The use of predictive systems has become wider with the development of related computational methods, and the evolution of the sciences in which these methods are applied Solon and Selbst and Pedreschi et al.. The referred methods include machine learning techniques, face and/or voice recognition, temperature mapping, and other, within the artificial intelligence domain. These techniques are being applied to solve problems in socially and politically sensitive areas such as crime prevention and justice management, crowd management, and emotion analysis, just (...) to mention a few. However, dissimilar predictions can be found nowadays as the result of the application of these methods resulting in misclassification, for example for the case of conviction risk assessment Office of Probation and Pretrial Services or decision-making process when designing public policies Lange. The goal of this paper is to identify current gaps on fairness achievement within the context of predictive systems in artificial intelligence by analyzing available academic and scientific literature up to 2020. To achieve this goal, we have gathered available materials at the Web of Science and Scopus from last 5 years and analyzed the different proposed methods and their results in relation to the bias as an emergent issue in the Artificial Intelligence field of study. Our tentative conclusions indicate that machine learning has some intrinsic limitations which are leading to automate the bias when designing predictive algorithms. Consequently, other methods should be explored; or we should redefine the way current machine learning approaches are being used when building decision making/decision support systems for crucial institutions of our political systems such as the judicial system, just to mention one. (shrink)
El objeto de este artículo es doble. Por una parte, examina el uso que Vives hace de la lengua y del lenguaje, y, por otra parte, indica sus aportaciones al campo de la traducción e interpretación. La diversidad temática presente en su obra hace que su persona sea un punto de referencia para diferentes campos científicos, entre ellos la Filología. Para Vives, tanto el acercamiento filológico, como el aprendizaje de la lengua no sólo deben tener en cuenta la lengua desde (...) un punto teórico, sino también sociocultural. Su especial interés por las lenguas le llevó a realizar un considerable esfuerzo filológico haciendo lecturas e introducciones de varios textos clásicos latinos y también griegos, y transmitiendo su opinión acerca de la forma de realizar versiones o interpretaciones. (shrink)
JuanLuis Vives reflexionó sobre el tema de la pobreza como un problema de justicia personal y social. El abandono en el que vivían los pobres, cuyo número iba en aumento en pleno siglo XVI, plantea no sólo problemas de orden social, sino también moral y religioso. Reflexionar sobre dicho asunto le ofrece a Vives la oportunidad para realizar una fuerte crítica, no sólo de aquellos que detentan el poder político y religioso, sino también para exigir un cambio (...) de actitud, en el plano individual e institucional, y una reflexión sobre la propia esencia del cristianismo. Por todo ello, Vives ofrece no sólo un conjunto de medidas concretas para tratar de afrontar dicho problema, sino también un amplio abanico de razones morales y religiosas, con las que será muy difícil poder negar nuestra responsabilidad para con los pobres, a la vez que nos exhorta a que hagamos frente común contra la pobreza. (shrink)
Han Feizi es el principal representante de la escuela legista china. Los principios de su teoría política le han granjeado el apodo de “el Maquiavelo chino”. Sus ideas serían adoptadas por Qin Shihuang, el Primer Emperador, quien unificó China e impuso un régimen despótico caracterizado por la represión del debate político y la supresión de la libertad de expresión. La conexión entre el desarrollo de la retórica y la situación política en el contexto de la última etapa del clasicismo chino (...) puede servir de fondo para una consideración más amplia de dicho nexo. La retórica comparada proporciona las bases para relacionar el pensamiento legista chino con el discurso neoliberal contemporáneo. (shrink)
The confusion generated in the communicational field by the assumption of a signal theory (Shannon) that searches for effectiveness in the transmission of a message from a transmitter to a receiver, which is generalized as a theory of information or of communication, has proposed an orientatio..
This paper examines the Hans Blumeberg’s philosophical program: the metaphorology. My intention is to show the importance of Blumenberg’s ideas into the current debate on the relations between philosophy and metaphor.
Connections between J.L.Vives and C.S. Peirce are shown. Not only is reflec-tion on language and meaning central in both thinkers, but Peirce also knew Vives' thought especially through W. Hamilton and the Scottish common sense school. Peirce credited Vives with being a forerunner of the use of dia-grams in logic, and both share a critical view of late medieval nominalistic logicians and a social and hierarchical conception of knowledge.
