63 found
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  1. Understanding the Representational Mind.Josef Perner - 1991 - Cambridge: MIT Press.
    A model of writing in cognitive development, Understanding the Representational Mind synthesizes the burgeoning literature on the child’s theory of mind to provide an integrated account of children’s understanding of representational and mental processes, which is crucial in their acquisition of our commonsense psychology. Perner describes experimental work on children’s acquisition of a theory of mind and representation, offers a theoretical account of this acquisition, and gives examples of how the increased sophistication in children’s theory of mind improves their understanding (...)
  2. A theory of implicit and explicit knowledge.Zoltan Dienes & Josef Perner - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):735-808.
    The implicit-explicit distinction is applied to knowledge representations. Knowledge is taken to be an attitude towards a proposition which is true. The proposition itself predicates a property to some entity. A number of ways in which knowledge can be implicit or explicit emerge. If a higher aspect is known explicitly then each lower one must also be known explicitly. This partial hierarchy reduces the number of ways in which knowledge can be explicit. In the most important type of implicit knowledge, (...)
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  3. From infants' to children's appreciation of belief.Josef Perner & Johannes Roessler - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (10):519-525.
  4.  71
    He thinks he knows: And more developmental evidence against the simulation (role taking) theory.Josef Perner & Deborrah Howes - 1992 - Mind and Language 7 (1-2):72-86.
  5. Mental files and belief: A cognitive theory of how children represent belief and its intensionality.Josef Perner, Michael Huemer & Brian Leahy - 2015 - Cognition 145 (C):77-88.
    We provide a cognitive analysis of how children represent belief using mental files. We explain why children who pass the false belief test are not aware of the intensionality of belief. Fifty-one 3½- to 7-year old children were familiarized with a dual object, e.g., a ball that rattles and is described as a rattle. They observed how a puppet agent witnessed the ball being put into box 1. In the agent’s absence the ball was taken from box 1, the child (...)
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  6.  38
    Knowledge for hunger: Children's problem with representation in imputing mental states.Josef Perner & Jane E. Ogden - 1988 - Cognition 29 (1):47-61.
  7.  75
    The foundations of metacognition.Michael J. Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.) - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    Bringing together researchers from across the cognitive sciences, the book is valuable for philosophers of mind, developmental and comparative psychologists, and neuroscientists.
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  8.  58
    Does the autistic child have a metarepresentational deficit?Susan R. Leekam & Josef Perner - 1991 - Cognition 40 (3):203-218.
  9.  97
    Mental Files in Development: Dual Naming, False Belief, Identity and Intensionality.Josef Perner & Brian Leahy - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (2):491-508.
    We use mental files to present an analysis of children's developing understanding of identity in alternative naming tasks and belief. The core assumption is that younger children below the age of about 4 years create different files for an object depending on how the object is individuated. They can anchor them to the same object, hence think of the same object whether they think of it as a rabbit or as an animal. However, the claim is, they cannot yet link (...)
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  10.  26
    Memory and theory of mind.Josef Perner - 2000 - In Endel Tulving (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press. pp. 297--312.
  11.  41
    Mental files theory of mind: When do children consider agents acquainted with different object identities?Michael Huemer, Josef Perner & Brian Leahy - 2018 - Cognition 171 (C):122-129.
  12.  71
    Objects of desire, thought, and reality: Problems of anchoring discourse referents in development.Josef Perner, Bibiane Rendl & Alan Garnham - 2007 - Mind and Language 22 (5):475–513.
    Our objectives in this article are to bring some theoretical order into developmental sequences and simultaneities in children’s ability to appreciate multiple labels for single objects, to reason with identity statements, to reason hypothetically, counterfactually, and with beliefs and desires, and to explain why an ‘implicit’ understanding of belief occurs before an ‘explicit’ understanding. The central idea behind our explanation is the emerging grasp of how objects of thought and desire relate to real objects and to each other. To capture (...)
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  13.  51
    On the nature, evolution, development, and epistemology of metacognition: introductory thoughts.Michael J. Beran, Johannes L. Brandl, Josef Perner & Joélle Proust - 2012 - In Michael J. Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.), The foundations of metacognition. Oxford University Press.
  14. Basic Conditional Reasoning: How Children Mimic Counterfactual Reasoning.Brian Leahy, Eva Rafetseder & Josef Perner - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (4):793-810.
