Results for 'Julian Schrittwieser'

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  1. Mastering Chess and Shogi by Self-Play with a General Reinforcement Learning Algorithm.David Silver, Thomas Hubert, Julian Schrittwieser, Ioannis Antonoglou, Matthew Lai, Arthur Guez, Marc Lanctot, Laurent Sifre, Dharshan Kumaran, Thore Graepel, Timothy Lillicrap, Karen Simonyan & Demis Hassabis - 2017 - .
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  2. Idealization and the Aims of Economics: Three Cheers for Instrumentalism: Julian Reiss.Julian Reiss - 2012 - Economics and Philosophy 28 (3):363-383.
    This paper aims to provide characterizations of realism and instrumentalism that are philosophically interesting and applicable to economics; and to defend instrumentalism against realism as a methodological stance in economics. Starting point is the observation that ‘all models are false’, which, or so I argue, is difficult to square with the realist's aim of truth, even if the latter is understood as ‘partial’ or ‘approximate’. The three cheers in favour of instrumentalism are: Once we have usefulness, truth is redundant. There (...)
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  3.  48
    Julian Symons and the Detection Club.Julian Symons - 1984 - The Chesterton Review 10 (2):235-236.
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  4.  81
    Rejoinder Error in Economics. Towards a More Evidence-Based Methodology , Julian Reiss, Routledge, 2007, XXIV + 246 Pages. [REVIEW]Julian Reiss - 2009 - Economics and Philosophy 25 (2):210-215.
  5.  42
    Agyeman, Julian, Bullard, Robert D. And Evans, Bob (Eds)(2003) Just Sustainabilities: Development in an Unequal World, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Bender, Frederic L.(2003) The Culture of Extinction: Toward a Philosophy of Deep Ecology, Amherst, NY: Humanity Books. Greenough, Paul R. And Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt (2003) Nature in the Global South. [REVIEW]Julian Agyeman - 2003 - Ethics, Place and Environment 6 (3):283-284.
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  6.  8
    Julian J. Koplin Replies.Julian J. Koplin - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (1):46-46.
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  7. Julian Ogilvie.Julian Ogilvie - 1999 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (5):201.
  8.  19
    Kaiser Julian.H. G. Julian - 1973 - In Briefe: Griechisch-Deutsch. De Gruyter. pp. 208-212.
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  9.  46
    The Feeling of Grip: Novelty, Error Dynamics, and the Predictive Brain.Julian Kiverstein, Mark Miller & Erik Rietveld - 2019 - Synthese 196 (7):2847-2869.
    According to the free energy principle biological agents resist a tendency to disorder in their interactions with a dynamically changing environment by keeping themselves in sensory and physiological states that are expected given their embodiment and the niche they inhabit :127–138, 2010. doi: 10.1038/nrn2787). Why would a biological agent that aims at minimising uncertainty in its encounters with the world ever be motivated to seek out novelty? Novelty for such an agent would arrive in the form of sensory and physiological (...)
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  10. La Huella de Julián Marías: Un Pensador Para la Libertad: Homenaje a Julián Marías.Julián Marías (ed.) - 2006 - Comunidad de Madrid.
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  11.  40
    Kant on Mind, Action, and Ethics.Julian Wuerth - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    Julian Wuerth offers a radically new interpretation of major themes in Kant's philosophy. He explores Kant's ontology of the mind, his transcendental idealism, his account of the mind's powers, and his theory of action, and goes on to develop an original, moral realist account of Kant's ethics.
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  12.  98
    “Ethical Minefields” and the Voice of Common Sense: A Discussion with Julian Savulescu.Julian Savulescu & Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2019 - Conatus - Journal of Philosophy 4 (1):125-133.
    Theoretical ethics includes both metaethics (the meaning of moral terms) and normative ethics (ethical theories and principles). Practical ethics involves making decisions about every day real ethical problems, like decisions about euthanasia, what we should eat, climate change, treatment of animals, and how we should live. It utilizes ethical theories, like utilitarianism and Kantianism, and principles, but more broadly a process of reflective equilibrium and consistency to decide how to act and be.
