Results for 'Joseph Y. Halpern'

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  1. First-Order Conditional Logic for Default Reasoning Revisited.Nir Friedman, Joseph Halpern, Koller Y. & Daphne - 2000 - Acm Trans. Comput. Logic 1 (2):175--207.
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  2.  14
    Reasoning About Uncertainty.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2003 - MIT Press.
  3.  37
    Compact Representations of Extended Causal Models.Joseph Y. Halpern & Christopher Hitchcock - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (6):986-1010.
    Judea Pearl (2000) was the first to propose a definition of actual causation using causal models. A number of authors have suggested that an adequate account of actual causation must appeal not only to causal structure but also to considerations of normality. In Halpern and Hitchcock (2011), we offer a definition of actual causation using extended causal models, which include information about both causal structure and normality. Extended causal models are potentially very complex. In this study, we show how (...)
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  4. Causes and Explanations: A Structural-Model Approach. Part I: Causes.Joseph Y. Halpern & Judea Pearl - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):843-887.
    Department of Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA judea{at}cs.ucla.edu' + u + '@' + d + ''//--> We propose a new definition of actual causes, using structural equations to model counterfactuals. We show that the definition yields a plausible and elegant account of causation that handles well examples which have caused problems for other definitions and resolves major difficulties in the traditional account. Introduction Causal models: a review 2.1 Causal models 2.2 Syntax and semantics (...)
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  5. Graded Causation and Defaults.Joseph Y. Halpern & Christopher Hitchcock - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (2):413-457.
    Recent work in psychology and experimental philosophy has shown that judgments of actual causation are often influenced by consideration of defaults, typicality, and normality. A number of philosophers and computer scientists have also suggested that an appeal to such factors can help deal with problems facing existing accounts of actual causation. This article develops a flexible formal framework for incorporating defaults, typicality, and normality into an account of actual causation. The resulting account takes actual causation to be both graded and (...)
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  6.  22
    Updating Probability: Tracking Statistics as Criterion.C. Van Fraassen Bas & Y. Halpern Joseph - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (3).
    For changing opinion, represented by an assignment of probabilities to propositions, the criterion proposed is motivated by the requirement that the assignment should have, and maintain, the possibility of matching in some appropriate sense statistical proportions in a population. This ‘tracking’ criterion implies limitations on policies for updating in response to a wide range of types of new input. Satisfying the criterion is shown equivalent to the principle that the prior must be a convex combination of the possible posteriors. Furthermore, (...)
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  7.  2
    Causes and Explanations: A Structural-Model Approach. Part II: Explanations.Y. Halpern Joseph & Pearl Judea - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):889-911.
  8.  36
    General Cognitive Principles for Learning Structure in Time and Space.Michael H. Goldstein, Heidi R. Waterfall, Arnon Lotem, Joseph Y. Halpern, Jennifer A. Schwade, Luca Onnis & Shimon Edelman - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (6):249-258.
  9.  24
    Intransitivity and Vagueness.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2008 - Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (4):530-547.
    There are many examples in the literature that suggest that indistinguishability is intransitive, despite the fact that the indistinguishability relation is typically taken to be an equivalence relation (and thus transitive). It is shown that if the uncertainty perception and the question of when an agent reports that two things are indistinguishable are both carefully modeled, the problems disappear, and indistinguishability can indeed be taken to be an equivalence relation. Moreover, this model also suggests a logic of vagueness that seems (...)
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  10.  36
    Belief Revision: A Critique. [REVIEW]Nir Friedman & Joseph Y. Halpern - 1999 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (4):401-420.
    We examine carefully the rationale underlying the approaches to belief change taken in the literature, and highlight what we view as methodological problems. We argue that to study belief change carefully, we must be quite explicit about the ontology or scenario underlying the belief change process. This is something that has been missing in previous work, with its focus on postulates. Our analysis shows that we must pay particular attention to two issues that have often been taken for granted: the (...)
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  11.  13
    Weighted Sets of Probabilities and Minimax Weighted Expected Regret: A New Approach for Representing Uncertainty and Making Decisions.Joseph Y. Halpern & Samantha Leung - 2015 - Theory and Decision 79 (3):415-450.
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  12.  43
    Should Knowledge Entail Belief?Joseph Y. Halpern - 1996 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 25 (5):483 - 494.
