Results for 'Joshua D. Guttman'

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  1. François Lepage, Elias Thijsse, Heinrich Wansing/In-Troduction 1 J. Michael Dunn/Partiality and its Dual 5 Jan van Eijck/Making Things Happen 41 William M. Farmer, Joshua D. Guttman/A Set Theory. [REVIEW]René Lavendhomme, Thierry Lucas & Sequent Calculi - 2000 - Studia Logica 66:447-448.
  2.  50
    A Set Theory with Support for Partial Functions.William M. Farmer & Joshua D. Guttman - 2000 - Studia Logica 66 (1):59-78.
    Partial functions can be easily represented in set theory as certain sets of ordered pairs. However, classical set theory provides no special machinery for reasoning about partial functions. For instance, there is no direct way of handling the application of a function to an argument outside its domain as in partial logic. There is also no utilization of lambda-notation and sorts or types as in type theory. This paper introduces a version of von-Neumann-Bernays-Gödel set theory for reasoning about sets, proper (...)
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  3. Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason and the Gap Between Us and Them.Joshua D. Greene - 2013 - Penguin Press.
    Our brains were designed for tribal life, for getting along with a select group of others and for fighting off everyone else. But modern times have forced the world’s tribes into a shared space, resulting in epic clashes of values along with unprecedented opportunities. As the world shrinks, the moral lines that divide us become more salient and more puzzling. We fight over everything from tax codes to gay marriage to global warming, and we wonder where, if at all, we (...)
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  4. Beyond Point-and-Shoot Morality: Why Cognitive (Neuro)Science Matters for Ethics.Joshua D. Greene - 2014 - Ethics 124 (4):695-726.
    In this article I explain why cognitive science (including some neuroscience) matters for normative ethics. First, I describe the dual-process theory of moral judgment and briefly summarize the evidence supporting it. Next I describe related experimental research examining influences on intuitive moral judgment. I then describe two ways in which research along these lines can have implications for ethics. I argue that a deeper understanding of moral psychology favors certain forms of consequentialism over other classes of normative moral theory. I (...)
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  5. Pushing Moral Buttons: The Interaction Between Personal Force and Intention in Moral Judgment.Joshua D. Greene, Fiery A. Cushman, Lisa E. Stewart, Kelly Lowenberg, Leigh E. Nystrom & Jonathan D. Cohen - 2009 - Cognition 111 (3):364-371.
  6.  89
    Cognitive Load Selectively Interferes with Utilitarian Moral Judgment.Joshua D. Greene, Sylvia A. Morelli, Kelly Lowenberg, Leigh E. Nystrom & Jonathan D. Cohen - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):1144-1154.
  7.  40
    Toward an Ethics of Organizations.Joshua D. Margolis - 1999 - Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (4):619-638.
    The organization is importantly different from both the nation-state and the individual and hence needs its own ethical models and theories, distinct from political and moral theory. To develop a case for organizational ethics, this paper advances arguments in three directions. First, it highlights the growing role of organizations and their distinctive attributes. Second, it illuminates the incongruities between organizations and moral and political philosophy. Third, it takes these incongruities, as well as organizations’ distinctive attributes, as a starting point for (...)
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  8. Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment.Joshua D. Greene - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (1):163-177.
    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian responding, as individuals who reflected more on the CRT made more utilitarian judgments. A follow-up study suggested that trait reflectiveness is also associated with increased utilitarian judgment. In Experiment 2, subjects considered (...)
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  9.  36
    Cognitive Load Selectively Interferes with Utilitarian Moral Judgment.Jonathan D. Cohen Joshua D. Greene, Sylvia A. Morelli, Kelly Lowenberg, Leigh E. Nystrom - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):1144.
  10. Why Are VMPFC Patients More Utilitarian? A Dual-Process Theory of Moral Judgment Explains.Joshua D. Greene - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (8):322-323.
  11.  8
    An Appraisal Theory of Empathy and Other Vicarious Emotional Experiences.Joshua D. Wondra & Phoebe C. Ellsworth - 2015 - Psychological Review 122 (3):411-428.
