la vida política. El autor traza la genealogía histórica del modelo partidocrático, con especial atención al caso español, y apunta las principales reformas constitucionales y legislativas que considera imprescindibles para conseguir una regeneración del modelo democrático.PALABRAS CLAVEPARTIDOCRACIA, REFORMA CONSTITUCIONAL, REVISION LEGISLATIVAABSTRACTThe essay reviews the current-day implications of the democratic (...) model. It argues that this model, particularly the Latin one, is subjected to important design failures, particularly the immoderate hegemony of political parties. Secondly, the author sketches the historical evolution of that model, with particular attention to the Spanish case, and shows the main constitutional and legal amendments that he estimates necessary in orden to attain the regeneration of the democratic pattern.KEY WORDSPOLITICAL PARTIES, CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS, LEGAL REFORMS, SPANISH DEMOCRATIC MODEL. (shrink)
El modelo democrático vigente, en especial el latino, adolece de un grave defecto de diseño: la excesiva hegemonía de los partidos políticos, sin cuya mediación –y mediatización– no es posible participar en la vida política. El autor traza la genealogía histórica del modelo partidocrático, con especial atención al caso español, y apunta las principales reformas constitucionales y legislativas que considera imprescindibles para conseguir una regeneración del modelo democrático.
resumenEn 1998 se cumplió el bicentenario de la muerte, a manos de la dominación otomana, del héroe y precursor de la revolución nacional griega. Este trabajo es un comentario crítico de su pensamiento político, en especial de su propuesta de «Nueva Constitución Política», que es una traducción adaptada, con pocas variaciones personales, de la constitución francesa de 1793 o constitución jacobina, fuertemente influenciada por el pensamiento democrático asambleario de RosseauPALABRAS CLAVEVELESTINLIS-CONSTITUCIÓN-NACIONALISMO-ROUSSEAUABSTRACT1998 marked the bicentennary of Rigas Velestinlis' death by the Otoman (...) domination. This paper critically examines the political thought of the hero and forerunner of Greece's national revolution. In particular, his project for a «New Political Constitution». The document faithfully adapts that of the French Constitution of 1793: the so-called Jacobin Constitution, strongly influenced by Rousseau's direct democratic thoughtKEYWORDSVELESTINLIS-CONSTITUTION.NATIONALISM-ROUSSEAU. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to critically assess John Rawls' theory of interntional justice, by examining its evolution from A Theory of Justice to The Law of Peoples. Under its latest version, Rawls' theory turns maximalist in its justification, though in its application it turns minimalist. His minimalism proves basically correct as long as it considrs human rights, free from their liberal cover, as the fundamental core of morals and politics in international relations. Nonetheless, his maximalism is not convincing (...) when justifying human rights by arguing them as the common result of the deliberations held at the Original Position by the representatives both of liberal societies and of hierachical societies. (shrink)
La valoración moral del aborto voluntario no sólo es un delicado y complejo problema bioético, sino que se ha convertido en las últimas décadas en piedra de escándalo. Por eso me he decidido a abordar su estudio justamente para intentar poner un poco de orden, sosiego y claridad de ideas en el debate, con independencia de la postura personal que presento, en todo caso avalada por razonamientos. De todos modos, es indudable que se presentan casos de difícil resolución, casos que (...) se ofrecen incluso como dilemas, abiertos como tales al pluralismo moral. Las cuestiones legales y la necesaria despenalización se tratan al final. (shrink)
El autor intenta probar la tesis enunciada tanto en el título como en el subtítulo. La primera parte del ensayo estudia cómo el papel estratégico que cumple la educación cívicopolítica en los regímenes democráticos se remonta al mito de Prometeo según la versión del Protágoras. De hecho, así lo han entendido los regímenes republicanos, aunque no los liberales conservadores (representación indirecta). La segunda parte presenta una aplicación al caso español a partir del Texto Constitucional.
Las dos columnas sobre las que se asienta la democracia liberal, la libertad individual y los mecanismos de decisión pública, no se dejan conciliar fácilmente. Buena parte de la reflexión moderna sobre la vida publica se orienta a tratar de solucionar esa tensión. El presente artículo plantea el problema en sus términos precisos y repasa los principales intentos recientes de solución.
En 1998 se cumplió el bicentenario de la muerte, a manos de la dominación otomana, del héroe y precursor de la revolución nacional griega. Este trabajo es un comentario crítico de su pensamiento político, en especial de su propuesta de "Nueva Constitución Política", que es una traducción adaptada, con pocas variaciones personales, de la constitución francesa de 1793 o constitución jacobina, fuertemente influenciada por el pensamiento democrático asambleario de Rousseau.