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  13. Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography.Julian Young - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this beautifully written account, Julian Young provides the most comprehensive biography available today of the life and philosophy of the nineteenth-century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Young deals with the many puzzles created by the conjunction of Nietzsche's personal history and his work: why the son of a Lutheran pastor developed into the self-styled 'Antichrist'; why this archetypical Prussian came to loath Bismarck's Prussia; and why this enemy of feminism preferred the company of feminist women. Setting Nietzsche's thought in (...)
     
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  14.  28
    Galileans or Gallus?(Julian's Letter to Aetius).Kaiser Julian - 2010 - Classical Quarterly 60:607-609.
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  15. Philosophy of Economics: A Contemporary Introduction.Julian Reiss - 2013 - Routledge.
    Philosophy of Economics: A Contemporary Introduction is the first systematic textbook in the philosophy of economics. It introduces the epistemological, metaphysical and ethical problems that arise in economics, and presents detailed discussions of the solutions that have been offered. Throughout, philosophical issues are illustrated by and analysed in the context of concrete cases drawn from contemporary economics, the history of economic ideas, and actual economic events. This demonstrates the relevance of philosophy of economics both for the science of economics and (...)
     
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  16.  41
    Heidegger’s Later Philosophy.Julian Young - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    Heidegger's later philosophy has often been regarded as a lapse into unintelligible mysticism. While not ignoring its deep and difficult complexities, Julian Young's book explains in simple and straightforward language just what it is all about. It examines Heidegger's identification of loss of 'the gods', the violence of technology, and humanity's 'homelessness' as symptoms of the destitution of modernity, and his notion that overcoming 'oblivion of Being' is the essence of a turning to a post-destitute, genuinely post-modern existence. Young (...)
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  17.  99
    An Identity Theory of Truth.Julian Dodd - 2000 - St. Martin's Press.
    This book argues that correspondence theories of truth fail because the relation that holds between a true thought and a fact is that of identity, not correspondence. Facts are not complexes of worldly entities which make thoughts true they are merely true thoughts. According to Julian Dodd, the resulting modest identity theory, while not defining truth, correctly diagnoses the failure of correspondence theories, and thereby prepares the ground for a defensible deflation of the concept of truth.
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  18. Do We Need Mechanisms in the Social Sciences?Julian Reiss - 2007 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (2):163-184.
    A recent movement in the social sciences and philosophy of the social sciences focuses on mechanisms as a central analytical unit. Starting from a pluralist perspective on the aims of the social sciences, I argue that there are a number of important aims to which knowledge about mechanisms—whatever their virtues relative to other aims—contributes very little at best and that investigating mechanisms is therefore a methodological strategy with fairly limited applicability. Key Words: social science • mechanisms • explanation • critical (...)
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  19.  18
    The Field and Landscape of Affordances: Koffka’s Two Environments Revisited.Julian Kiverstein, Ludger van Dijk & Erik Rietveld - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 9):2279-2296.
    The smooth integration of the natural sciences with everyday lived experience is an important ambition of radical embodied cognitive science. In this paper we start from Koffka’s recommendation in his Principles of Gestalt Psychology that to realize this ambition psychology should be a “science of molar behaviour”. Molar behavior refers to the purposeful behaviour of the whole organism directed at an environment that is meaningfully structured for the animal. Koffka made a sharp distinction between the “behavioural environment” and the “geographical (...)
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  20. Works of Music: An Essay in Ontology.Julian Dodd - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Introduction -- The type/token theory introduced -- Motivating the type/token theory : repeatability -- Nominalist approaches to the ontology of music -- Musical anti-realism -- The type/token theory elaborated -- Types I : abstract, unstructured, unchanging -- Types introduced and nominalism repelled -- Types as abstracta -- Types as unstructured entities -- Types as fixed and unchanging -- Types II : platonism -- Introduction : eternal existence and timelessness -- Types and properties -- The eternal existence of properties reconsidered -- (...)
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  21.  93
    In Favour of a Millian Proposal to Reform Biomedical Research.Julian Reiss - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):427 - 447.
    One way to make philosophy of science more socially relevant is to attend to specific scientific practises that affect society to a great extent. One such practise is biomedical research. This paper looks at contemporary U.S. biomedical research in particular and argues that it suffers from important epistemic, moral and socioeconomic failings. It then discusses and criticises existing approaches to improve on the status quo, most prominently by Thomas Pogge (a political philosopher), Joseph Stiglitz (a Nobel-prize winning economist) and James (...)