    Children approach counterfactual questions about stories with a reasoning strategy that falls short of adults’ Counterfactual Reasoning (CFR). It was dubbed “Basic Conditional Reasoning” (BCR) in Rafetseder et al. (Child Dev 81(1):376–389, 2010). In this paper we provide a characterisation of the differences between BCR and CFR using a distinction between permanent and nonpermanent features of stories and Lewis/Stalnaker counterfactual logic. The critical difference pertains to how consistency between a story and a conditional antecedent incompatible with a nonpermanent feature of (...)
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  15.  38
    The many faces of belief: reflections on Fodor's and the child's theory of mind.Josef Perner - 1995 - Cognition 57 (3):241-269.
  16.  35
    Assumptions of a subjective measure of consciousness: Three mappings.Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner - 2004 - In Rocco J. Gennaro (ed.), Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness: An Anthology. John Benjamins. pp. 56--173.
  17.  44
    What is a perspective problem? Developmental issues in belief ascription and dual identity.Josef Perner, Johannes L. Brandl & Alan Garnham - 2003 - Facta Philosophica 5 (2):355-378.
    We develop a criterion for telling when integrating two pieces of information, e.g. two pictures or statements requires an understanding of perspective. Problems that require such an understanding are perspective problems. With this criterion we can show that understanding false beliefs vis-à-vis reality pose a perspective problem, so does understanding spatial descriptions given from different viewing points (a classical example of what is commonly seen as a problem of perspective) and individuating objects with different sortals (naming objects). We use the (...)
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  18.  50
    Is hypnotic responding the strategic relinquishment of metacognition?Zoltán Dienes, Michael Beran, Johannes L. Brandl, Josef Perner & Joelle Proust - 2012 - In Michael J. Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.), The foundations of metacognition. Oxford University Press.
  19.  15
    Simulation as explicitation of predication-implicit knowledge about the mind: Arguments for a simulation-theory mix.Josef Perner - 1996 - In Peter Carruthers & Peter K. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press. pp. 90--104.
  20.  40
    13 The meta-intentional nature of executive functions and theory of mind.Josef Perner - 1998 - In Peter Carruthers & Jill Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes. Cambridge University Press. pp. 270.
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  21.  31
    The knowledge (“true belief”) error in 4- to 6-year-old children: When are agents aware of what they have in view?Michael Huemer, Lara M. Schröder, Sarah J. Leikard, Sara Gruber, Anna Mangstl & Josef Perner - 2023 - Cognition 230 (C):105255.
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  22. Teleology and causal understanding in children's theory of mind.Josef Perner & Johannes Roessler - unknown
    The causal theory of action is widely recognized in the literature of the philosophy of action as the "standard story" of human action and agency--the nearest approximation in the field to a theoretical orthodoxy. This volume brings together leading figures working in action theory today to discuss issues relating to the CTA and its applications, which range from experimental philosophy to moral psychology. Some of the contributors defend the theory while others criticize it; some draw from historical sources while others (...)
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  23. Introspection & Remembering.Josef Perner, Daniela Kloo & Elisabeth Stöttinger - 2007 - Synthese 159 (2):253 - 270.
    We argue that episodic remembering, understood as the ability to re-experience past events, requires a particular kind of introspective ability and understanding. It requires the understanding that first person experiences can represent actual events. In this respect it differs from the understanding required by the traditional false belief test for children, where a third person attribution (to others or self) of a behavior governing representation is sufficient. The understanding of first person experiences as representations is also required for problem solving (...)
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  24.  33
    When the alternative would have been better: Counterfactual reasoning and the emergence of regret.Eva Rafetseder & Josef Perner - 2012 - Cognition and Emotion 26 (5):800-819.
  25.  36
    Opacity and discourse referents: Object identity and object properties.Manuel Sprung, Josef Perner & Peter Mitchell - 2007 - Mind and Language 22 (3):215–245.
    It has been found that children appreciate the limited substitutability of co-referential terms in opaque contexts a year or two after they pass false belief tasks (e.g. Apperly and Robinson, 1998, 2001, 2003). This paper aims to explain this delay. Three- to six-year-old children were tested with stories where a protagonist was either only partially informed or had a false belief about a particular object. Only a few children had problems predicting the protagonist’s action based on his partial knowledge, when (...)
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  26.  28
    Mental Simulation.Josef Perner & Anton Kühberger - 2005 - In B. Malle & S. Hodges (eds.), Other Minds: How Humans Bridge the Gap Between Self and Others. Guilford Press. pp. 174.
  27. Developmental aspects of consciousness: How much theory of mind do you need to be consciously aware?Josef Perner & Zoltán Dienes - 2003 - Consciousness and Cognition 12 (1):63-82.