Deep learning is a kind of machine learning which happens in a certain type of artificial neural networks called deep networks. Artificial deep networks, which exhibit many similarities with biological ones, have consistently shown human-like performance in many intelligent tasks. This poses the question whether this performance is caused by such similarities. After reviewing the structure and learning processes of artificial and biological neural networks, we outline two important reasons for the success of deep learning, namely the extraction of successively (...) higher level features and the multiple layer structure, which are closely related to each other. Then some indications about the framing of this heated debate are given. After that, an assessment of the value of artificial deep networks as models of the human brain is given from the similarity perspective of model representation. Finally, a new version of computational functionalism is proposed which addresses the specificity of deep neural computation better than classic, program based computational functionalism. (shrink)
In the last few years, biologists and computer scientists have claimed that the introduction of data science techniques in molecular biology has changed the characteristics and the aims of typical outputs (i.e. models) of such a discipline. In this paper we will critically examine this claim. First, we identify the received view on models and their aims in molecular biology. Models in molecular biology are mechanistic and explanatory. Next, we identify the scope and aims of data science (machine learning in (...) particular). These lie mainly in the creation of predictive models which performances increase as data set increases. Next, we will identify a tradeoff between predictive and explanatory performances by comparing the features of mechanistic and predictive models. Finally, we show how this a priori analysis of machine learning and mechanistic research applies to actual biological practice. This will be done by analyzing the publications of a consortium—The Cancer Genome Atlas—which stands at the forefront in integrating data science and molecular biology. The result will be that biologists have to deal with the tradeoff between explaining and predicting that we have identified, and hence the explanatory force of the ‘new’ biology is substantially diminished if compared to the ‘old’ biology. However, this aspect also emphasizes the existence of other research goals which make predictive force independent from explanation. -/- . (shrink)
This article aims to review the standard objections to dualism and to argue that will either fail to convince someone committed to dualism or are flawed on independent grounds. I begin by presenting the taxonomy of metaphysical positions on concrete particulars as they relate to the dispute between materialists and dualists, and in particular substance dualism is defined. In the first section, several kinds of substance dualism are distinguished and the relevant varieties of this kind of dualism are selected. The (...) remaining sections are analyses of the standard objections to substance dualism : It is uninformative, has troubles accounting for soul individuation, causal pairing and interaction, violates laws of physics, is made implausible by the development of neuroscience and it postulates entities beyond necessity. I conclude that none of these objections is successful. (shrink)
Decision Theory and Rationality offers a challenging new interpretation of a key theoretical tool in the human and social sciences. This accessible book argues, contrary to orthodoxy in politics, economics, and management science, that decision theory cannot provide a theory of rationality.
The target article by Locke & Bogin (L&B) focuses on the evolution of language as a communicative tool. They neglect, however, that from infancy onwards humans have the ability to go beyond successful behaviour and to reflect upon language (and other domains of knowledge) as a problem space in its own right. This ability is not found in other species and may well be what makes humans unique.
This study investigates the effects of internal and external corporate governance and monitoring mechanisms on the choice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagement and the value of firms engaging in CSR activities. The study finds the CSR choice is positively associated with the internal and external corporate governance and monitoring mechanisms, including board leadership, board independence, institutional ownership, analyst following, and anti- takeover provisions, after controlling for various firm characteristics. After correcting for endogeneity and simultaneity issues, the results show that (...) CSR engagement positively influences firm value measured by industry-adjusted Tobin’s q. We find that the impact of analyst following for firms that engage in CSR on firm value is strongly positive, while the board leadership, board independence, blockholders’ ownership, and institutional ownership play a relatively weaker role in enhancing firm value. Furthermore, we find that CSR activities that address internal social enhancement within the firm, such as employees diversity, firm relationship with its employees, and product quality, enhance the value of firm more than other CSR subcategories for broader external social enhancement such as community relation and environmental concerns. (shrink)
Although expected utility theory has proven a fruitful and elegant theory in the finite realm, attempts to generalize it to infinite values have resulted in many paradoxes. In this paper, we argue that the use of John Conway's surreal numbers shall provide a firm mathematical foundation for transfinite decision theory. To that end, we prove a surreal representation theorem and show that our surreal decision theory respects dominance reasoning even in the case of infinite values. We then bring our theory (...) to bear on one of the more venerable decision problems in the literature: Pascal's Wager. Analyzing the wager showcases our theory's virtues and advantages. To that end, we analyze two objections against the wager: Mixed Strategies and Many Gods. After formulating the two objections in the framework of surreal utilities and probabilities, our theory correctly predicts that (1) the pure Pascalian strategy beats all mixed strategies, and (2) what one should do in a Pascalian decision problem depends on what one's credence function is like. Our analysis therefore suggests that although Pascal's Wager is mathematically coherent, it does not deliver what it purports to, a rationally compelling argument that people should lead a religious life regardless of how confident they are in theism and its alternatives. (shrink)
