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  1. Notions of Locality and Their Logical Characterizations Over Finite Models.Lauri Hella, Leonid Libkin & Juha Nurmonen - 1999 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (4):1751-1773.
    Many known tools for proving expressibility bounds for first-order logic are based on one of several locality properties. In this paper we characterize the relationship between those notions of locality. We note that Gaifman's locality theorem gives rise to two notions: one deals with sentences and one with open formulae. We prove that the former implies Hanf's notion of locality, which in turn implies Gaifman's locality for open formulae. Each of these implies the bounded degree property, which is one of (...)
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    Vectorization Hierarchies of Some Graph Quantifiers.Lauri Hella & Juha Nurmonen - 2000 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 39 (3):183-207.
    We give a sufficient condition for the inexpressibility of the k-th extended vectorization of a generalized quantifier $\sf Q$ in ${\rm FO}({\vec Q}_k)$ , the extension of first-order logic by all k-ary quantifiers. The condition is based on a model construction which, given two ${\rm FO}({\vec Q}_1)$ -equivalent models with certain additional structure, yields a pair of ${\rm FO}({\vec Q}_k)$ -equivalent models. We also consider some applications of this condition to quantifiers that correspond to graph properties, such as connectivity and (...)
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