  12.  35
    The Rat-a-Gorical Imperative: Moral Intuition and the Limits of Affective Learning.Joshua D. Greene - 2017 - Cognition 167:66-77.
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  13.  14
    Psychological Pragmatism and the Imperative of Aims: A New Approach for Business Ethics.Joshua D. Margolis - 1998 - Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (3):409-430.
    Psychological forces in play across individual, group, and organizational levels of analysis increase the likelihood that people inbusiness organizations will engage in misconduct. Therefore, it is argued, we must turn our attention from dominant normative and empirical trends in business ethics, which revolve around boundaries and constraints, and instead concentrate on methods for promoting ethical behavior in practice, exploiting psychological forces conducive to ethical conduct. This calls for a better understanding of how organizations and their inhabitants function, and, in turn, (...)
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  14.  11
    Psychological Pragmatism and the Imperative of Aims: A New Approach for Business Ethics.Joshua D. Margolis - 1998 - Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (3):409-430.
    Psychological forces in play across individual, group, and organizational levels of analysis increase the likelihood that people inbusiness organizations will engage in misconduct. Therefore, it is argued, we must turn our attention from dominant normative and empirical trends in business ethics, which revolve around boundaries and constraints, and instead concentrate on methods for promoting ethical behavior in practice, exploiting psychological forces conducive to ethical conduct. This calls for a better understanding of how organizations and their inhabitants function, and, in turn, (...)
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  15.  6
    Regulating surplus: charity and the legal geographies of food waste enclosure.Joshua D. Lohnes - forthcoming - Agriculture and Human Values:1-13.
    Food charity in the United States has grown into a critical appendage of agro-food supply chains. In 2016, 4.5 billion pounds of food waste was diverted through a network of 200 regional food banks, a fivefold increase in just 20 years. Recent global trade disruptions and the COVID-19 pandemic have further reinforced this trend. Economic geographers studying charitable food networks argue that its infrastructure and moral substructure serve to revalue food waste and surplus labor in the capitalist food system. The (...)
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  16. Finding Faults: How Moral Dilemmas Illuminate Cognitive Structure.Joshua D. Greene - unknown
    In philosophy, a debate can live forever. Nowhere is this more evident than in ethics, a field that is fueled by apparently intractable dilemmas. To promote the wellbeing of many, may we sacrifice the rights of a few? If our actions are predetermined, can we be held responsible for them? Should people be judged on their intentions alone, or also by the consequences of their behavior? Is failing to prevent someone’s death as blameworthy as actively causing it? For generations, questions (...)
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  17.  53
    The Rise of Moral Cognition.Joshua D. Greene - 2015 - Cognition 135:39-42.
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  18.  27
    Beyond Point-and-Shoot Morality: Why Cognitive Science Matters for Ethics.Joshua D. Greene - 2015 - Law and Ethics of Human Rights 9 (2):141-172.
    Journal Name: The Law & Ethics of Human Rights Issue: Ahead of print.
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  19.  8
    Beyond Point-and-Shoot Morality: Why Cognitive Science Matters for Ethics.Joshua D. Greene - 2015 - The Law and Ethics of Human Rights 9 (2):141-172.
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  20. Emotion and Morality: A Tasting Menu.Joshua D. Greene - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):227-229.
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  21.  7
    Circularity in Setiya’s Knowing Right From Wrong.Joshua D. McBee - 2018 - Social Theory and Practice 44 (3):349-375.
    Recently, Kieran Setiya suggested that we might respond to evolutionary debunking arguments by arguing that, even if we cannot explain our reliability in ethics, we might justify believing ourselves reliable using a track record argument. Not surprisingly, several critics have claimed that this response is circular. I consider two senses in which they might be right, concluding that, though Setiya’s argument does not beg the question, it is epistemically circular. Perhaps surprisingly, its epistemic circularity need not prevent Setiya’s argument from (...)
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  22.  25
    Responsibility in Organizational Context.Joshua D. Margolis - 2001 - Business Ethics Quarterly 11 (3):431-454.
