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Joseph Heath [99]Joseph M. Heath [1]Joseph Mark Heath [1]
  1. An Ethical Framework for Global Vaccine Allocation.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Govind Persad, Adam Kern, Allen E. Buchanan, Cecile Fabre, Daniel Halliday, Joseph Heath, Lisa M. Herzog, R. J. Leland, Ephrem T. Lemango, Florencia Luna, Matthew McCoy, Ole F. Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, G. Owen Schaefer, Kok-Chor Tan, Christopher Heath Wellman, Jonathan Wolff & Henry S. Richardson - 2020 - Science 1:DOI: 10.1126/science.abe2803.
    In this article, we propose the Fair Priority Model for COVID-19 vaccine distribution, and emphasize three fundamental values we believe should be considered when distributing a COVID-19 vaccine among countries: Benefiting people and limiting harm, prioritizing the disadvantaged, and equal moral concern for all individuals. The Priority Model addresses these values by focusing on mitigating three types of harms caused by COVID-19: death and permanent organ damage, indirect health consequences, such as health care system strain and stress, as well as (...)
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  2.  96
    Business Ethics and (or as) Political Philosophy.Joseph Heath, Jeffrey Moriarty & Wayne Norman - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (3):427-452.
    There is considerable overlap between the interests of business ethicists and those of political philosophers. Questions about the moral justifiability of the capitalist system, the basis of property rights, and the problem of inequality in the distribution of income have been of central importance in both fields. However, political philosophers have developed, especially over the past four decades, a set of tools and concepts for addressing these questions that are in many ways quite distinctive. Most business ethicists, on the other (...)
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  3. Business Ethics Without Stakeholders.Joseph Heath - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (4):533-558.
    One of the most influential ideas in the field of business ethics has been the suggestion that ethical conduct in a business context should be analyzed in terms of a set of fiduciary obligations toward various “stakeholder” groups. Moral problems, according to this view, involve reconciling such obligations in cases where stakeholder groups have conflicting interests. The question posed in this paper is whether the stakeholder paradigm represents the most fruitful way of articulating the moral problems that arise in business. (...)
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  4.  21
    Morality, Competition, and the Firm: The Market Failures Approach to Business Ethics.Joseph Heath (ed.) - 2014 - Oup Usa.
    In four new and nine previously published essays, Joseph Heath provides a compelling new framework for thinking about the moral obligations of economic actors. The "market failures" approach to business ethics that he develops provides the basis for a unified theory of business ethics, corporate law, economic regulation, and the welfare state.
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  5.  47
    An Adversarial Ethic for Business: Or When Sun-Tzu Met the Stakeholder.Joseph Heath - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (4):359-374.
    In the economic literature on the firm, especially in the transaction–cost tradition, a sharp distinction is drawn between so-called “market transactions” and “administered transactions.” This distinction is of enormous importance for business ethics, since market transactions are governed by the competitive logic of the market, whereas administered transactions are subject to the cooperative norms that govern collective action in a bureaucracy. The widespread failure to distinguish between these two types of transactions, and thus to distinguish between adversarial and non-adversarial relations, (...)
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  6.  63
    An Adversarial Ethic for Business: Or When Sun-Tzu Met the Stakeholder.Joseph Heath - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (4):359-374.
    In the economic literature on the firm, especially in the transaction-cost tradition, a sharp distinction is drawn between so-called “market transactions” and “administered transactions.” This distinction is of enormous importance for business ethics, since market transactions are governed by the competitive logic of the market, whereas administered transactions are subject to the cooperative norms that govern collective action in a bureaucracy. The widespread failure to distinguish between these two types of transactions, and thus to distinguish between adversarial and non-adversarial relations, (...)
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  7. The Benefits of Cooperation.Joseph Heath - 2006 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 34 (4):313-351.
    There is an idea, extremely common among social contract theorists, that the primary function of social institutions is to secure some form of cooperative benefit. If individuals simply seek to satisfy their own preferences in a narrowly instrumental fashion, they will find themselves embroiled in collective action problems – interactions with an outcome that is worse for everyone involved than some other possible outcome. Thus they have reason to accept some form of constraint over their conduct, in order to achieve (...)