    The appropriateness of S5 as a logic of knowledge has been attacked at some length in the philosophical literature. Here one particular attack based on the interplay between knowledge and belief is considered: Suppose that knowledge satisfies S5, belief satisfies KD45, and both the entailment property (knowledge implies belief) and positive certainty (if the agent believes something, she believes she knows it) hold. Then it can be shown that belief reduces to knowledge: it is impossible to have false beliefs. While (...)
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  13.  77
    Defining Knowledge in Terms of Belief: The Modal Logic Perspective.Joseph Y. Halpern, Dov Samet & Ella Segev - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):469-487.
    The question of whether knowledge is definable in terms of belief, which has played an important role in epistemology for the last 50 years, is studied here in the framework of epistemic and doxastic logics. Three notions of definability are considered: explicit definability, implicit definability, and reducibility, where explicit definability is equivalent to the combination of implicit definability and reducibility. It is shown that if knowledge satisfies any set of axioms contained in S5, then it cannot be explicitly defined in (...)
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  14.  38
    Great Expectations. Part I: On the Customizability of Generalized Expected Utility. [REVIEW]Francis C. Chu & Joseph Y. Halpern - 2008 - Theory and Decision 64 (1):1-36.
    We propose a generalization of expected utility that we call generalized EU (GEU), where a decision maker’s beliefs are represented by plausibility measures and the decision maker’s tastes are represented by general (i.e., not necessarily real-valued) utility functions. We show that every agent, “rational” or not, can be modeled as a GEU maximizer. We then show that we can customize GEU by selectively imposing just the constraints we want. In particular, we show how each of Savage’s postulates corresponds to constraints (...)
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  15. Asymptotic Conditional Probabilities: The Non-Unary Case.Adam J. Grove, Joseph Y. Halpern & Daphne Koller - 1996 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (1):250-276.
    Motivated by problems that arise in computing degrees of belief, we consider the problem of computing asymptotic conditional probabilities for first-order sentences. Given first-order sentences φ and θ, we consider the structures with domain {1,..., N} that satisfy θ, and compute the fraction of them in which φ is true. We then consider what happens to this fraction as N gets large. This extends the work on 0-1 laws that considers the limiting probability of first-order sentences, by considering asymptotic conditional (...)
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  16. What is an Inference Rule?Ronald Fagin, Joseph Y. Halpern & Moshe Y. Vardi - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (3):1018-1045.
    What is an inference rule? This question does not have a unique answer. One usually finds two distinct standard answers in the literature; validity inference $(\sigma \vdash_\mathrm{v} \varphi$ if for every substitution $\tau$, the validity of $\tau \lbrack\sigma\rbrack$ entails the validity of $\tau\lbrack\varphi\rbrack)$, and truth inference $(\sigma \vdash_\mathrm{t} \varphi$ if for every substitution $\tau$, the truth of $\tau\lbrack\sigma\rbrack$ entails the truth of $\tau\lbrack\varphi\rbrack)$. In this paper we introduce a general semantic framework that allows us to investigate the notion of inference (...)
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  17.  53
    Minimizing Regret in Dynamic Decision Problems.Joseph Y. Halpern & Samantha Leung - forthcoming - Theory and Decision.
    The menu-dependent nature of regret-minimization creates subtleties when it is applied to dynamic decision problems. It is not clear whether forgone opportunities should be included in the menu. We explain commonly observed behavioral patterns as minimizing regret when forgone opportunities are present. If forgone opportunities are included, we can characterize when a form of dynamic consistency is guaranteed.
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  18.  7
    On the Unusual Effectiveness of Logic in Computer Science.Joseph Y. Halpern, Robert Harper, Neil Immerman, Phokion G. Kolaitis, Moshe Y. Vardi & Victor Vianu - 2001 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 7 (2):213-236.
  19.  36
    The Role of the Protocol in Anthropic Reasoning.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2015 - Ergo, an Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2:195-206.
    I show how thinking in terms of the protocol used can help clarify problems related to anthropic reasoning and self-location, such as the Doomsday Argument and the Sleeping Beauty Problem.
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  20.  27
    On Definability in Multimodal Logic.Joseph Y. Halpern, Dov Samet & Ella Segev - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):451-468.