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  22.  7
    Error in Economics: Towards a More Evidence–Based Methodology.Julian Reiss - 2007 - Routledge.
    What is the correct concept behind measures of inflation? Does money cause business activity or is it the other way around? Shall we stimulate growth by raising aggregate demand or rather by lowering taxes and thereby providing incentives to produce? Policy-relevant questions such as these are of immediate and obvious importance to the welfare of societies. The standard approach in dealing with them is to build a model, based on economic theory, answer the question for the model world and then (...)
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  23.  50
    Chimpanzees Know What Others Know, but Not What They Believe.Juliane Kaminski, Josep Call & Michael Tomasello - 2008 - Cognition 109 (2):224-234.
  24. Introduction: Mind Embodied, Embedded, Enacted: One Church or Many?Julian Kiverstein & Andy Clark - 2009 - Topoi 28 (1):1-7.
  25. The Explanation Paradox.Julian Reiss - 2012 - Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (1):43-62.
    This paper examines mathematical models in economics and observes that three mutually inconsistent hypotheses concerning models and explanation are widely held: (1) economic models are false; (2) economic models are nevertheless explanatory; and (3) only true accounts explain. Commentators have typically resolved the paradox by rejecting either one of these hypotheses. I will argue that none of the proposed resolutions work and conclude that therefore the paradox is genuine and likely to stay.
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  26. Distributive Justice.Julian Lamont & Christi Favor - 2002 - In Edward Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Principles of distributive justice are normative principles designed to guide the allocation of the benefits and burdens of economic activity.
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  27.  85
    Expertise, Agreement, and the Nature of Social Scientific Facts Or: Against Epistocracy.Julian Reiss - 2019 - Social Epistemology 33 (2):183-192.
    ABSTRACTTaking some controversial claims philosopher Jason Brennan makes in his book Against Democracy as a starting point, this paper argues in favour of two theses: There is No Such Thing as Superior Political Judgement; There Is No Such Thing as Uncontroversial Social Scientific Knowledge. I conclude that social science experts need to be kept in check, not given more power.
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  28.  25
    The Embodied Brain: Towards a Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience.Julian Kiverstein & Mark Miller - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  29. Schopenhauer.Julian Young - 2005 - Routledge.
    Arthur Schopenhauer was one of the greatest writers and German philosophers of the nineteenth century. His work influenced figures as diverse as Wagner, Freud and Nietzsche. Best known as a pessimist, he was one of the few philosophers read and admired by Wittgenstein. In this comprehensive introduction, Julian Young covers all the main aspects of Schopenhauer's philosophy. Beginning with an overview of Schopenhauer's life and work, he introduces the central aspects of his metaphysics fundamental to understanding his work as (...)
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  30.  15
    Moral Uncertainty and the Farming of Human-Pig Chimeras.Julian Koplin & Dominic Wilkinson - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):440-446.
    It may soon be possible to generate human organs inside of human-pig chimeras via a process called interspecies blastocyst complementation. This paper discusses what arguably the central ethical concern is raised by this potential source of transplantable organs: that farming human-pig chimeras for their organs risks perpetrating a serious moral wrong because the moral status of human-pig chimeras is uncertain, and potentially significant. Those who raise this concern usually take it to be unique to the creation of chimeric animals with (...)
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  31. The Concept of Desert in Distributive Justice.Julian Lamont - 1994 - Philosophical Quarterly 44 (174):45-64.
  32.  38
    The Primacy of Skilled Intentionality: On Hutto & Satne’s the Natural Origins of Content.Julian Kiverstein & Erik Rietveld - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (3):701-721.
    Following a brief reconstruction of Hutto & Satne’s paper we focus our critical comments on two issues. First we take up H&S’s claim that a non-representational form of ur-intentionality exists that performs essential work in setting the scene for content-involving forms of intentionality. We will take issue with the characterisation that H&S give of this non-representational form of intentionality. Part of our commentary will therefore be aimed at motivating an alternative account of how there can be intentionality without mental content, (...)