    Why does it matter that every negative thought you have had about car salespeople, they have likely had about you? The answerto this question opens up the distinctive challenges, and opportunities, facing business ethics. Those challenges and opportunitiesemerge from the significant bearing organizational reality has upon individuals’ conduct. As we consider how to assign responsibilityfor misconduct; how to provide guidance to organizational actors about what they ought to do; and how to develop responsive ethicaltheory, we need to take psychological and (...)
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  23. Suppose Yalcin is Wrong About Epistemic Modals.Joshua D. Crabill - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 162 (3):625-635.
    In “Epistemic Modals,” Seth Yalcin argues that what explains the deficiency of sentences containing epistemic modals of the form ‘p and it might be that not-p’ is that sentences of this sort are strictly contradictory, and thus are not instances of a Moore-paradox as has been previous suggested. Benjamin Schnieder, however, argues in his Yalcin’s explanation of these sentences’ deficiency turns out to be insufficiently general, as it cannot account for less complex but still defective sentences, such as ‘Suppose it (...)
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  24. Of Miracles and Metaphysics: A Pentecostal‐Charismatic and Process‐Relational Dialogue.Joshua D. Reichard - 2013 - Zygon 48 (2):274-293.
    This article is comprised of a dialogue between Pentecostal-Charismatic and Process-Relational theologies on the perennial issue of miracles. The language of supernaturalism, widely employed by Pentecostal-Charismatic theologians, is contrasted with the metaphysical naturalism of Process-Relational theology; it is proposed that a philosophically and scientifically sensitive theology of miracles is possible through a synthesis of both traditions. Themes such as nonmaterialism over materialism, spiritual experience, and prayer for healing miracles are explored. A theology of miracles, mutually informed by both Pentecostal-Charismatic and (...)
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  25.  34
    Morality and Emotion: A Tasting Menu.Joshua D. Greene - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):227-229.
  26.  91
    New Natural Law Theory and the Grounds of Marriage: Friendship and Self-Constitution.Joshua D. Goldstein - 2011 - Social Theory and Practice 37 (3):461-482.
    New natural lawyers--notably Grisez, Finnis, and George--have written much on civil marriage's moral boundaries and grounds, but with slight influence. The peripheral place of the new natural law theory results from the marital grounds they suggest and the exclusionary moral conclusions they draw from them. However, I argue a more authentic and attractive NNLT account of marriage is recoverable through overlooked resources within the theory itself: friendship and moral self-constitution. This reconstructed account allows us to identify the relation between marriage (...)
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  27.  89
    Natural Objects.Joshua D. K. Brown - 2016 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 2 (2):254-271.
    This paper introduces a framework for thinking about ontological questions—in particular, the Special Composition Question—and shows how the framework might help support something like an account of restricted composition. The framework takes the form of an account of natural objects, in analogy with David Lewis’s account of natural properties. Objects, like properties, come in various metaphysical grades, from the fundamental, fully objective, perfectly natural objects to the nomologically otiose, maximally gerrymandered, perfectly non-natural objects. The perfectly natural objects, I argue, are (...)
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  28. Positive Neuroscience.Joshua D. Greene, India Morrison & Martin E. P. Seligman (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    How do we thrive in our behaviors and experiences? Positive neuroscience research illuminates the brain mechanisms that enable human flourishing. Supported by the John Templeton Foundation's Positive Neuroscience Project, which Martin E. P. Seligman established in 2008, Positive Neuroscience provides an intersection between neuroscience and positive psychology.In this edited volume, leading researchers describe the neuroscience of social bonding, altruism, and the capacities for resilience and creativity. Part I describes the mechanisms that enable humans to connect with one another. Part II (...)
     
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  29.  68
    Responsibility, Inconsistency, and the Paradoxes of Morality in Human Nature De Waal's Window Into Business Ethics.Joshua D. Margolis - 2004 - The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 2004:43-52.