    When do children become consciously aware of events in the world? Five possible strategies are considered for their usefulness in determining the age in question. Three of these strategies ask when children show signs of engaging in activities for which conscious awareness seems necessary in adults , and two of the strategies consider when children have the ability to have the minimal form of higher-order thought necessary for access consciousness and phenomenal consciousness, respectively. The tentative answer to the guiding question (...)
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  28.  27
    MiniMeta: in search of minimal criteria for metacognition.Josef Perner - 2012 - In Michael J. Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.), The foundations of metacognition. Oxford University Press. pp. 94--116.
  29.  58
    The practical other : teleology and its development.Josef Perner, Beate Priewasser & Johannes Roessler - 2018 - Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 43 (2).
    We argue for teleology as a description of the way in which we ordinarily understand others’ intentional actions. Teleology starts from the close resemblance between the reasoning involved in understanding others’ actions and one’s own practical reasoning involved in deciding what to do. We carve out teleology’s distinctive features more sharply by comparing it to its three main competitors: theory theory, simulation theory, and rationality theory. The plausibility of teleology as our way of understanding others is underlined by developmental data (...)
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  30.  38
    Understanding the mind as an active information processor: Do young children have a “copy theory of mind”?Josef Perner & Graham Davies - 1991 - Cognition 39 (1):51-69.
  31.  69
    Pro-social cognition: helping, practical reasons, and ‘theory of mind’.Johannes Roessler & Josef Perner - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (4):755-767.
    There is converging evidence that over the course of the second year children become good at various fairly sophisticated forms of pro-social activities, such as helping, informing and comforting. Not only are toddlers able to do these things, they appear to do them routinely and almost reliably. A striking feature of these interventions, emphasized in the recent literature, is that they show precocious abilities in two different domains: they reflect complex ‘ theory of mind’ abilities as well as ‘altruistic motivation’. (...)
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  32.  79
    Is reasoning from counterfactual antecedents evidence for counterfactual reasoning?Josef Perner & Eva Rafetseder - 2010 - Thinking and Reasoning 16 (2):131-155.
    In most developmental studies the only error children could make on counterfactual tasks was to answer with the current state of affairs. It was concluded that children who did not show this error are able to reason counterfactually. However, children might have avoided this error by using basic conditional reasoning (Rafetseder, Cristi-Vargas, & Perner, 2010). Basic conditional reasoning takes background assumptions represented as conditionals about how the world works. If an antecedent of one of these conditionals is provided by the (...)
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  33. Dual Control and the Causal Theory of Action: The Case of Non-intentional Action.Josef Perner - 2003 - In Johannes Roessler & Naomi Eilan (eds.), Agency and Self-Awareness: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology. Clarendon Press.
  34.  38
    File Change Semantics for preschoolers: Alternative naming and belief understanding.Josef Perner & Johannes L. Brandl - 2005 - Interaction Studies 6 (3):483-501.
  35. Unifying consciousness with explicit knowledge.Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner - 2003 - In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press. pp. 214--232.
  36. From an implicit to an explicit "theory of mind".Josef Perner & W. Clements - 2000 - In Yves Rossetti & Antti Revonsuo (eds.), Beyond Dissociation: Interaction Between Dissociated Implicit and Explicit Processing. John Benjamins.
  37.  48
    Predicting others through simulation or by theory? A method to decide.Josef Perner, Andreas Gschaider, Anton Kühberger & Siegfried Schrofner - 1999 - Mind and Language 14 (1):57-79.
    A method is presented for deciding whether correct predictions about other people are based on simulation or theory use. The differentiating power of this method was assessed with cognitive estimation biases (e.g. estimating the area of Brazil) in two variations. Experiments 1 and 2 operated with the influence of response scales of different length. Experiment 3 used the difference between free estimates that tended to be far off the true value and estimates constrained by an appropriate response scale, where estimates (...)
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  38. The necessity and impossibility of simulation.Josef Perner - 1994 - In Christopher Peacocke (ed.), Objectivity, Simulation and the Unity of Consciousness: Current Issues in the Philosophy of Mind. Oxford University Press.
     
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  39. Executive control without conscious awareness: The cold control theory of hypnosis.Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner - 2007 - In Graham A. Jamieson (ed.), Hypnosis and Conscious States: The Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. Oxford University Press. pp. 293-314.
  40.  28
    Choice or No Choice: Is the Langer Effect Evidence Against Simulation?Anton Kühberger, Josef Perner, Michael Schulte & Robert Leingruber - 1995 - Mind and Language 10 (4):423-436.