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  8. Stakeholder Theory, Corporate Governance and Public Management: What Can the History of State-Run Enterprises Teach Us in the Post-Enron Era?Joseph Heath & Wayne Norman - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 53 (3):247-265.
    This paper raises a challenge for those who assume that corporate social responsibility and good corporate governance naturally go hand-in-hand. The recent spate of corporate scandals in the United States and elsewhere has dramatized, once again, the severity of the agency problems that may arise between managers and shareholders. These scandals remind us that even if we adopt an extremely narrow concept of managerial responsibility – such that we recognize no social responsibility beyond the obligation to maximize shareholder value – (...)
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  9.  30
    Communicative Action and Rational Choice.Joseph Heath - 2001 - MIT Press.
    In this book Joseph Heath brings Jürgen Habermas's theory of communicative action into dialogue with the most sophisticated articulation of the instrumental conception of practical rationality-modern rational choice theory. Heath begins with an overview of Habermas's action theory and his critique of decision and game theory. He then offers an alternative to Habermas's use of speech act theory to explain social order and outlines a multidimensional theory of rational action that includes norm-governed action as a specific type.In the second part (...)
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  10.  70
    Following the Rules: Practical Reasoning and Deontic Constraint.Joseph Heath - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    Introduction -- Instrumental rationality -- Social order -- Deontic constraint -- Intentional states -- Preference noncognitivism -- A naturalistic perspective -- Transcendental necessity -- Weakness of will -- Normative ethics.
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  11.  77
    The Uses and Abuses of Agency Theory.Joseph Heath - 2009 - Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (4):497-528.
    The use of agency theory remains highly controversial among business ethicists. While some regard it as an essential tool for analyzing and understanding the recent spate of corporate ethics scandals, others argue that these scandals might not even have occurred had it not been for the widespread teaching of agency theory in business schools. This paper presents a qualified defense of agency theory against these charges, first by identifying the theoretical commitments that are essential to the theory (in order to (...)
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  12.  51
    Three Normative Models of the Welfare State.Joseph Heath - 2011 - Public Reason 3 (2).
  13. Procrastination and the Extended Will.Joseph Heath & Joel Anderson - 2010 - In Chrisoula Andreou & Mark D. White (eds.), The Thief of Time. Oxford University Press. pp. 233--253.
    What experimental game theorists may have demonstrated is not that people are systematically irrational but that human rationality is heavily scaffolded. Remove the scaffolding, and we do not do very well. People are able to get on because they “offload” an enormous amount of practical reasoning onto their environment. As a result, when they are put in novel or unfamiliar environments, they perform very poorly, even on apparently simple tasks. -/- This observation is supported by recent empirically informed shifts in (...)
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  14.  43
    Market Failure or Government Failure? A Response to Jaworski.Joseph Heath - forthcoming - Business Ethics Journal Review:50-56.
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  15.  36
    “But Everyone Else Is Doing It”: Competition and Business Self‐Regulation.Joseph Heath - 2018 - Journal of Social Philosophy 49 (4):516-535.
  16.  71
    Climate Ethics: Justifying a Positive Social Time Preference.Joseph Heath - 2017 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 14 (4):435–462.
    Recent debates over climate change policy have made it clear that the choice of a social discount rate has enormous consequences for the amount of mitigation that will be recommended. The social discount rate determines how future costs are to be compared to present costs. Philosophers, however, have been almost unanimous in endorsing the view that the only acceptable social rate of time preference is zero, a view that, taken literally, has either absurd or extremely radical implications. The first goal (...)
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  17.  48
    Methodological Individualism.Joseph Heath - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    (1968 [1922]). It amounts to the claim that social phenomena must be explained by showing how they result from individual actions, which in turn must be explained through reference to the intentional states that motivate the individual actors. It involves, in other words, a commitment to the primacy of what Talcott Parsons would later call “the action frame of reference” (Parsons 1937: 43-51) in social-scientific explanation. It is also sometimes described as the claim that explanations of “macro” social phenomena must (...)