    Efforts to trace the evolutionary antecedents of human morality introduce challenges and opportunities for business ethics. The biological precedents of responsibility suggest that human tendencies to respond morally are deeply rooted. This does not mean, however, that those tendencies are always consistent with ends human beings seek to pursue. This paper investigates the conflicts that may arise between human beings’ moral predispositions and the purposes human beings pursue.
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  30. Moral Reasoning: Hints and Allegations.Joseph M. Paxton & Joshua D. Greene - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):511-527.
    Recent research in moral psychology highlights the role of emotion and intuition in moral judgment. In the wake of these findings, the role and significance of moral reasoning remain uncertain. In this article, we distinguish among different kinds of moral reasoning and review evidence suggesting that at least some kinds of moral reasoning play significant roles in moral judgment, including roles in abandoning moral intuitions in the absence of justifying reasons, applying both deontological and utilitarian moral principles, and counteracting automatic (...)
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  31.  53
    Chemical Atomism: A Case Study in Confirmation and Ontology.Joshua D. K. Brown - 2015 - Synthese 192 (2):453-485.
    Quine, taking the molecular constitution of matter as a paradigmatic example, offers an account of the relation between theory confirmation and ontology. Elsewhere, he deploys a similar ontological methodology to argue for the existence of mathematical objects. Penelope Maddy considers the atomic/molecular theory in more historical detail. She argues that the actual ontological practices of science display a positivistic demand for “direct observation,” and that fulfillment of this demand allows us to distinguish molecules and other physical objects from mathematical abstracta. (...)
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  32.  27
    The Importance of Risk Tolerance in Maternal Autonomy.Joshua D. Kapfhamer, Seema Menon & Ryan Spellecy - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (7):53 - 54.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 7, Page 53-54, July 2012.
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  33. Comparing the Effect of Rational and Emotional Appeals on Donation Behavior.Matthew Lindauer, Marcus Mayorga, Joshua D. Greene, Paul Slovic, Daniel Västfjäll & Peter Singer - 2020 - Judgment and Decision Making 15 (3):413-420.
    We present evidence from a pre-registered experiment indicating that a philosophical argument––a type of rational appeal––can persuade people to make charitable donations. The rational appeal we used follows Singer’s well-known “shallow pond” argument (1972), while incorporating an evolutionary debunking argument (Paxton, Ungar, & Greene 2012) against favoring nearby victims over distant ones. The effectiveness of this rational appeal did not differ significantly from that of a well-tested emotional appeal involving an image of a single child in need (Small, Loewenstein, and (...)
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  34. Hegel's Idea of the Good Life. From Virtue to Freedom. Early Writings and Mature Political Philosophy.Joshua D. Goldstein - 2007 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 69 (4):774-775.
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  35.  28
    Divine Intuition: Cognitive Style Influences Belief in God.Amitai Shenhav, David G. Rand & Joshua D. Greene - 2012 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 141 (3):423.
  36.  2
    The International Politics of Amour Propre: Revisiting Rousseau’s Place in International Relations Theory.Joshua D. King - forthcoming - Journal of International Political Theory:175508822098383.
    Realism, constructivism, and liberal institutionalism share the assumption that states are rational and self-maximizing actors. While these theories disagree as to whether states prioritize military power or economic wealth, they converge around the notion that states pursue these goods rationally and predictably. Complaints against and threats of defection from prominent international security and trade regimes, including NATO and the EU, raise doubts about states’ rationality and predictability. Perhaps these theories’ shared assumption about rational action has become an impediment to understanding (...)
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  37.  36
    Neural Dedifferentiation in the Aging Brain.Joshua D. Koen & Michael D. Rugg - 2019 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 23 (7):547-559.
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  38. And Andrew L. Molinsky.Joshua D. Margolis & Adam M. Grant - 2007 - In Ashly Pinnington, Rob Macklin & Tom Campbell (eds.), Human Resource Management: Ethics and Employment. Oxford University Press. pp. 237.
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  39. Expanding Ethical Standards of HRM: Necessary Evils and the Multiple Dimensions of Impact.Joshua D. Margolis, Adam M. Grant & Andrew L. Molinsky - 2007 - In Ashly Pinnington, Rob Macklin & Tom Campbell (eds.), Human Resource Management: Ethics and Employment. Oxford University Press.
