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Juhana Toivanen
University of Jyväskylä
  1. Fate of the Flying Man: Medieval Reception of Avicenna's Thought Experiment.Juhana Toivanen - 2015 - Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 3:64-98.
    This chapter discusses the reception of Avicenna’s well-known “flying man” thought experiment in twelfth- and thirteenth-century Latin philosophy. The central claim is that the argumentative role of the thought experiment changed radically in the latter half of the thirteenth century. The earlier authors—Dominicus Gundissalinus, William of Auvergne, Peter of Spain, and John of la Rochelle—understood it as an ontological proof for the existence and/or the nature of the soul. By contrast, Matthew of Aquasparta and Vital du Four used the flying (...)
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  2.  16
    Perception and the Internal Senses: Peter of John Olivi on the Cognitive Functions of the Sensitive Soul.Juhana Toivanen - 2013 - Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
    In Perception and the Internal Senses Juhana Toivanen offers a philosophical reconstruction of Peter of John Olivi’s (ca. 1248-98) conception of the cognitive psychology of the sensitive or animal soul.
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  3. The Active Nature of the Soul in Sense Perception: Robert Kilwardby and Peter Olivi.Juhana Toivanen & José Filipe Silva - 2010 - Vivarium 48 (3):245-278.
    This article discusses the theories of perception of Robert Kilwardby and Peter of John Olivi. Our aim is to show how in challenging certain assumptions of medieval Aristotelian theories of perception they drew on Augustine and argued for the active nature of the soul in sense perception. For both Kilwardby and Olivi, the soul is not passive with respect to perceived objects; rather, it causes its own cognitive acts with respect to external objects and thus allows the subject to perceive (...)
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  4. Peter Olivi on Practical Reasoning.Juhana Toivanen - 2012 - In A. Musco (ed.), Universality of Reason, Plurality of Philosophies in the Middle Ages: Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Medieval Philosophy (S.I.E.P.M.), vol. II-2. Palermo: Officina di Studi Medievali. pp. 1033-1045.
    The subject matter of this essay is Peter of John Olivi’s (ca.1248–98) conception of reason from the viewpoint of human action.
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  5. Peter of John Olivi on the Psychology of Animal Action.Juhana Toivanen - 2011 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 49 (4):413-438.
  6.  60
    Peter Olivi on Political Power, Will, and Human Agency.Juhana Toivanen - 2016 - Vivarium 54 (1):22-45.
    _ Source: _Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 22 - 45 This essay discusses the views of Peter Olivi on the foundations of political power and agency. The central argument is that there is a strong connection between Olivi’s voluntarist psychology and his views concerning political power. According to Olivi, political power is ultimately based on the will of God, but in such a way that both the rulers and their subjects have, through their individual freedom, the liberty to use their (...)
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  7.  33
    Perceptual Self-Awareness in Seneca, Augustine, and Olivi.Juhana Toivanen - 2013 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (3):355-382.
    This article traces the philosophical idea of self-perception from the times of ancient Stoicism to the thirteenth century by analyzing the views of Seneca, Augustine, and Olivi. The central argument is that they defend the same idea according to which self-preservation and the appropriate use of one’s body requires awareness thereof, despite the obvious contextual differences and the uncertainty of direct historical connections between the authors. They think that this kind of self-awareness does not belong only to human beings, because (...)
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  8. Perceptual Experience: Assembling a Medieval Puzzle.Juhana Toivanen - 2018 - In Margaret Cameron (ed.), Philosophy of Mind in the Early and High Middle Ages: The History of the Philosophy of Mind, Volume 2. London, UK: pp. 134-156.
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    Peter Olivi on Internal Senses.Juhana Toivanen - 2007 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (3):427 – 454.
  10.  20
    Cognitive Dispositions in the Psychology of Peter John Olivi.Juhana Toivanen - 2018 - In N. Faucher & M. Roques (eds.), The Ontology, Psychology and Axiology of Habits (Habitus) in Medieval Philosophy. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 185-204.
    This chapter discusses Peter John Olivi’s conception of the role of dispositions in sensory cognition from metaphysical and psychological perspectives. It shows that Olivi makes a distinction between two general types of disposition. Some of them account for the ease, or difficulty, with which different persons use their cognitive powers, while others explain why people react differently to things that they perceive or think. This distinction is then applied to Olivi’s analysis of three different psychological operations, where the notion of (...)
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  11.  11
    Animal Consciousness : Peter Olivi on Cognitive Functions of the Sensitive Soul.Juhana Toivanen - 2009 - Dissertation,
  12.  6
    Marking the Boundaries: Animals in Medieval Latin Philosophy.Juhana Toivanen - 2018 - In Peter Adamson & Fey Edwards (eds.), Animals: A History. Oxford, UK: pp. 121-150.
    The medieval reception of Aristotle’s theory of animals was rich and multifaceted and included reflection on his psychological theories but also, for instance, his claim that humans are “political animals.” A particular problem for the medievals was demarcating animals, that is, specifying the dividing line between animal and human. This is especially the case given the sophisticated capacities they ascribe to animals, while still retaining a hard and fast distinction between humans as rational and animals as irrational. Authors discussed in (...)
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  13.  19
    Voluntarist Anthropology in Peter of John Olivi's De Contractibus.Juhana Toivanen - 2016 - Franciscan Studies 74:41-65.
    Peter of John Olivi’s Tractatus de contractibus is nowadays regarded as an important document in the history of economic thought.1 Modern scholars have proposed various interpretations of its exact contribution. Many aspects of Olivi’s argumentation have been traced to earlier discussions concerning the Roman and Canon laws, as well as to theological and philosophical literature on economic questions, but his overall approach has also been credited for transforming the medieval framework in a profound way.2 His definition of capital, recognition of (...)
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  14. Beasts, Human Beings, or Gods? Human Subjectivity in Medieval Political Philosophy.Juhana Toivanen - 2016 - In Jari Kaukua & Tomas Ekenberg (eds.), Subjectivity and Selfhood in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Dordrecht, Netherlands: pp. 181-197.
    Human beings are not only self-conscious minds but embodied and social beings, whose subjectivity is conditioned by their social surroundings. From this point of view, it is natural to suppose that the development and existence of a subject that is distinctively human requires contact with other people. The present contribution discusses medieval ideas concerning the intersubjective constitution of human being by looking at the medieval reception of two ideas, which Aristotle presents at the beginning of his Politics: (1) human beings (...)
     
