This article examines the complex relationship between culture, values, and ethics in mental health care. Cultural competence is a practical, concrete demonstration of the ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence (doing good), nonmaleficence (not doing harm), and justice (treating people fairly)—the cornerstones of modern ethical codes for the health professions. Five clinical cases are presented to illustrate the range of ethical issues faced by mental health clinicians working in a multicultural environment, including issues of therapeutic boundaries, diagnosis, treatment choice, (...) confidentiality and informed consent, and the just distribution of limited health care resources. (shrink)
We provide a complete classification of the possible cofinal structures of the families of precompact (totally bounded) sets in general metric spaces, and compact sets in general complete metric spaces. Using this classification, we classify the cofinal structure of local bases in the groups C(X, R) of continuous real-valued functions on complete metric spaces X, with respect to the compact-open topology.
Rural Uruguay is undergoing a long process of transformations that tend to weaken the maintenance of local cultural traits, including society-nature relationships. To preserve these traits and enhance our understanding of these relationships, it is necessary to both strive for the empowering of rural communities and to establish a constructive exchange of knowledge. JULANA works towards these goals through the dialogue of the different conceptions of nature and society. This work presents an experience in collaborative-learning, the participatory monitoring project named (...) Fogones de Fauna carried out in the village of Paso Centurión, along with reflections on the value of JULANA’s work and education. (shrink)
A paradigm shift in public health and medicine has broadened the field from a singular focus on the ill effects of negative states and psychopathology to an expanded view that examines protective psychological assets that may promote improved physical health and longevity. We summarize recent evidence of the link between psychological well-being and physical health, with particular attention to outcomes of mortality and chronic disease incidence and progression. Within this evolving discipline there remain controversies and lessons to be learned. We (...) discuss measurement-related challenges, concerns about the quality of the evidence, and other shortcomings in the field, along with a brief discussion of hypothesized biobehavioral mechanisms involved. Finally, we suggest next steps to move the field forward. (shrink)
This reply addresses observations of Drs. Larsen, Kruse, and Sweeny, and Scherer in their reviews of our published work on the link between positive psychological assets and outcomes of physical health. Inspired by Obama’s Precision Medicine Initiative we argue that the interplay between the emotion spectrum and health is likely a complex and heterogeneous amalgam of known and yet unidentified elements melding at the individual level. When exploring the emotion–health link, researchers are challenged to grapple with complex system models by (...) considering multiple hierarchies of information that span individual-level factors, genetic blueprints, and cultural and environmental context. Research is needed to more fully elucidate the mechanism through which emotion influences health, with careful consideration of differences across race/ethnicity, culture, and context. (shrink)
En el presente texto me propongo mostrar cómo puede entenderse el concepto de ‘metafísica’, no como el estudio de algo “sobrenatural” o “más allá de lo físico”, sino como un estudio de segundo orden que tendría por objeto de análisis los hipotéticos principios fundamentales y modelos de dependencia de la realidad. En este sentido, más que sostener juicios taxativos acerca de lo que las cosas son o qué tipo de entidades existen, las reflexiones de la metafísica podrían entenderse como análisis (...) acerca de las condiciones necesarias y suficientes para que una teoría de primer orden explique un aspecto de la realidad —o toda ella en su conjunto— de la mejor manera posible. (shrink)
In the first place, I propose to specify the debate between non-anthropocentrists and anthropocentrists as one between those who defend that the environment has intrinsic value, that is, value that while independent of all relation to human beings is still morally binding, and those who deny this, i.e., assert that the environment only has extrinsic value. I argue for the second option but claim that this should not be an obstacle to address some of the worries of environmental ethics, since (...) extrinsic value is not limited to instrumental value. In this regard, I present sentimentalism as an alternative according to which there are ways of valuing things as ends in themselves and not only as means. (shrink)
Resumen: Una de las nociones más controvertidas dentro de las interpretaciones contemporáneas de la Crítica de la facultad de juzgar, es la de “sentido común”. Junto a éste, Kant propuso un nuevo modelo de validez normativa calificada como “ejemplar”, cuyo planteamiento resulta bastante problemático. El presente artículo propone una lectura y una interpretación de este tipo de validez, a partir de la reactualización realizada por Alessandro Ferrara, y desde el horizonte de la tradición retórica, representada por Aristóteles Con ello se (...) espera un mejor entendimiento del problema en cuestión, y al mismo tiempo, se pretende hacer mucho más comprensibles las posibilidades que Alessandro Ferrara le atribuye a esta forma de la normatividad.: One of the most controversial notions in contemporary interpretations of the Critique of judgment is that of common sense. Along with it, Kant proposed a new model of normative validity called exemplary, whose approach is quite problematic. This article proposes a reading and an interpretation of this type of validity, based on the reinterpretation carried out by Alessandro Ferrara and from the point of view of the rhetorical tradition as represented by Aristotle. It intends to achieve an improved understanding of the problem in question and, at the same time, to make much more understandable the possibilities that Alessandro Ferrara attributes to this form of normativity. (shrink)