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  33. Julian Huxley: Biologist and Statesman of Science.C. Kenneth Waters, Albert Van Helden & Julian Huxley - 1994 - Journal of the History of Biology 27 (2):363-366.
  34. Negative Truths and Truthmaker Principles.Julian Dodd - 2007 - Synthese 156 (2):383-401.
    This paper argues that a consideration of the problem of providing truthmakers for negative truths undermines truthmaker theory. Truthmaker theorists are presented with an uncomfortable dilemma. Either they must take up the challenge of providing truthmakers for negative truths, or else they must explain why negative truths are exceptions to the principle that every truth must have a truthmaker. The first horn is unattractive since the prospects of providing truthmakers for negative truths do not look good neither absences, nor totality (...)
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  35.  3
    Heidegger and Cognitive Science.Julian Kiverstein & Michael Wheeler (eds.) - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This impressive volume of essays that includes contributions from Herbert Dreyfus, Sean Kelly, Mike Wheeler, Dan Zahavi, and Shaun Gallagher reflects an emerging trend in cognitive science, and explores this new approach to cognitive science informed by Heidegger's thoughts on human existence.
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  36. The Death of God and the Meaning of Life.Julian Young - 2003 - Routledge.
    What is the meaning of life? In the post-modern, post-religious scientific world, this question is becoming a preoccupation. But it also has a long history: many major figures in philosophy had something to say on the subject, as Julian Young so vividly illustrates in this thought-provoking book. Part One of the book presents an historical overview of philosophers from Plato to Hegel and Marx who have believed in some sort of meaning of life, either in some supposed 'other' world (...)
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  37. Julian of Norwich: Problems of Evil and the Seriousness of Sin.Marilyn McCord Adams - 2011 - Philosophia 39 (3):433-447.
    Julian of Norwich emphasizes God’s eternal and unchanging love for humankind. Her visions show how God is not angry with our sins and so has no need to forgive us. God does not shame or blame us but excuses us and plans how to reward and compensate us for sin. In relation to Mother Jesus, we remain dear lovely children who need help, correction, and education. Although these remarks suggest to some that Julian must be soft on sin, (...)
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  38.  46
    Bioethics and Human Enhancement: An Interview with Julian Savulescu.Julian Savulescu - 2010 - Dilemata 3.
    By Olga Campos, Mª Ángeles Arráez, Miguel Moreno, Francisco Lara, Pedro Francés, and Javier Rodríguez Alcázar.
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  39.  31
    Free Energy and the Self: An Ecological–Enactive Interpretation.Julian Kiverstein - 2020 - Topoi 39 (3):559-574.
    According to the free energy principle all living systems aim to minimise free energy in their sensory exchanges with the environment. Processes of free energy minimisation are thus ubiquitous in the biological world. Indeed it has been argued that even plants engage in free energy minimisation. Not all living things however feel alive. How then did the feeling of being alive get started? In line with the arguments of the phenomenologists, I will claim that every feeling must be felt by (...)
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  40. Embraining Culture: Leaky Minds and Spongy Brains.Julian Kiverstein & Mirko Farina - 2011 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy (2).
    We offer an argument for the extended mind based on considerations from brain development. We argue that our brains develop to function in partnership with cognitive resources located in our external environments. Through our cultural upbringing we are trained to use artefacts in problem solving that become factored into the cognitive routines our brains support. Our brains literally grow to work in close partnership with resources we regularly and reliably interact with. We take this argument to be in line with (...)
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  41.  58
    Fact-Value Entanglement in Positive Economics.Julian Reiss - 2017 - Journal of Economic Methodology 24 (2):134-149.
    This paper presents arguments that challenge what I call the fact/value separability thesis: the idea, roughly, that factual judgements can be made independently of judgements of value. I will look at arguments to the effect that facts and values are entangled in the following areas of the scientific process in economics: theory development, economic concept formation, economic modelling, hypothesis testing, and hypothesis acceptance.
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  42.  74
    Assessing the Likely Harms to Kidney Vendors in Regulated Organ Markets.Julian Koplin - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (10):7-18.