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  18. Business Ethics and Moral Motivation: A Criminological Perspective.Joseph Heath - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (4):595-614.
    The prevalence of white-collar crime casts a long shadow over discussions in business ethics. One of the effects that has been the development of a strong emphasis upon questions of moral motivation within the field. Often in business ethics, there is no real dispute about the content of our moral obligations, the question is rather how to motivate people to respect them. This is a question that has been studied quite extensively by criminologists as well, yet their research has had (...)
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  19.  38
    The Structure of Intergenerational Cooperation.Joseph Heath - 2013 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 41 (1):31-66.
  20. Rawls on Global Distributive Justice: A Defence.Joseph Heath - 2005 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 35 (sup1):193-226.
  21.  41
    Business Ethics and the 'End of History' in Corporate Law.Joseph Heath - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (S1):5-20.
    Henry Hansmann has claimed we have reached the “end of history” in corporate law, organized around the “widespread normative consensus that corporate managers should act exclusively in the economic interests of shareholders.” In this paper, I examine Hansmann’s own argument in support of this view, in order to draw out its implications for some of the traditional concerns of business ethicists about corporate social responsibility. The centerpiece of Hansmann’s argument is the claim that ownership of the firm is most naturally (...)
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  22. Foundationalism and Practical Reason.Joseph Heath - 1997 - Mind 106 (423):451-474.
    In this paper, I argue that Humean theories of moral motivation appear preferable to Kantian approaches only if one assumes a broadly foundationalist conception of rational justification. Like foundationalist approaches to justification generally, Humean psychology aims to counter the regress-of-justification argument by positing a set of ultimate regress-stoppers-in this case, unmotivated desires. If the need for regress-stoppers of this type in the realm of practical deliberation is accepted, desires do indeed appear to be the most likely candidate. But if this (...)
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  23.  7
    Business Ethics Without Stakeholders.Joseph Heath - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (4):533-557.
    One of the most influential ideas in the field of business ethics has been the suggestion that ethical conduct in a business contextshould be analyzed in terms of a set of fiduciary obligations toward various “stakeholder” groups. Moral problems, according to this view, involve reconciling such obligations in cases where stakeholder groups have conflicting interests. The question posed in this paper is whether the stakeholder paradigm represents the most fruitful way of articulating the moral problems that arise in business. By (...)
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  24.  43
    Attributing Weather Extremes to Climate Change and the Future of Adaptation Policy.Idil Boran & Joseph Heath - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):239-255.
    Until recently, climate scientists were unable to link the occurrence of extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change. In recent years, however, climate science has made considerable advancements, making it possible to assess the influence of anthropogenic climate change on single weather events. Using a new technique called ‘probabilistic event attribution’, scientists are able to assess whether anthropogenic climate change has changed the likelihood of the occurrence of a recorded extreme weather event. These advancements raise the expectation that this branch (...)
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  25. Letting the World In: Empirical Approaches to Ethics.Joseph Heath - 2012 - Les Ateliers de L’Ethique 7 (3):93-107.
  26.  34
    Morality, Convention and Conventional Morality.Joseph Heath - 2017 - Philosophical Explorations 20 (3):276-293.
    Among anthropologists and sociologists, it is widely believed that moral rules are best understood as a type of social norm. Moral philosophers, however, have largely been hostile to this suggestion. In recent years, the impulse to distinguish moral rules from others types of social norm has received what many take to be empirical support from the work of Elliot Turiel and his collaborators, who have argued that there are two distinct “domains” of social cognition, the “moral” and the “conventional.” Many (...)
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  27.  76
    Dworkin’s Auction.Joseph Heath - 2004 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (3):313-335.