Anticipating the fifth centennial of Vives’ birth in 1992, this is the first comprehensive study of two of Vives’ main works, _De Anima et Vita, Book 3 _and _De Prima Philosophia, _accompanied by the first general biography based on recent research. JuanLuis Vives was a Spanish sixteenth-century humanist who spent most of his life as an exile in England and the Low Countries. _De Anima et Vita, _the third book of which makes up the tract on emotions, (...) represents the culmination of Vives’ effort to understand human nature. Noreña has organized _Vives and the Emotions _into three parts. Part one incorporates recent research on Vives and corrects some of the inaccuracies of Noreña’s 1970 _Luis Vives. _He provides expanded accounts of Vives’ attitude toward Erasmus and religion, his reaction to terminist logic, his social and legal views, and his contributions to Renaissance pedagogy. The second part of the book examines in detail one of Vives’ most philosophical and forgotten tracts, a lengthy summary of his metaphysical views published in 1531 under the title _De Prima Philosophia seu de Intimo Naturae Opificio, _which is probably the most speculative of Vives’ works. Part three compares Vives’ thoughts on emotion to those of Aristotle, some ancient Stoic sources, Saint Thomas, Descartes, and Spinoza, while dividing the entire material under such headings as the nature, the classification, the interaction, and the therapeutic control of emotion. (shrink)
Subsequent chapters discuss Vives's ideas on the soul, especially his analysis of the emotions, his contribution to rhetoric and dialectic and a posthumous defense of the Christian religion in dialogue form."--BOOK JACKET.
Norena's book continues his previous work on Vives's life and is to be followed by the publication of an English translation of Vives's De Anima et Vita. As Norena's title indicates, the focus of the book is upon Vives's study of the emotions, which constitutes the third book of De Anima et Vita and which Vives calls the "foundation of all moral discipline, private and public.".
This article seeks to locate Vives's work in the tradition of humanist thought that criticized the linguistic and philosophical abstraction of the scholastics. After discussing Vives's views on language and knowledge as functions of man’s biological nature, the article argues that for Vives the topics, as seats of argumentation, are a reflection of the ontological order and as such an instrument and heuristic aid for the human mind. They form a grid through which knowledge can be acquired and arguments be (...) formulated. The topics bridge the world of (unknown) essences and man’s epistemic categories. (shrink)
The present paper intends to draw the conception of language implied in the technique of word embeddings that supported the recent development of deep neural network models in computational linguistics. After a preliminary presentation of the basic functioning of elementary artificial neural networks, we introduce the motivations and capabilities of word embeddings through one of its pioneering models, word2vec. To assess the remarkable results of the latter, we inspect the nature of its underlying mechanisms, which have been characterized as the (...) implicit factorization of a word-context matrix. We then discuss the ordinary association of the “distributional hypothesis” with a “use theory of meaning,” often justifying the theoretical basis of word embeddings, and contrast them to the theory of meaning stemming from those mechanisms through the lens of matrix models. Finally, we trace back the principles of their possible consistency through Harris’s original distributionalism up to the structuralist conception of language of Saussure and Hjelmslev. Other than giving access to the technical literature and state of the art in the field of natural language processing to non-specialist readers, the paper seeks to reveal the conceptual and philosophical stakes involved in the recent application of new neural network techniques to the computational treatment of language. (shrink)
El presente libro constituye una interesante propuesta para enfrentar el estudio del pasado de una manera distinta a la historiografía tradicional, a la cual se la ha criticado muchas veces por su escritura compleja y por la escasa empatía que las investigaciones generan con el lector que no es especialista en este tipo de conocimientos. Es por esto que, y al igual que lo realizado en XIX Historias del siglo diecinueve chileno, los autores del texto presentan una serie de artículos (...) en los que.. (shrink)
The aim of the present paper is to approach JuanLuis Vives' conception of freedom of the will in light of scholastic discussions on will and free choice, and point to some interesting similarities with the analysis of free choice contained in Jean Buridan's Quaestiones super decem libros Ethicorum Aristotelis ad Nicomachum.
King Ferdinand VII of Spain was often compared to the Ottoman sultan. It was a rhetorical operation that continued a tradition in Western Christendom by which Christian rulers were compared to oriental despots not because they were considered to be equal to them, but to show how far astray from the ideal of good government they were. This article examines the multiple dimensions of this comparison. To what extent was it a reaffirmation of the construction of the Turk as a (...) radical other? Or were there new essential elements, and therefore the metaphor of the Turk can also be interpreted within a new universalistic discourse that opposed tyrants to oppressed peoples across cultural and religious barriers? Our examination leads to a reflection on the transnational character of the discursive frameworks in which the metaphor of the Turk was built and rebuilt, on its circulation and limits, and on its specific uses. (shrink)
Much NGO fund-raising and publicity concern disasters, emergencies and the immediate relief of suffering. Donations and support may follow but they are prompted all too often by a superficially informed compassion or guilt with donors having little understanding of the results of their action. For all their impact, such campaigns can amount to demagogic sentimentalism leading to ‘compassion fatigue’ and lack of sustained support once media attention moves elsewhere. They thus undermine the unique mission of NGOs themselves. This paper urges (...) a different and more strategic approach to communication by NGOs, one which takes account of their unique status and their mission to promote solidarity. It argues that as well as solving problems of underdevelopment, NGOs need to remain independent and to shape public opinion if they are to flourish. And for this they need stable funding from informeddonors giving in a spirit of solidarity to support development carried out explicitly in the name of human solidarity. The paper sets out guidelines for NGOs to communicate in ways likely to gain the support of such donors. And it describes the la Florida project in Columbia as an example of how the beneficiary can - in the spirit of solidarity - be brought to the centre of NGO action and communication. (shrink)
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