SummaryThe analysis of fertility in colonizing populations is of great interest, since its individuals experience a major environmental change, and fertility rates can reflect the level of adaptation of the population to its new conditions. Using Northrop’s genealogical compilations, this paper examines the fertility pattern of California’s early Spanish-Mexican colonists between 1742 and 1876, their fitness levels and their trend across time throughout the colonizing period. A total of 197 women from 599 compiled families who had completed their reproductive period (...) and had at least one child were analysed. The correlations among variables were also analysed in order to infer the relationship between longevity and fertility, and the influence of fertility determinants. The results show a natural fertility pattern, with a very young age at marriage and birth of first child, and also a young age at last childbirth. The population’s fitness showed greater values than for contemporary European populations, with 8 of 9.2 children surviving to adulthood, in comparison with 55% of newborns in Finland for the same period, suggesting a good adaptation of the population to their new environmental conditions. No relationship between fertility and lifespan was observed, as has been reported by other authors and in opposition to classical theories. A temporal trend in the number of children, consisting of three different phases, was observed, in accordance with the stability of living conditions in the region. (shrink)
Adolescence is an important yet vulnerable period of transition from childhood to adulthood. An increasing number of studies support the traditional Catholic view, which sees teens as prone to making poor decisions when influenced by emotions or peer pressure but capable of thriving when guided by parents and religion. However, newer policies of medical societies undermine the traditional supports of family and faith with a permissive approach toward sexual exploration. To counter this unhealthy trend, which seems to be based more (...) on postmodern ideology than robust science, Catholic physicians should become experts in adolescent behavior and sexual health. Physicians should be sensitive to opposing viewpoints but participate only in treatments which are ethical and beneficial for their patients. Specifically, Catholic physicians must avoid contraceptives, abortion, and “gender-affirming” therapies. By using good science and emulating the models of service, Socratic dialogue, and accompaniment, physicians can guide adolescents toward a virtuous, healthy adulthood. (shrink)
The thesis is guided by the question: What is the subject matter of Heidegger’s philosophy in the period of Being and Time? I start by arguing that Heidegger’s formulation of the question of being is ambiguous because the term ‘being’ is open to at least two interpretations. I claim that this ambiguity has motivated two types of reading of Heidegger’s early work. On the first reading, Heidegger’s philosophy is understood as attempting to infer metaphysical claims (claims about what-is, or being (...) in a traditionally metaphysical sense) on the basis of claims about the structure of Dasein’s understanding. This reading typically renders Heidegger an idealist. On the second reading, Heidegger’s philosophy is taken to have no metaphysical ambitions, and thereby to be limited to elucidating the structure of Dasein’s understanding. I argue that both types of reading are inadequate and diagnose them as grounded in a Cartesian presupposition that Heidegger rejects. On the basis of direct textual evidence and a number of theoretical considerations I assert that although the second type of reading is right in that the primary object of Heidegger’s philosophy is the conditions of understanding and that the idealist reading is wrong, it is a mistake to deny that Heidegger’s philosophy has metaphysical implications. I claim that Heidegger’s exposition of the conditions of understanding involves a larger picture from the outset, a picture that delineates the relation between understanding and entities, and locates the objective in relation to Dasein. On this picture, 1) empirical entities are unqualifiedly independent of Dasein, 2) we have direct cognitive access to these entities as they are in themselves, and 3) there is no a priori unintelligible entities or aspects of entities. I address a number of potential objections to this way of interpreting Heidegger’s work. (shrink)
El debate reciente iniciado por Hubert Dreyfus y John McDowell ha llamado la atención sobre la relación entre racionalidad y acción no reflexiva. En este artículo propongo una forma de especificar el desacuerdo entre quienes llamaré intelectualistas y antiintelectualistas. A la luz de esta propuesta arguyo que el principal argumento antiintelectualista sólo tiene éxito si se acepta al menos uno de tres presupuestos implícitos que están lejos de ser autoevidentes y cuya verdad es puesta en duda por fenómenos familiares. Termino (...) con consideraciones que sugieren que el intelectualista ha quedado en una mejor posición argumentativa. (shrink)
This text consists in the exposition of Daniel Dennett’s position on te "problem of qualia". Supposedly, the qualia are the qualitative properties that conform the conscience; a pain, the memory of a sticky sensation, a sticky sensation, the green color of the mountains I see, etc. In permanent opposition to the so-called qualophillians, an antiintuitive but coherent theory is developed, that operates through a form of reductionism.
This work tries to give the possible most suitable vision of the Generation of 98 regarding the purposes and interest of the main authors: Azorín, Pío Baroja, Miguel Unamuno, Antonio Machado and José Ortega y Gasset.
Resumen: El problema del mal sigue inquietando la conciencia humana, lo que hace indispensable revisar las fuentes de nuestro entendimiento de esa terrible dificultad. Agustín de Hipona suele ser considerado el primer filósofo en encarar este problema desde una perspectiva sistemática. Sin embargo, la solución privacionista que presentó, siguiendo directrices neoplatónicas, es considerada como un artefacto más teológico que filosófico. La solución agustiniana, de enorme influencia en la historia de la filosofía, ha sido acusada de ser una concepción metafísica y (...) falta de claridad, de suerte que no contribuye a aclarar el origen y naturaleza del mal. En este ensayo presentará las líneas generales de la solución agustiniana y mostrará su solidez conceptual y su importancia en la solución del problema del mal.: Augustine of Hippo is usually regarded as the first philosopher to affront this problem from a systematic point of view. Nonetheless, the privationist solution he offered, forged in neoplatonic terms, is considered a theological, rather than a philosophical, device. Despite its enormous influence, Augustinian solution has been accused of being both metaphysical and misleading, because it cannot provide an adequate approach the origin and nature of evil. This essay intends to expose the main lines of the Augustinian solution, its internal steadiness and import as solution to the problem of evil. (shrink)
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