    Ronald Dworkin’s argument for resource egalitarianism has as its centerpiece a thought experiment involving a group of shipwreck survivors washed ashore on an uninhabited island, who decide to divide up all of the resources on the island equally using a competitive auction. Unfortunately, Dworkin misunderstands how the auction mechanism works, and so misinterprets its significance for egalitarian political philosophy. First, he makes it seem as though there is a conceptual connection between the ‘envy-freeness’ standard and the auction, when in fact (...)
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  28.  88
    Rebooting Discourse Ethics.Joseph Heath - 2014 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 40 (9):829-866.
    In this article I argue that the conception of discourse ethics that Jürgen Habermas advances in his seminar paper, ‘Discourse Ethics: Notes on a Program of Philosophical Justification’, is subject to significant revision in later work. The central difference has to do with the status of the universalization principle and its relationship to the ‘rightness’ validity claim. The earlier view is structured by a desire to provide a weak-transcendental defense of the universalization principle. The later revision, however, essentially undercuts the (...)
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  29.  53
    Recent Trends in Evolutionary Ethics: Greenbeards!Joseph Heath & Catherine Rioux - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (1-2):16.
    In recent years, there has been growing awareness among evolutionary ethicists that systems of cooperation based upon “weak” reciprocity mechanisms lack scalability, and are therefore inadequate to explain human ultrasociality. This has produced a shift toward models that strengthen the cooperative mechanism, by adding various forms of commitment or punishment. Unfortunately, the most prominent versions of this hypothesis wind up positing a discredited mechanism as the basis of human ultrasociality, viz. a “greenbeard.” This paper begins by explaining what a greenbeard (...)
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  30. The Robustness of Altruism as an Evolutionary Strategy.Scott Woodcock & Joseph Heath - 2002 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (4):567-590.
    Kin selection, reciprocity and group selection are widely regarded as evolutionary mechanisms capable of sustaining altruism among humans andother cooperative species. Our research indicates, however, that these mechanisms are only particular examples of a broader set of evolutionary possibilities.In this paper we present the results of a series of simple replicator simulations, run on variations of the 2–player prisoner's dilemma, designed to illustrate the wide range of scenarios under which altruism proves to be robust under evolutionary pressures. The set of (...)
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  31.  84
    What is a Validity Claim?Joseph Heath - 1998 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 24 (4):23-41.
    Even though the concept of a 'validity claim' is central to Habermas's theory of communicative action, he has never given a precise definition of the term. He has stated only that truth is a type of validity claim, and that rightness and sincerity are analogous to truth. This paper explores the basis of this analogy, arguing that rightness and sincerity must share at least two characteristics with the truth predicate: each must be the designated value in an appropriate system of (...)
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  32.  94
    Political Egalitarianism.Joseph Heath - 2008 - Social Theory and Practice 34 (4):485-516.
    The term “political” egalitarianism is used here, not to refer to equality within the political sphere, but rather in John Rawls’s sense, to refer to a conception of egalitarian distributive justice that is capable of serving as the object of an overlapping consensus in a pluralistic society.1 Thus “political” egalitarianism is political in the same way that Rawls’s “political” liberalism is political. The central task when it comes to developing such a conception of equality is to determine what constraints a (...)
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  33. Ideology, Irrationality and Collectively Self‐Defeating Behavior.Joseph Heath - 2000 - Constellations 7 (3):363-371.
    One of the most persistent legacies of Karl Marx and the Young Hegelians has been the centrality of the concept of “ideology” in contemporary social criticism. The concept was introduced in order to account for a very specific phenomenon, viz. the fact that individuals often participate in maintaining and reproducing institutions under which they are oppressed or exploited. In the extreme, these individuals may even actively resist the efforts of anyone who tries to change these institutions on their behalf. Clearly, (...)
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  34.  79
    Climate Ethics: Justifying a Positive Social Time Preference.Joseph Heath - 2017 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 14 (4):435-462.