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  15. Cognitive Dispositions in the Psychology of Peter John Olivi.Juhana Toivanen - 2018 - In Nicolas Faucher & Magali Roques (eds.), The Ontology, Psychology and Axiology of Habits in Medieval Philosophy. Springer. pp. 185-204.
    This chapter discusses Peter John Olivi’s conception of the role of dispositions in sensory cognition from metaphysical and psychological perspectives. It shows that Olivi makes a distinction between two general types of disposition. Some of them account for the ease, or difficulty, with which different persons use their cognitive powers, while others explain why people react differently to things that they perceive or think. This distinction is then applied to Olivi’s analysis of three different psychological operations, where the notion of (...)
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  16. Entre la raison et la perception: La psychologie animale médiévale et la relation entre les humains et les animaux.Juhana Toivanen - 2018 - In M. Cutino, I. Iribarren & F. Vinel (eds.), La Restauration de la création: Quelle place pour les animaux? Leiden, Netherlands: pp. 275-297.
  17. Estimative Power as a Social Sense.Juhana Toivanen - 2020 - In Jakob Fink & Seyed N. Mousavian (eds.), The Internal Senses in the Aristotelian Tradition: A Selection of Essays. Cham: pp. 115-136.
    The estimative power has been widely discussed in modern scholarly literature. This chapter complements the existing picture by analysing medieval Latin views concerning its role as the explanans of the social behaviour of humans and other animals. Although medieval authors rarely focus on this function, the chapter shows that the estimative power plays an important explanatory role both in philosophical psychology and political philosophy.
     
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  18. Perceiving As: Non-Conceptual Forms of Perception in Medieval Philosophy.Juhana Toivanen - 2020 - In Elena Baltuta (ed.), Medieval Perceptual Puzzles: Theories of Sense Perception in 13th and 14th Centuries. Leiden, Netherlands: pp. 10–37.
    The aim of this chapter is to take a closer look at medieval discussions concerning the phenomenon of ‘perceiving as,’ and the psychological mechanisms that lie behind it. In contemporary philosophical literature this notion is usually used to refer to conceptual aspects of perception. For instance, when I perceive a black birdlike shape as a crow, I may be said to perceive the particular sensible thing x as an instance of a universal crowness φ, that is, as belonging to a (...)
     
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