    Three notions of definability in multimodal logic are considered. Two are analogous to the notions of explicit definability and implicit definability introduced by Beth in the context of first-order logic. However, while by Beth’s theorem the two types of definability are equivalent for first-order logic, such an equivalence does not hold for multimodal logics. A third notion of definability, reducibility, is introduced; it is shown that in multimodal logics, explicit definability is equivalent to the combination of implicit definability and reducibility. (...)
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  21.  38
    Decision Theory with Resource‐Bounded Agents.Joseph Y. Halpern, Rafael Pass & Lior Seeman - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (2):245-257.
    There have been two major lines of research aimed at capturing resource-bounded players in game theory. The first, initiated by Rubinstein (), charges an agent for doing costly computation; the second, initiated by Neyman (), does not charge for computation, but limits the computation that agents can do, typically by modeling agents as finite automata. We review recent work on applying both approaches in the context of decision theory. For the first approach, we take the objects of choice in a (...)
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  22.  31
    Taken by Surprise: The Paradox of the Surprise Test Revisited. [REVIEW]Joseph Y. Halpern & Yoram Moses - 1986 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 15 (3):281 - 304.
    A teacher announced to his pupils that on exactly one of the days of the following school week (Monday through Friday) he would give them a test. But it would be a surprise test; on the evening before the test they would not know that the test would take place the next day. One of the brighter students in the class then argued that the teacher could never give them the test. "It can't be Friday," she said, "since in that (...)
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  23.  4
    Common Knowledge Revisited.Ronald Fagin, Joseph Y. Halpern, Yoram Moses & Moshe Y. Vardi - 1999 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 96 (1-3):89-105.
  24.  15
    Maxmin Weighted Expected Utility: A Simpler Characterization.Joseph Y. Halpern & Samantha Leung - forthcoming - Theory and Decision.
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  25.  12
    Appropriate Causal Models and the Stability of Causation.Joseph Y. Halpern - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-27.
  26.  1
    Reasoning About Knowledge: An Overview.Joseph Y. Halpern - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):660-661.
  27.  13
    I'm OK If You're OK: On the Notion of Trusting Communication. [REVIEW]Ronald Fagin & Joseph Y. Halpern - 1988 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 17 (4):329 - 354.
    We consider the issue of what an agent or a processor needs to know in order to know that its messages are true. This may be viewed as a first step to a general theory of cooperative communication in distributed systems. An honest message is one that is known to be true when it is sent (or said). If every message that is sent is honest, then of course every message that is sent is true. Various weaker considerations than honesty (...)
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  28.  9
    Presburger Arithmetic with Unary Predicates is Π11 Complete.Joseph Y. Halpern - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (2):637 - 642.
    We give a simple proof characterizing the complexity of Presburger arithmetic augmented with additional predicates. We show that Presburger arithmetic with additional predicates is Π 1 1 complete. Adding one unary predicate is enough to get Π 1 1 hardness, while adding more predicates (of any arity) does not make the complexity any worse.
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  29.  16
    Intransitivity and Vagueness - Corrigendum.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):591-591.
    doi: 10.1017/S1755020308090084, Published by Cambridge University Press 31 March 2009 in Volume 1, Number 4 of The Review of Symbolic Logic . On page 541, in the 4 th paragraph, in line 7, an error occurred. The sentence should correctly read: “For all worlds w , if there is more than one grain of sand in the pile in w , then there is still more than one grain of sand after removing one grain of sand.”.
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  30.  15
    Reasoning About Knowledge: A Response by the Authors. [REVIEW]Ronald Fagin, Joseph Y. Halpern, Yoram Moses & Moshe Y. Vardi - 1997 - Minds and Machines 7 (1):113-113.
  31.  1
    Review: B. C. Moszkowski, Executing Temporal Logic Programs. [REVIEW]Joseph Y. Halpern - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (1):309-309.
  32.  1
    Erratum to “Zero-One Laws for Modal Logic” [Ann. Pure Appl. Logic 69 157–193].Joseph Y. Halpern & Bruce M. Kapron - 2003 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 121 (2-3):281-283.
  33. Characterizing and Reasoning About Probabilistic and Non-Probabilistic Expectation.Joseph Y. Halpern & Riccardo Pucella - 2007 - J. Acm 54 (3):15.