    _ Source: _Page Count 28 Recent debates over climate change policy have made it clear that the choice of a social discount rate has enormous consequences for the amount of mitigation that will be recommended. The social discount rate determines how future costs are to be compared to present costs. Philosophers, however, have been almost unanimous in endorsing the view that the only acceptable social rate of time preference is zero, a view that, taken literally, has either absurd or extremely (...)
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  35.  2
    Ethical Issues in Physician Billing Under Fee-For-Service Plans.Joseph Heath - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (1):86-104.
    Medical ethics has become an important and recognized component of physician training. There is one area, however, in which medical students receive little guidance. There is practically no discussion of the financial aspects of medical practice. My objective in this paper is to initiate a discussion about the moral dimension of physician billing practices. I argue that physicians should expand their conception of professional responsibility in order to recognize that their moral obligations toward patients include a commitment to honest and (...)
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  36.  37
    Reasonable Restrictions on Underwriting.Joseph Heath - unknown
    Few issues in business ethics are as polarizing as the practice of risk classification and underwrit­ ing in the insurance industry. Theorists who approach the issue from a background in economics often start from the assumption that policy-holders should be charged a rate that reflects the ex­ pected loss that they bring to the insurance scheme. Yet theorists who approach the question from a background in philosophy or civil rights law often begin with a presumption against socalled “actuarially fair” premiums (...)
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  37.  84
    Culture: Choice or Circumstance?Joseph Heath - 1998 - Constellations 5 (2):183-200.
    In this paper, I would like to discuss two recent attempts to incorporate groupdifferentiated rights and entitlements into a broadly liberal conception of distributive justice. The first is John Roemer’s “pragmatic theory of responsibility,” and the second is Will Kymlicka’s defense of minority rights in “multinational” states.1 Both arguments try to show that egalitarianism, far from requiring a “color-blind” system of institutions and laws that is insensitive to ethnic, linguistic or subcultural differences, may in fact mandate special types of rights, (...)
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  38.  50
    Ideal Theory in an Nth-Best World: The Case of Pauper Labor.Joseph Heath - 2013 - Journal of Global Ethics 9 (2):159 - 172.
    One of the most troubling features of international trade is that it often involves exchange between individuals facing dramatically different life circumstances, who therefore derive different levels of benefit from the exchange. Most obviously, wages are extremely low in underdeveloped countries. However, the principle underlying these wages is the same as the one the dictates wage levels in wealthy countries. It is, therefore, difficult to criticize the wages paid to ?pauper labor? without at the same time criticizing the way that (...)
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  39.  55
    Intergenerational Cooperation and Distributive Justice.Joseph Heath - 1997 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 27 (3):361 - 376.
    Kevin Sauvé has recently argued in this journal that David Gauthier's conception of ‘morals by agreement’ is inimical to the development of long-term productive investment and sustainable levels of resource exploitation. According to Sauvé, this is because society is confronted with an intergenerational interaction problem whose strategic equilibrium is suboptimal. However, unlike the ‘contemporaneous Prisoner's Dilemma’ that Gauthier analyzes, the intergenerational version cannot be solved by an appeal to constrained maximization. As a result, Sauvé claims, Gauthier cannot effectively address the (...)
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  40. The Problem of Foundationalism in Habermas's Discourse Ethics.Joseph Heath - 1995 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 21 (1):77-100.
  41.  39
    Book Review: Social Acceleration: A New Theory of Modernity, by Hartmut Rosa, Translated by Jonathan Trejo-MathysSocial Acceleration: A New Theory of Modernity, by RosaHartmut, Translated by Trejo-MathysJonathan. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013. [REVIEW]Joseph Heath - 2016 - Political Theory 44 (1):150-153.
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  42.  32
    The Transcendental Necessity of Morality.Joseph Heath - 2003 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 67 (2):378–395.
    David Gauthier tries to defend morality by showing that rational agents would choose to adopt a fundamental choice disposition that permits them to cooperate in prisoner's dilemmas. In this paper, I argue that Gauthier, rather than trying to work out a prudential justification for his favored choice disposition, should opt for a transcendental justification. I argue that the disposition in question is the product of socialization, not rational choice. However, only agents who are socialized in such a way that they (...)