    The discussion of whether people understand themselves and others by using theories of behaviour (theory theory) or by simulating mental states (simulation theory) lacks conclusive empirical evidence. Nichols et al. (1996) have proposed the Langer effect (Langer, 1975) as a critical test. From people's inability accurately to predict the difference in the subjective value of lottery tickets in choice and no‐choice conditions, they argued that people do not simulate behaviour in such situations. In a series of four experiments, we consistently (...)
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  41.  29
    Is “thinking” belief? Reply to Wellman and Bartsch.Josef Perner - 1989 - Cognition 33 (3):315-319.
  42.  50
    Left inferior-parietal lobe activity in perspective tasks: identity statements.Aditi Arora, Benjamin Weiss, Matthias Schurz, Markus Aichhorn, Rebecca C. Wieshofer & Josef Perner - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  43.  38
    Dissociating size representation for action and for conscious judgment: Grasping visual illusions without apparent obstacles.Elisabeth Stöttinger & Josef Perner - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):269-284.
    Visual illusions provide important evidence for the co-existence of unconscious and conscious representations. Objects surrounded by other figures are consciously perceived as different in size, while the visuo-motor system supposedly uses an unconscious representation of the discs’ true size for grip size scaling. Recent evidence suggests other factors than represented size, e.g., surrounding rings conceived as obstacles, affect grip size. Use of the diagonal illusion avoids visual obstacles in the path of the reaching hand. Results support the dual representation theory. (...)
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  44.  22
    File Change Semantics for preschoolers.Josef Perner & Johannes L. Brandl - 2005 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 6 (3):483-501.
    We develop a new theory of the cognitive changes around 4 years of age by trying to explain why understanding of false belief and of alternative naming emerge at this age. We make use of the notion of discourse referents as it is used in File Change Semantics, one of the early forms of the more widely known Discourse Representation Theory. The assumed cognitive change exists in how children can link DRs in their mind to external referents. The younger children (...)
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  45.  60
    Misrepresentation and referential confusion: Children's difficulty with false beliefs and outdated photographs.Josef Perner, Susan R. Leekam, Deborah Myers, Shalini Davis & Nicola Odgers - 1998
    Three and 4-year-old children were tested on matched versions of Zaitchik's (1990) photo task and Wimmer and Perner's (1983) false belief task. Although replicating Zaitchik's finding that false belief and photo task are of equal difficulty, this applied only to mean performance across subjects and no substantial correlation between the two tasks was found. This suggests that the two tasks tap different intellectual abilities. It was further discovered that children's performance can be improved by drawing their attention to the back (...)
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  46. Simulation à la Goldman: pretend and collapse.Josef Perner & Johannes L. Brandl - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 144 (3):435-446.
    Theories of mind draw on processes that represent mental states and their computational connections; simulation, in addition, draws on processes that replicate (Heal 1986 ) a sequence of mental states. Moreover, mental simulation can be triggered by input from imagination instead of real perceptions. To avoid confusion between mental states concerning reality and those created in simulation, imagined contents must be quarantined. Goldman bypasses this problem by giving pretend states a special role to play in simulation (Goldman 2006 ). We (...)
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  47. Teleology first: Goals before knowledge and belief.Tobias Schlicht, Johannes L. Brandl, Frank Esken, Hans-Johann Glock, Albert Newen, Josef Perner, Franziska Poprawe, Eva Schmidt, Anna Strasser & Julia Wolf - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:e169.
    Comparing knowledge with belief can go wrong in two dimensions: If the authors employ a wider notion of knowledge, then they do not compare like with like because they assume a narrow notion of belief. If they employ only a narrow notion of knowledge, then their claim is not supported by the evidence. Finally, we sketch a superior teleological view.
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  48.  29
    An evaluation of neurocognitive models of theory of mind.Matthias Schurz & Josef Perner - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  49.  67
    What sort of representation is conscious?Zoltan Dienes & Josef Perner - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):336-337.
    We consider Perruchet & Vinter's (P&V's) central claim that all mental representations are conscious. P&V require some way of fixing their meaning of representation to avoid the claim becoming either obviously false or unfalsifiable. We use the framework of Dienes and Perner (1999) to provide a well-specified possible version of the claim, in which all representations of a minimal degree of explicitness are postulated to be conscious.
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  50.  26
    A plea for the second functionalist model and the insufficiency of simulation.Josef Perner - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):66-67.
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