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  34. Executing Temporal Logic Programs.Joseph Y. Halpern & B. C. Moszkowski - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (1):309.
  35. Moszkowski B. C.. Executing Temporal Logic Programs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Etc. 1986, Xiii + 125 Pp. [REVIEW]Joseph Y. Halpern - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (1):309.
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  36. Probability and Conditionals: Belief Revision and Rational Decision.Joseph Y. Halpern, Ellery Eells & Brian Skyrms - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (2):277.
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  37. Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge Proceedings of the 1986 Conference, March 19-22, 1986, Monterey, California. [REVIEW]Joseph Y. Halpern, International Business Machines Corporation, American Association of Artificial Intelligence, United States & Association for Computing Machinery - 1986
     
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  38. The Bottleneck May Be the Solution, Not the Problem.Arnon Lotem, Oren Kolodny, Joseph Y. Halpern, Luca Onnis & Shimon Edelman - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  39. Joseph Y. Halpern, Reasoning About Uncertainty Reviewed By.Paul Weirich - 2004 - Philosophy in Review 24 (5):333-336.
    This book review describes and evaluates Joseph Halpern's ideas about reasoning, in particular, reasoning involving conditions.
     
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  40. Joseph Y. Halpern, Reasoning About Uncertainty. [REVIEW]Paul Weirich - 2004 - Philosophy in Review 24:333-336.
    Reviews Joseph Halpern's book with special attention to his points about conditionals.
     
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  41.  40
    Joseph Y. Halpern, Reasoning About Uncertainty.Igor Kozine - 2007 - Studia Logica 85 (3):411-412.
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  42.  2
    Review: Joseph Y. Halpern, Reasoning About Knowledge: An Overview. [REVIEW]William J. Rapaport - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):660-661.
  43.  13
    Reasoning About Knowledge, Ronald Fagin, Joseph Y. Halpern, Yoram Moses, and Moshe Y. Vardi.Valentin Goranko - 1999 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (4):469-473.
  44.  1
    Review: Ronald Fagin, Joseph Y. Halpern, Yoram Moses, Moshe Y. Vardi, Reasoning About Knowledge. [REVIEW]Rohit Parikh - 1997 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 62 (4):1484-1487.
  45. Ronald Fagin, Joseph Y. Halpern, Yoram Moses, and Moshe Y. Vardi, Reasoning About Knowledge.V. Goranko - 1999 - Journal of Logic Language and Information 8:469-473.
  46.  4
    Asher Nicholas M. And Kamp Johan A. W.. The Knower's Paradox and Representational Theories of Attitudes. Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge, Proceedings of the 1986 Conference, Edited by Halpern Joseph Y., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos 1986, Pp. 131–147. [REVIEW]William J. Rapaport - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):666.
  47.  4
    Vardi Moshe Y.. On Epistemic Logic and Logical Omniscience. Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge, Proceedings of the 1986 Conference, Edited by Halpern Joseph Y., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos 1986, Pp. 293–305. [REVIEW]William J. Rapaport - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):668.
  48.  2
    Dwork Cynthia and Moses Yoram. Knowledge and Common Knowledge in a Byzantine Environment I: Crash Failures. Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge, Proceedings of the 1986 Conference, Edited by Halpern Joseph Y., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos 1986, Pp. 149–169. [REVIEW]William J. Rapaport - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):666.
  49.  2
    Fagin Ronald and Vardi Moshe Y.. Knowledge and Implicit Knowledge in a Distributed Environment: Preliminary Report. Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge, Proceedings of the 1986 Conference, Edited by Halpern Joseph Y., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos 1986, Pp. 187–206. [REVIEW]William J. Rapaport - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):667.
  50.  2
    Megiddo Nimrod and Wigderson Avi. On Play by Means of Computing Machines . Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge, Proceedings of the 1986 Conference, Edited by Halpern Joseph Y., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos 1986, Pp. 259–274.Gaifman Haim. A Theory of Higher Order Probabilities. Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge, Proceedings of the 1986 Conference, Edited by Halpern Joseph Y., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos 1986, Pp. 275–292.Micali Silvio. Knowledge and Efficient Computation. Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge, Proceedings of the 1986 Conference, Edited by Halpern Joseph Y., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos 1986, Pp. 353–362. [REVIEW]William J. Rapaport - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):669-670.
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