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  43. Envy and Efficiency.Joseph Heath - 2006 - Revue de Philosophie Économique 13.
    Joseph Heath1 The Pareto principle states that if a proposed change in the condition of society makes at least one person better off, and does not make anyone else worse off, then that change should be regarded as an improvement. This principle forms the conceptual core of modern welfare economics, and exercises enormous influence in contemporary discussions of justice and equality. It does, however, have an Achilles’ heel. When an individual experiences envy, it means that improvements in the condition of (...)
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  44.  37
    Three Evolutionary Precursors to Morality.Joseph Heath - 2009 - Dialogue 48 (4):717.
    One of the unspoken assumptions quite widely shared among moral philosophers is the belief that human beings have a unified moral pyschology. Roughly speaking, morality involves action that is, at least prima facie, contrary to self-interest. This generates two immediate problems. The first involves determining whether moral action, under this description, is possible, and if it is, explaining how such action might come about. The second involves the normative task of justifying a moral course of action to an agent who, (...)
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  45.  16
    Review of Debra Satz's Why Some Things Should Not Be for Sale. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, 252 Pp. [REVIEW]Joseph Heath - 2011 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 4 (1):99-107.
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  46. 'Legitimation Crisis' in the Later Work of Jürgen Habermas.Joseph Heath - unknown
    Most political theorists became acquainted with the work of Jürgen Habermas through his 1973 publication of Legitimationsprobleme im Spätkapitalismus (which became available in English two years later as Legitimation Crisis). In this work, Habermas argued that the traditional Marxist analysis of crisis tendencies in the capitalist system was outdated, given the relative success of the welfare-state compromise. He claimed instead that crisis tendencies generated in the economic sphere would be displaced, via state action, into the cultural sphere. This would in (...)
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  47.  68
    The Structure of Normative Control.Joseph Heath - 1998 - Law and Philosophy 17 (4):419 - 441.
    One of the most commonly observed peculiarities of the instrumental conception of rationality is that when applied in contexts of social interaction it sometimes prescribes actions that will predictably result in suboptimal outcomes. Often these outcomes could be avoided if agents were able to credibly commit themselves to refraining from exercising certain options available to them. The prisoners’ dilemma is the classic example. This problem has generated a small growth industry of attempts to modify the instrumental model in order to (...)
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  48.  23
    A Multi-Stage Game Model Of Morals By Agreement.Joseph Heath - 1996 - Dialogue 35 (3):529-552.
    If there is one aspect of David Gauthier's program for a contractualist morality that has been most sceptically received, it is his view that instrumentally rational agents would choose to adopt a disposition that would in turn constrain their future choices. Instead of remaining “straightforward maximizers” caught in a suboptimal state of nature, they would become “constrained maximizers” who could avoid prisoner's dilemmas by engaging in conditional co-operation. Apart from the fact that Gauthier's entirely prescriptive orientation leads him to omit (...)
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  49.  14
    Practical Irrationality and the Structure of Decision Theory.Joseph Heath - 2003 - In Christine Tappolet & Sarah Stroud (eds.), Weakness of Will and Practical Irrationality. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 251--273.
    Any theory of practical irrationality necessarily imposes a division of labour between an account of the agent's intentional states and how these are formed, and an account of how these intentional states get applied in particular circumstances to choose a particular action. Nevertheless, questions that concern the content of the agent's beliefs and desires are still routinely lumped together with questions that deal with the way the agent chooses in the light of these beliefs and desires. This generates a number (...)
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  50. Health Care as a Commodity.Joseph Heath - unknown
    One of the arguments that is often advanced in defence of the public health care system in Canada appeals to the idea that medical care should not be treated as a “commodity.” The recent Romanow Report on the Future of Health Care in Canada, for instance, says that, “Canadians view medicare as a moral enterprise, not a business venture.”1 Public provision is then urged on the grounds that this is the only mode of delivery compatible with this constraint. This argument (...)
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