Roughly speaking, classical statistical physics is the branch of theoretical physics that aims to account for the thermal behaviour of macroscopic bodies in terms of a classical mechanical model of their microscopic constituents, with the help of probabilistic assumptions. In the last century and a half, a fair number of approaches have been developed to meet this aim. This study of their foundations assesses their coherence and analyzes the motivations for their basic assumptions, and the interpretations of their central concepts. (...) The most outstanding foundational problems are the explanation of time-asymmetry in thermal behaviour, the relative autonomy of thermal phenomena from their microscopic underpinning, and the meaning of probability. A more or less historic survey is given of the work of Maxwell, Boltzmann and Gibbs in statistical physics, and the problems and objections to which their work gave rise. Next, we review some modern approaches to (i) equilibrium statistical mechanics, such as ergodic theory and the theory of the thermodynamic limit; and to (ii) non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as provided by Lanford's work on the Boltzmann equation, the so-called Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon approach, and stochastic approaches such as `coarse-graining' and the `open systems' approach. In all cases, we focus on the subtle interplay between probabilistic assumptions, dynamical assumptions, initial conditions and other ingredients used in these approaches. (shrink)
In this article, we examine the empirical association between corporate governance (CG) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagement by investigating their causal effects. Employing a large and extensive US sample, we first find that while the lag of CSR does not affect CG variables, the lag of CG variables positively affects firms’ CSR engagement, after controlling for various firm characteristics. In addition, to examine the relative importance of stakeholder theory and agency theory regarding the associations among CSR, CG, and corporate (...) financial performance (CFP), we also examine the relation between CSR and CFP. After correcting for endogeneity bias, our results show that CSR engagement positively influences CFP, supporting the conflict-resolution hypothesis based on stakeholder theory, but not the CSR overinvestment argument based on agency theory. Furthermore, firms’ CSR engagement with the community, environment, diversity, and employees plays a significantly positive role in enhancing CFP. (shrink)
The aim of this article is to analyse the relation between the second law of thermodynamics and the so-called arrow of time. For this purpose, a number of different aspects in this arrow of time are distinguished, in particular those of time-reversal (non-)invariance and of (ir)reversibility. Next I review versions of the second law in the work of Carnot, Clausius, Kelvin, Planck, Gibbs, Caratheodory and Lieb and Yngvason, and investigate their connection with these aspects of the arrow of time. It (...) is shown that this connection varies a great deal along with these formulations of the second law. According to the famous formulation by Planck, the second law expresses the irreversibility of natural processes. But in many other formulations irreversibility or even time-reversal non-invariance plays no role. I therefore argue for the view that the second law has nothing to do with the arrow of time. (shrink)
Based on the assumption that consumers will reward firms for their support of social programs, many organizations have adopted corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices. Drawing on social identity theory, a model of influence of CSR on loyalty is developed and tested using a sample of real consumers. Results demonstrate that CSR initiatives are linked to stronger loyalty both because the consumer develops a more positive company evaluation, and because one identifies more strongly with the company. Moreover, identity salience is shown (...) to play a crucial role in the influence of CSR initiatives on consumer loyalty when this influence occurs through consumer-company identification. A strong identifier is not necessarily in a constant state of salience, but activating identity salience of a particular consumer social identity (a company) will affect consumer reactions to product stimuli, increasing consumer loyalty. (shrink)
Gricean pragmatics has often been criticised for being implausible from a psychological point of view. This line of criticism is never backed up by empirical evidence, but more importantly, it ignores the fact that Grice never meant to advance a processing theory, in the first place. Taking our lead from Marr, we distinguish between two levels of explanation: at the W-level, we are concerned with what agents do and why; at the H-level, we ask how agents do whatever it is (...) they do. Whereas pragmatics is pitched at the W-level, processing theories are at the H-level. This is not to say that pragmatics has no implications for psychology at all, but it is to say that its implications are less direct than is often supposed. (shrink)
This paper outlines a framework of the temporal interpretation in Chinese with a special focus on complement and relative clauses. It argues that not only does Chinese have no morphological tenses but there is no need to resort to covert semantic features under a tense node in order to interpret time in Chinese. Instead, it utilises various factors such as the information provided by default aspect, the tense-aspect particles, and pragmatic reasoning to determine the temporal interpretation of sentences. It is (...) shown that aspectual markers in Chinese play the same role that tense plays in a tense language. This result implies that the Chinese phrase structure has AspP above VP but no TP is above AspP. (shrink)