     
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  40.  26
    Debating Climate Ethics by Stephen M. Gardiner and David A. Weisbach.Joshua D. McBee - 2018 - Ethics and the Environment 23 (1):71-77.
    Stephen Gardiner and David Weisbach's recent Debating Climate Ethics takes up an urgent and important question: is ethics relevant to climate policy? Or rather, the book takes up several, closely related versions of that question we do well to distinguish clearly: 1 Are ethical considerations relevant to climate policy? 2 Do ethical theories philosophers defend have implications regarding climate policy? 3 Does climate ethics provide policy analysts any useful guidance? Or, in other words, should climate policy analysts pay any attention (...)
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  41.  10
    “Pentecost, Process, and Power.Joshua D. Reichard - 2010 - Process Studies 39 (2):382-383.
  42. Endowed Eponymous Festivals on Delos.Joshua D. Sosin - 2014 - Kernos 27:127-157.
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  43.  4
    Unwelcome Dedications: Public Law and Private Religion in Hellenistic Laodicea by the Sea.Joshua D. Sosin - 2005 - Classical Quarterly 55 (01):130-139.
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  44. Multi-System Moral Psychology.Fiery Cushman, Liane Young & Joshua D. Greene - 2010 - In John Michael Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.
  45.  19
    Sacrificial Utilitarian Judgments Do Reflect Concern for the Greater Good: Clarification Via Process Dissociation and the Judgments of Philosophers.Paul Conway, Jacob Goldstein-Greenwood, David Polacek & Joshua D. Greene - 2018 - Cognition 179:241-265.
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  46. Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and Them, Written by Joshua D. Greene. [REVIEW]Simon Rosenqvist - 2017 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 14 (2):225-228.
  47.  13
    Translating Environmental Ideologies Into Action: The Amplifying Role of Commitment to Beliefs.Matthew A. Maxwell-Smith, Paul J. Conway, Joshua D. Wright & James M. Olson - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 153 (3):839-858.
    Consumers do not always follow their ideological beliefs about the need to engage in environmentally friendly consumption. We propose that Commitment to Beliefs —the general tendency to follow one’s value-based beliefs—can help identify who is most likely to follow their environmental ideologies. We predicted that CTB would amplify the effect of beliefs prescribing environmental stewardship, or neglect, on corresponding intentions, behavior, and purchasing decisions. In two studies, CTB amplified the positive and negative effects of relevant EF ideologies on EF purchase (...)
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  48.  11
    “You Can Carry the Torch Now:” A Qualitative Analysis of Parents’ Experiences Caring for a Child with Trisomy 13 or 18.Joshua D. Arthur & Divya Gupta - 2017 - HEC Forum 29 (3):223-240.
    Trisomy 13 and 18 are rare chromosomal abnormalities associated with high morbidity and mortality. Improved survival rates and increased prevalence of aggressive medical intervention have resulted in families and physicians holding different perspectives regarding the appropriate management of children with T 13/18. Families were invited for open-ended interviews regarding their experiences with the medical care of a child with T 13/18 over the past 5 years. Seven of 33 invited families were surveyed; those who had spent more than 40 days (...)
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  49.  94
    A New Semantics for Vagueness.Joshua D. K. Brown & James W. Garson - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (1):65-85.
    Intuitively, vagueness involves some sort of indeterminacy: if Plato is a borderline case of baldness, then there is no fact of the matter about whether or not he’s bald—he’s neither bald nor not bald. The leading formal treatments of such indeterminacy—three valued logic, supervaluationism, etc.—either fail to validate the classical theorems, or require that various classically valid inference rules be restricted. Here we show how a fully classical, yet indeterminist account of vagueness can be given within natural semantics, an alternative (...)
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  50.  17
    Transient Reduction of Visual Distraction Following Electrical Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex.Joshua D. Cosman, Priyanka V. Atreya & Geoffrey F. Woodman - 2015 - Cognition 145:73-76.
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