    Advocates of paid living kidney donation frequently argue that kidney sellers would benefit from paid donation under a properly regulated kidney market. The poor outcomes experienced by participants in existing markets are often entirely attributed to harmful black-market practices. This article reviews the medical and anthropological literature on the physical, psychological, social, and financial harms experienced by vendors under Iran's regulated system of donor compensation and black markets throughout the world and argues that this body of research not only documents (...)
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  43. Uncovering the Moral Heuristics of Altruism: A Philosophical Scale.Julian Friedland, Kyle Emich & Benjamin M. Cole - 2020 - PLoS ONE 15 (3).
    Extant research suggests that individuals employ traditional moral heuristics to support their observed altruistic behavior; yet findings have largely been limited to inductive extrapolation and rely on relatively few traditional frames in so doing, namely, deontology in organizational behavior and virtue theory in law and economics. Given that these and competing moral frames such as utilitarianism can manifest as identical behavior, we develop a moral framing instrument—the Philosophical Moral-Framing Measure (PMFM)—to expand and distinguish traditional frames associated and disassociated with observed (...)
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  44. From Homo-Economicus to Homo-Virtus: A System-Theoretic Model for Raising Moral Self-Awareness.Julian Friedland & Benjamin M. Cole - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (1):191-205.
    There is growing concern that a global economic system fueled predominately by financial incentives may not maximize human flourishing and social welfare externalities. If so, this presents a challenge of how to get economic actors to adopt a more virtuous motivational mindset. Relying on historical, psychological, and philosophical research, we show how such a mindset can be instilled. First, we demonstrate that historically, financial self-interest has never in fact been the only guiding motive behind free markets, but that markets themselves (...)
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  45.  12
    Moral Limits of Brain Organoid Research.Julian J. Koplin & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (4):760-767.
    Brain organoid research raises ethical challenges not seen in other forms of stem cell research. Given that brain organoids partially recapitulate the development of the human brain, it is plausible that brain organoids could one day attain consciousness and perhaps even higher cognitive abilities. Brain organoid research therefore raises difficult questions about these organoids' moral status – questions that currently fall outside the scope of existing regulations and guidelines. This paper shows how these gaps can be addressed. We outline a (...)
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  46. Deflationism Trumps Pluralism!Julian Dodd - 2013 - In Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen & Cory D. Wright (eds.), Truth and Pluralism: Current Debates. Oxford University Press. pp. 298.
  47.  98
    The Moral Imperative to Continue Gene Editing Research on Human Embryos.Julian Savulescu, Jonathan Pugh, Thomas Douglas & Chris Gyngell - 2015 - Protein Cell 6 (7):476–479.
    The publication of the first study to use gene editing techniques in human embryos (Liang et al., 2015) has drawn outrage from many in the scientific community. The prestigious scientific journals Nature and Science have published commentaries which call for this research to be strongly discouraged or halted all together (Lanphier et al., 2015; Baltimore et al., 2015). We believe this should be questioned. There is a moral imperative to continue this research.
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  48.  6
    Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography.Julian Young - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Da Capo -- Pforta -- Bonn -- Leipzig -- Schopenhauer -- Basel -- Richard Wagner and the birth of The birth of tragedy -- War and aftermath -- Anal philology -- Untimely meditations -- Aimez-vous Brahms? -- Auf Wiedersehen Bayreuth -- Sorrento -- Human, all-too-human -- The wanderer and his shadow -- Dawn -- The gay science -- The Salomé affair -- Zarathustra -- Nietzsche's circle of women -- Beyond good and evil -- Clearing the decks -- The genealogy of (...)
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  49.  61
    Against External Validity.Julian Reiss - 2019 - Synthese 196 (8):3103-3121.
    Francesco Guala once wrote that ‘The problem of extrapolation is a minor scandal in the philosophy of science’. This paper agrees with the statement, but for reasons different from Guala’s. The scandal is not, or not any longer, that the problem has been ignored in the philosophy of science. The scandal is that framing the problem as one of external validity encourages poor evidential reasoning. The aim of this paper is to propose an alternative—an alternative which constitutes much better evidential (...)
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  50. Historia de la Filosofía y de la Ciencia [Por] Julián Marías [y] Pedro Laín Entralgo.Julián Marías & Pedro Laín Entralgo - 1967 - Guadarrama.
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